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Nigerian Bronzes: work from Ife

  • K. C. Murray
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1 See C. R. Read and O. M. Dalton, Antiquities from the City of Benin. 1899.

2 The present Oni in a letter states that the Obalufon (and the Lajuwa, one of the finest of the terracottas) ‘have always been at the Afin since they existed’.

3 Illustrated London News, 8 April 1939.

4 With further investigation it may be found that the terracottas divide into an earlier and a later group.

5 Leo Frobenius, Voice of Africa. London, 1913.

6 W. D. Hambley, Culture Areas of Nigeria. Chicago, 1935. Has some additional evidence of Carthaginian influences at Ife.

7 P. Amaury Talbot, In the Shadow of the Bush, pp. 172-3. London, 1912.

8 J. O. Field, Bronze castings found at Igbo, Southern Nigeria. Man, January 1940.

9 H. Ling Roth, Great Benin, pp. 226-34. London, 1903.

10 P. Amaury Talbot, Peoples of Southern Nigeria, vol. 1, 280-1. London, 1926.

11 E. Von Sydow in Africa, vol. 1, 1928, page 216 claims that certain terracotta heads from Benin (e.g. see Pitt-Rivers, Antique Works of Art from Benin, plate 46, figs. 365-6) are similar to those found by Frobenius at Ife, but a detailed comparison does not bear this out.

12 Sir Flinders Petrie, Ancient Egypt, pp. 84 and 169.

13 Sir Richmond Palmer, The Bornu Sahara and Sudan, p. 148. London, 1936.

14 Denbigh and Clapperton, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries, p. 165. London, 1826.

15 R. E. Dennett, Nigerian Studies, p. 75. London, 1910.

18 G. M. Clifford, A Nigerian Chiefdom. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. LXVI, 1936.

17 W. D. Hambley, op. cit. p. 400

18 F. de F. Daniel, The Stone Figures of Esie. J.R.A.I. 1937.

19 P. Amaury Talbot, Peoples of Southern Nigeria, I, 18.

20 Richard F. Burton, Abeokuta and the Cameroons Mountain, 1, 133. 1863.

21 Richard F. Burton, op. cit. p. 226.

22 Macgregor Laird and R. A. K. Oldfield, Narrative of an Expedition into the Interior of Africa, 1, 231. 1837.

23 Henry Barth, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa, 1, 465. 1857.

24 Sir Richmond Palmer, op. cit. p. 73, note.

25 Henry Barth, op. cit. III, 347. See also pp. 557 and 559.

26 Sir Richmond Palmer, op. cit. p. 146-7 (also pp. 191, 212-13).

27 E. W. Bovili, Caravans of the Old Sahara, p. 134. 1933.

28 P. Amaury Talbot in Peoples of Southern Nigeria and C. K. Meek in Northern Tribes of Nigeria, 1925, give general descriptions of the legends and theories about the origin of the Yorubas.

29 Leo Frobenius, op. cit. p. 306.

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  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
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