Skip to main content
×
×
Home

New evidence from East Timor contributes to our understanding of earliest modern human colonisation east of the Sunda Shelf

  • Sue O'Connor (a1)
Extract

New dates by which modern humans reached East Timor prompts this very useful update of the colonisation of Island Southeast Asia. The author addresses all the difficult questions: why are the dates for modern humans in Australia earlier than they are in Island Southeast Asia? Which route did they use to get there? If they used the southern route, why or how did they manage to bypass Flores, where Homo floresiensis, the famous non-sapiens hominin known to the world as the ‘hobbit’ was already in residence? New work at the rock shelter of Jerimalai suggests some answers and new research directions.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Balme, J. 2000. Excavations revealing 40,000 years of occupation at Mimbi Caves, south central Kimberley. Australian Archaeology 51: 15.
Barker, G., Bandang, D., Barton, H., Béavitt, H., Bird, M., Daly, P., Doherty, C., Gilbertson, D., Glover, I., Hunt, C., Manser, J., Mclaren, S., Paz, V., Pyatt, B., Reynolds, T., Roseg Rushworth, J. & Stephens, M.. 2001. The Niah Cave project: the second season of fieldwork. Sarawak Museum Journal 56: 37119.
Bellwood, P. 1997. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Revised edition. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
Bellwood, P. 1998. Human dispersals and colonizations in prehistory - the Southeast Asian data and their implications, in Omoto, K. & Tobias, P. V. (ed.) The Origins and Past of Modern Humans - Towards Reconciliation (Recent Advances in Human Biology 3): 188205. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bellwood, P., Nitihaminoto, G., Irwin, G., Gunadi, G., Waluyo & Tanudirjo, D.. 1998. 35,000 years of prehistory in the northern Moluccas, in Bartstra, G.-J. (ed.) Bird's Head Approaches: Irian Jaya Studies, a program for interdisciplinary research (Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 15): 233–75. Rotterdam: Balkema.
Bird, M. I., Ayliffe, L. K., Fifield, L. K., Turney, C.S.M., Cresswell, R. G., Burrows, T. T. & David, B.. 1999. Radiocarbon dating of ‘old’ charcoal using a wet oxidation, stepped combustion procedure. Radiocarbon 41: 127–40.
Bird, M. I., Taylor, I. D. & Hunt, C.. 2005. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savannah corridor in Sundaland? Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 222842.
Birdsell, J. B. 1977. The recalibration of a paradigm for the first peopling of greater Australia, in Allen, J., Golson, J. & Jones, R. (ed.) Sunda and Sahul: Prehistoric Studies in Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Australia: 113–67. London: Academic Press.
Brown, P., Sutikna, T., Morwood, M. J., Soejono, R. P., Jatmiko, , Wahyu Saptomo, E. & Due, Rokus Awe. 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431: 105561.
Brumm, A. & Moore, M. W.. 2005. Symbolic revolutions and the Australian archaeological record. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15 (2): 157–75.
Brumm, A., Aziz, F., Van den bergh, G. D., Morwood, M. J., Moore, M. W., Kurniawan, I., Hobbs, D. R. & Fullagar, R.. 2006. Early stone technology on Flores and its implications for Homo floresiensis . Nature 441: 624–8.
Butlin, N. G. 1993. Economics and the Dreamtime A hypothetical history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davidson, I. & Noble, W.. 1992. Why the first colonization of the Australian region is the earliest evidence of modern human behaviour. Archaeology in Oceania 27: 113–19.
Falk, D., Hildebolt, C., Smith, K., Morwood, M. J., Sutikna, T., Brown, P., Jatmiko, , Wayhu Saptomo, E., Brunsden, B. & Prior, F.. 2005. The Brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis . Science 308: 242–5.
Foley, R. 1987. Hominid species and stone-tool assemblages: how are they related? Antiquity 61: 380–92.
Foley, R. & Lahr, M. M.. 1997. Mode 3 technologies and the evolution of modern humans. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 7 (1): 336.
Friedlaender, J., Schurr, T., Gentz, R., Koki, G., Friedlaender, F., Horvat, G., Babb, P., Cerchio, S., Kaestle, F., Schanfield, M., Deka, R., Yanagihara, R. & Merriwether, D. A.. 2005. Expanding southwest Pacific mitochondrial Haplogroups P and Q. Molecular Biology and Evolution 45: 150617.
Gillespie, R. 1998. Alternative timescales: a critical review of Willandra Lakes dating. Archaeology in Oceania 33: 169–82.
Gillespie, R. & Temple, R. B.. 1977. Radiocarbon dating of shell middens. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 12: 2637.
Glover, I. 1981. Leang Burung 2: an Upper Palaeolithic rock shelter in south Sulawesi, Indonesia. Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 6: 138.
Glover, I. 1986. Archaeology in Eastern Timor, 1966-67. Canberra: Australian National University.
Henshilwood, C. S. & Marean, C. W.. 2003. The origin of modern human behaviour, critique of the models and their test implications. Current Anthropology 44 (5): 627–51.
