Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The origins of iron working in India: new evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas

  • Rakesh Tewari (a1)
Abstract

Recent excavations in Uttar Pradesh have turned up iron artefacts, furnaces, tuyeres and slag in layers radiocarbon dated between 1800 and 1000 BC. This raises again the question of whether iron working was brought to India during supposed immigrations in the second millennium BC, or developed independently

Copyright
References
Hide All
Agarwal, D.P. 2000. Ancient Metal Technology and Archaeology of South Asia. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.
Agrawal, D.P., Kusumgar, S. & Sarna, R.P. 1964. Radiocarbon dates of Archaeological samples, Current Science 33: 266–69.
Agrawal, O.P., Narain, H. & Joshi, G.P. 1985. Iron Objects from South Indian Megaliths (Karnataka) — A Technological Study and Significance, in Sundara, A. (ed.) Archaeology in Karnataka: 219234. Mysore: Directorate of Archaeology & Museums.
Allchin, B. & Allchin, R. 1982. The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge.
Banarjee, N.R 1965. The Iron Age in India. Delhi.
Chakrabarti, D.K. 1974. Beginning of Iron in India: Problem Reconsidered, in Ghosh, A.K. (ed.), Perspectives in Palaeoanthropology: 345356. Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay;
Chakrabarti, D.K. 1976. The beginning of iron in India. Antiquity 4: 114124;
Chakrabarti, D.K. 1992. The Early Use of Iron in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press;
Chakrabarti, D.K. 1999. India An Archaeological History. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Deo, S.B. 1991. New Discoveries of Iron Age in India, in C. Margbandhu, Ramachandran, K.S. Sagar, A.P Sinha, D.K. (eds.), Indian Archaeological Heritage I: 189–97. New Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan.
Gaur, R.C. 1997. Studies in Indian Archaeology and Ancient India I. Jaipur: Publication Scheme, pp. 238250.
Gordon, D.H. 1950. The Early Use of Metals in India and Pakistan. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 5578.
Moorti, U.S. 1994. Megalithic Culture of South India: Socio-Economic Perspectives. Varanasi, Ganga Kaveri Publishing House.
Nagarajarao, M.S. 1974. Iron Age in South India: Fresh Evidence on Chronology, in Ghosh, A.K. (ed.), Perspective in Palaeoanthropology: 357–62. Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
Possehl, G.L. & Rissman, P.C. 1992. The Chronology of Prehistoric India: From Earliest Times to the Iron Age, in Ehrich, R.W. (ed.) Chronologies in Old World Archaeology. Vol.1: 465490; Vol. II: 447–474. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Prakash, B. & Tripathi, V. 1986. Iron technology in ancient India. Historical Metallurgy: 568579.
Sahi, M.D.N. 1979. Iron at Ahar, in Agrawal, D.P. and Chakrabarti, D.K. (eds.). Essays in Indian Protohistory. Delhi: pp. 365–68.
Sharma, A.K. 1992. Early Iron Users of Gufkral, in Nayak, B.U., Ghosh, N.C. (eds.), New Trends in Indian Art and Archaeology I: 6368. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan,
Sharma, R.S. 1983. Material Culture and Social Formations in Ancient India. Delhi: Macmillan.
Singh, P., Tewari, R. & Singh, R.N. 2000. Explorations in Chandauli District (U.P.) 1999–2000: A Preliminary Report, Pragdhara 10: 135148.
Subramanyam, B.R. 1964. Appearance and Spread of Iron in India — An Appraisal of Archaeological Data. Journal of the Oriental institute, Baroda 13: 349–59.
Tewari, R., & Srivastava, R.K. 1997. Excavations at Raja Nala-ka-tila (1995-96), District Sonbhadra (U.P.): Preliminary observations. Pragdhara 7: 7795.
Tewari, R., & Srivastava, R.K. 1998. Excavations at Raja Nala-ka-tila (1996-97) District Sonbhadra (U.P.): Preliminary Observations. Pragdhara 8: 99105.
Tewari, R., Srivastava, R.K. Saraswat, K.S. & Singh., K.K. 2000. Excavations at Malhar, District Chandauli (U.P.) 1999: A Preliminary Report, Pragdhara 10: 6998.
Tewari, R., Srivastava, R.K. & Singh, K.K. 2002. Dadupur Excavations 1999-2000-2001, District Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh: A Preliminary Report. Pragdhara 12: 99116.
Tewari, R., Srivastava, R.K. & Singh, K.K. 2002a. Excavation at Lahuradewa, District Sant Kabir Nagar, Uttar Pradesh. Puratattva 32: 5462.
Wheeler, R.E.M. 1959. Early India and Pakistan. London.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed