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Reply to O'Brien et al.

  • Dennis Stanford (a1) and Bruce Bradley (a2)

Across Atlantic ice (AAI) sets out specifically to propose an alternative hypothesis of early human entry into the Americas and to stimulate research (Stanford & Bradley 2012: 16). O'Brien et al.'s response (above) primarily contains an unsupported dismissal of the evidence and these ideas. Unfortunately, to date, no work equivalent to AAI has been presented for any other Clovis origin hypothesis; this would be most welcome, especially from those who critique and reject the Solutrean hypothesis with unsupported assertions.

For convenience we respond to each of O'Brien et al.'s critiques in the order in which they appear.

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Bird, D. W., Richardson, J. L. Veth, P.M. & Barham, A.J.. 2002. Explaining shellfish variability in middens on the Meriam Islands,Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 467–69.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51: 337–60.
Cannon, M.D. & Meltzer, D.J.. 2004. Early Paleoindian foraging: examining the faunal evidence for large mammal specialization and regional variability in prey choice. Quaternary Science Reviews 23: 1955–87.
Collins, M. B., Stanford, D. J. Lowery, D.L. & Bradley, B.A.. 2013. North America before Clovis: variance in temporal/spatial cultural patterns, 27,000-13,000 cal yr BP, in Graf, K. E., Ketron, C. V. & Waters, M. R. (ed.) Paleoamerican odyssey: 521–39. College Station (TX): Center for the Study of the First Americans.
Eren, M.I., Patten, R. J. O'Brien, M.J. & Meltzer, D.J.. 2013. Refuting the technological cornerstone of the ice-age Atlantic crossing hypothesis. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 2934–41.
Erlandson, J. M. 2001. The archaeology of aquatic adaptations: paradigms for a new millennium. Journal of Archaeological Research 9: 287350.
Higham, T.F.G. 2011. European Middle and Upper Palaeolithic radiocarbon dates are often older than they look: problems with previous dates and some remedies. Antiquity 85: 235–49.
Ives, J.W., Froese, D. Supernant, K. & Yanicki, G.. 2013. Vectors, vestiges, and Valhallas—rethinking the corridor, in Graf, K. E., Ketron, C. V. & Waters, M. R. (ed.) Paleoamerican odyssey: 149–69. College Station (TX): Center for the Study of the First Americans.
Lohse, J., Collins, M. & Bradley, B.. 2014. Controlled overshot flaking: a response to Eren, Patten, O'Brien and Meltzer. Lithic Technology 39: 4654. 0197726113Z.00000000032
Lowery, D. L., O'Neal, M. A., Wah, J. S. Wagner, D.P. & Stanford, D.J.. 2010. Late Pleistocene upland stratigraphy of the western Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 1472–80.
Pettitt, P. B., Davies, W. Gamble, C.S. & Richards, M.B.. 2003. Palaeolithic radiocarbon chronology: quantifying our confidence beyond two half-lives. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 1685–93.
Reimer, P.J., Bard, E. Bayliss, A. Beck, J.W. Blackwell, P.G. Ramsey, C. Bronk, Buck, C. E. Cheng, H. Edwards, R.L. Friedrich, M. Grootes, P.M. Guilderson, T.P. Haflidason, H. Hajdas, I. Hatté, C., Heaton, T. J. Hoffmann, D.L. Hogg, A.G. Hughen, K.A. Kaiser, K.F. Kromer, B. Manning, S.W. Niu, M. Reimer, R.W. Richards, D.A. Scott, E.M. Southon, J.R. Staff, R.A. Turney, C.S.M. & Van Der Plicht, J.. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0-50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55: 1869–87. js rc.55.16947
Rigaud, J.-P. & Simek, J.F.. 1990. The last pleniglacial in the south of France (24,000-14,000 years ago), in Soffer, O. & Gamble, C. S. (ed.) The world at 18,000 BP, vol. 1: high latitudes: 6988. Boston (MA): Unwin-Hyman.
Stanford, D. & Bradley, B.. 2012. Across Atlantic ice: the origin of America's Clovis culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stanford, D., Lowery, D. Jodry, M. Bradley, B. Kay, M. Stafford, T.W. Jr. & Speakman, R.J.. 2014. New Evidence For A Possible Paleolithic Occupation Of The Eastern North American Continental Shelf At The Last Glacial Maximum, In Evans, A., Flatman, J. & Flemming, N. (Ed.) Prehistoric Archaeology On The Continental Shelf: A Global Review: 7394. New York: Springer.
Straus, L.G. & Clark, G. A. (ed.). 1986. La Riera Cave: Stone Age hunter-gatherer adaptation in northern Spain (Anthropological Research Papers 36). Tempe: Arizona State University.
Straus, L.G., Meltzer, D. J. & Goebel, T.. 2005. Ice Age Atlantis? Exploring the Solutrean-Clovis ‘connection’. World Archaeology 37: 507–32.
Vettoretti, G. & Peltier, W.R.. 2013. Last Glacial Maximum ice sheet impacts on North Atlantic climate variability: the importance of the sea ice lid. Geophysical Research Letters 40: 6378–83.
Westley, K. & Dix, J.. 2008: The Solutrean Atlantic hypothesis: a view from the ocean. Journal of the North Atlantic 1: 8598.
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