Hooijer, D. A. 1971. A giant land tortoise, Geochelone Atlas (Falconer & Caytley), from the Pleistocene of Timor I and II. Proceedings Koninklijk Nederlandsch Akadamie van Wetenschappen Series B, 74 (5): 504–25.
Hooijer, D. A. 1965. Note on Coryphomys Buhleri Schaub, a gigantic murine rodent from Timor. Israel Journal of Zoology 14: 128–33.
Lahr, M. M. & Foley, R.. 2004. Human evolution writ small. Nature 431: 104344.
Leavesley, M. G. & Chappell, J.. 2004. Buang Merabak: additional early radiocarbon evidence of the colonisation of the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Antiquity 78 (301): http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/leavesley/index.html
Mahirta, . 2003. Human occupation on Roti and Sawu Islands, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Unpublished PhD thesis, Australian National University.
McBrearty, S. & Brooks, A. S.. 2000. The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behaviour. Journal of Human Evolution 39: 453563.
Mellars, P. 2006. A new radiocarbon revolution and the dispersal of modern humans in Eurasia. Nature 439: 931–5.
Moore, M. W. 2005. The design space of lithic technology. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of New England.
Morwood, M. J., Seojono, R. P., Roberts, R. G., Sutikna, T., Turney, C.S.M., Westaway, K. E., Rink, W. J., Zhao, J.-X., Van Den Bergh, G. D., Due, R. A., Hobbs, D. R., Moore, M. W., Bird, M. I. & Fifield, L. K.. 2004. Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in Eastern Indonesia. Nature 431: 108791.
Morwood, M. J., Brown, P., Jatmiko, , Sutikna, T., Saptomo, E. W., Westaway, K. E., Due, R. A., Roberts, R. G., Maeda, T., Wasisto, S. & Djubiantono, T.. 2005. Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 437: 101217.
O'Connor, S. 2002. Pleistocene Timor: further corrections, a reply to Bednarik. Australian Archaeology 54: 4651.
O'Connor, S. 2006. Unpacking the Island Southeast Asian Neolithic cultural package, and finding local complexity, in Bacus, E. A., Glover, I. C. & Pigott, V. C. (ed.) Uncovering Southeast Asia's Past - Selected papers from the Tenth Biennial Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, London, 14th-17th September 2004: 7487. Singapore: National University Press.
O'Connor, S. & Chappell, J.. 2003. Colonisation and coastal subsistence in Australia and Papua New Guinea: different timing, different modes, in Sand, C. (ed.) Pacific Archaeology: Assessments and Prospects. Proceedings of the International Conference for the 50th Anniversary of the First Lapita Excavation (July 1952), Koné-Nouméa 2002 (Les Cahiers de l'Archéologie en Nouvelle-Calédonie 11.): 1532. Nouméa: Département d'Archéologie, Service des Musées et du Patrimoine.
O'Connor, S. & Fankhauser, B.. 2001. Art at 40,000 BP.? One step closer, an ochre covered rock from Carpenter's Gap Shelter 1, Kimberley region, W. A., , in Anderson, A., Lilley, I. & O'Connor, S. (ed.) Histories of Old Ages: Essays in Honour of Rhys Jones: 287300. Canberra: Pandanus.
O'Connor, S., Spriggs, M. & Veth, P.. 2002. Excavation at Lene Hara establishes occupation in East Timor at least 30 000-35 000 years on: results of recent fieldwork. Antiquity 76: 4550.
O'Connor, S. 2005. On the cultural history of the Aru Islands, in O'Connor, S., Spriggs, M. & Veth, P. (ed.) The Archaeology of the Aru Islands, Eastern Indonesia (Terra Australis 23): 307–14. Canberra: Pandanus Press.
O'Connor, S. & Veth, P.. 2005. Early Holocene shell fish hooks from Lene Hara Cave, East Timor establish complex fishing technology was in use in Island Southeast Asia 5000 years before Austronesian settlement. Antiquity 79: 18.
Reimer, P. & Reimer, R.. 2000. Marine reservoir correction database. http://calib.org.marine.
Roberts, R. G., Jones, R. & Smith, M. A.. 1990. Thermoluminescence dating of a 50,000 year-old human occupation site in northern Australia. Nature 345: 153–6.
Roberts, R. G., Jones, R., Spooner, N. A., Head, M. J., Murray, A. S. & Smith, M. A.. 1994. The human colonisation of Australia: optical dates of 53,000 and 60,000 years bracket human arrival at Deaf Adder Gorge, Northern Territory. Quaternary Geochronology 13: 575–83.
Roberts, R. G., Morwood, M. J. & Westaway, K. E.. 2005. Illuminating Southeast Asian prehistory: new archaeological and paleoanthropological frontiers for luminescence dating. Asian Perspectives 44 (2): 293319.
Roberts, R. G., Yoshida, H., Galbraith, R., Lasteff, G., Jones, R. & Smith, M. A.. 1998. Single-aliquot and single-grain optical dating confirm thermoluminescence age estimates at Malakunanja II Rock Shelter in Northern Australia. Ancient TL 16 (1): 1924.
Thorne, A., Grün, R., Mortimer, G., Spooner, N. A., Simpson, J. J., Mcculloch, M., Taylor, L. & Curnoe, D.. 1999. Australia's oldest human remains: age of the Lake Mungo 3 skeleton. Journal of Human Evolution 36: 591612.
Turney, C., Bird, M., Fifield, L., Roberts, R., Smith, M., Dortch, C., Grun, R., Lawson, E., Ayliffe, L., Miller, G., Dortch, J. & Cresswell, R.. 2001. Early Human Occupation at Devil's Lair, Southwestern Australia 50,000 Years Ago. Quaternary Research 55: 313.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed