Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Revisiting lead isotope data in Shang and Western Zhou bronzes

  • Zhengyao Jin (a1), Ruiliang Liu (a2), Jessica Rawson (a2) and A. Mark Pollard (a2)
Abstract

Lead is a major component of Chinese ritual bronze vessels. Defining its sources and usage is thus highly significant to understanding the metal industries of the Chinese Bronze Age. A new, simplified method has been developed for examining data, thereby providing insight into diachronic change in the origins of lead sources used in artefacts. Application of this method to the existing corpus of lead isotope data from the Erlitou (c. 1600 BC) to the Western Zhou (c. 1045–771 BC) periods reveals changes in the isotope signal over this time frame. These changes clearly reflect shifts in the sourcing of ores and their use in metropolitan foundries. Further data are required to understand these complex developments.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence (Email: ruiliang.liu@arch.ox.ac.uk)
References
Hide All
Bagley, R.W. 1977. P'an-lung-ch'eng: a Shang city in Hupei. Artibus Asiae 39: 165219. https://doi.org/10.2307/3250165
Cui, J. & Wu, X.. 2008. Qian tongweisu kaogu yanjiu. Beijing: Wenwu.
Cui, J., Tong, W. & Wu, X.. 2012. Yuanqu shangcheng chutu bufen tonglianzha ji tongqi de qian tongweisu bizhi fenxi yanjiu. Wenwu 2012 (7): 8084.
Dahlkamp, F.J. 2009. Uranium deposits of the world: Asia. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78558-3
Hsu, Y.-K., Bray, P.J., Hommel, P., Pollard, A.M. & Rawson, J.. 2016. Tracing the flows of copper and copper alloys in the Early Iron Age societies of the eastern Eurasian steppe. Antiquity 90: 357–75. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.22
Huang, M.C. 2013/2014. Cong kaogu faxian kan Xi Zhou muzang de [fenqi] xianxiang yu Xi Zhou shidai liqi zhidu de leixing yu jieduan (shangpian/xiapian). Zhongyang yanjiuyuan Lishi yuyan yanjiusuo jikan 83/84: 607–70/182.
IA CASS Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Science. 2014. Erlitou: 1999–2006. Beijing: Wenwu.
Jin, Z. 1987. Sources of metals for the bronze production in the Central Plain during the late Shang period, in Jin, Z. (ed.) Lead isotope archaeology in China: 292302. Hefei: Press of University of Science and Technology of China.
Jin, Z. 2008. Zhongguo qian tongweisu kaogu. Beijing: Press of University of Science and Technology.
Jin, Z., Chase, T., Hirao, Y., Peng, S., Mabuchi, H., Miwa, K. & Zhan, K.. 1994. Jiangxi Xin'gan Dayangzhou Shangmu qingtongqi de qian tongweisu bizhi yanjiu. Kaogu 1994: 744–47.
Jin, Z., Mabuchi, H., Chase, T., Chen, D., Miwa, K. & Hirao, Y.. 1995. Guanghan Sanxingdui yiwukeng qingtongqi de qian tongweisu bizhi yanjiu. Wenwu 1995 (2): 8085.
Jin, Z., Zhu, B., Chang, X., Xu, Z., Zhang, Q. & Tang, F.. 2004. Chengdu Jinsha yizhi tongqi yanjiu. Wenwu 2004 (7): 7688.
Killick, D. 2016. Comment on Sun et al.’s (2016) ‘Origin of the mysterious Yin-Shang bronzes in China indicated by lead isotopes’. Nature Scientific Reports 6: article no. 23304. Available at: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep23304 (accessed 30 June 2017).
Li, X. 2002. Cong qian tongweisu bizhi shixi Shang Zhou shiqi qingtongqi de kuangliao laiyuan. Kaogu yu wenwu 2002 (2): 6166.
Li, Y., Yue, Z. & Liu, Y.. 2007. Cong Xiaomintun dongnandi chutu taofan tan dui Yinxu qingtongqi de jidian xinrenshi. Kaogu 2007 (3): 5263.
Liu, J. 2015. Shaanbei diqu chutu Shang Zhou shiqi qingtongqi de kexue fenxi yanjiu—jianlun Shangdai wanqi jinshan gaoyuan yu Anyang Yinxu de wenhua lianxi. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
Liu, L. & Chen, X.. 2009. State formation in early China. London: Duckworth.
Lu, G. 2011. Yinxu Xiaomintun dongnandi chutu taofan niandai de zairenshi ji xiangguan wenti. Kaogu 2011 (8): 6672.
Mei, J. 2009. Early metallurgy and socio-cultural complexity: archaeological discoveries in northwest China, in Hanks, B.K. & Linduff, K.M. (ed.) Social complexity in prehistoric Eurasia: monuments, metals, and mobility: 215–34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605376.013
Molofsky, L.J., Killick, D., Ducea, M.N., Macovei, M., Chesley, J.T., Ruiz, J., Thibodeau, A. & Popescu, G.C.. 2014. A novel approach to lead isotope provenance studies of tin and bronze: applications to South African, Botswanan and Romanian artifacts. Journal of Archaeological Science 50: 440–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.08.006
Pan, Y. & Dong, P.. 1999. The Lower Changjiang (Yangtze/Yangtze River) metallogenic belt, east-central China: intrusion- and wall rock-hosted Cu-Fe-Au, Mo, Zn, Pb, Ag deposits. Ore Geology Reviews 15: 177242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1368(99)00022-0
Peng, Z., Deng, Y. & Liu, C.. 1985. Qian tongweisu bizhifa zai kaogu yanjiu zhong de yingyong. Kaogu 1985: 1032–37.
Peng, Z., Sun, W., Huang, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, S. & Lu, B.. 1997. Gan'ewan zhudi gudai kuangliao quxiang de chubu yanjiu. Kaogu 1997: 5361.
Peng, Z., Liu, Y., Liu, S. & Hua, J.. 1999. Gan'eyu diyu Shangdai qingtongqi he bufen tongqian kuangliao laiyuan de chutan. Ziran kexueshi yanjiu 18 (3): 241–49.
Peng, Z., Wang, Z., Sun, W., Liu, S. & Chen, X.. 2001. Panlongcheng Shangdai qingtongqi qian tongweisu shizong yanjiu, in Institute of Archaeology Hubei (ed.) Panlongcheng 1963–1949 nian kaogu fajue baogao: 552–58. Beijing: Wenwu.
Pollard, A.M. & Bray, P.J.. 2015. A new method for combining lead isotope and lead abundance data to characterize archaeological copper alloys. Archaeometry 57: 9961008. https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.12145
Pollard, A.M. & Heron, C.. 2008. Archaeological chemistry. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Pollard, A.M., Bray, P., Hommel, P., Hsu, Y.-K., Liu, R. & Rawson, J.. 2017a. Bronze Age metal circulation in China. Antiquity 91: 674–87. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2017.45
Pollard, A.M., Bray, P., Hommel, P., Hsu, Y.-K., Liu, R. & Rawson, J.. 2017b. Liyong niujin yanjiu tixi shenhua dui Zhongguo qingtongqi de renshi. Kaogu [2017 (1)]: 95106.
Rawson, J. 1990. Western Zhou ritual bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Washington, D.C: Arthur M. Sackler Foundation.
Rawson, J. 2017. Shimao and Erlitou: new perspectives on the origins of the bronze industry in central China. Antiquity 91 (355) Project Gallery. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2016.234
Saito, T., Han, R. & Sun, S.. 2002. Preliminary consideration of the source of lead used for bronze objects in Chinese Shang dynasty: was it really from the area where Sichuan, Yunan and Guizhou provinces meet? Paper presented at the BUMA-V (The Fifth International Conference on the Beginning of the Use of Metal and Alloys), Gyeongju, Korea, 21–24 April 2002.
Sun, S., Han, R., Chen, T., Zhai, T., Ban, B. & Tian, K.. 2001. Panlongcheng chutu qingtongqi de qian tongweisu bi ceding baogao, in Institute of Archaeology Hubei (ed.) Panlongcheng 1963–1949 nian kaogu fajue baogao: 545–51. Beijing: Wenwu.
Sun, W., Zhang, L., Guo, J., Li, C., Jiang, Y., Zartman, R.E. & Zhang, Z.. 2016. Origin of the mysterious Yin-Shang bronzes in China indicated by lead isotopes. Nature Scientific Reports 6: article no. 23304. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23304
Tian, J. 2013. Zhengzhou diqu chutu Erligang qi tongqi yanjiu. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Science and Technology of China.
Wang, H. 2014. China's first empire? Interpreting the material record of the Erligang expansion, in Steinke, K. & Ching, D.C.Y. (ed.) Art and archaeology of the Erligang civilization: 6797. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
Wang, H., Jin, Z., Li, G., Tian, J., Li, R. & Zhao, C.. 2008. Chengyang diqu chutu bufen qingtongqi de kexue fenxi. Xibu kaogu 2008: 319–21.
Xu, W., Wang, L., Li, H. & Guo, X.. 2005. Zhongtiaoshan tongkuangchuang tongweisu diqiu huaxue yanjiu. Acta Geoscientica Sinica 2005 (26): 130–33.
Zheng, Z. & Chen, Z.. 1985. Yinxu qingtongqi de fenqi yu niandai , in IA CASS (ed.) Yinxu qingtongqi: 2775. Beijing: Wenwu.
Zhu, B. 1995. The mapping of geochemical provinces in China based on Pb isotopes. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 55: 171–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-6742(95)00011-9
Zhu, B. 2010. Zhongguo Shangdai kuangwu ziyuan liyong de jige diqiu huaxue mi'an. Kuangwu xuebao 2010 (S1): 109–10.
Zhu, B. & Chang, X.. 2002. Ping ‘Yin Shang qingtongqi gaofangshe chengyinqian’ de faxian. Gudai wenming 2002 (1): 278–83.
Zhu, H., Gao, J. & Zhang, D.. 2006. Qinling diqu shouci faxian han fangshexing chengyin yichangqian de tongkuangchuang. Mineral Resources and Geology 2006 (20): 461–64.
Zou, H. 1964a. Shilun Yinxu wenhua fenqi. Beijing daxue xuebao 1964 (4): 3763.
Zou, H. 1964b. Shilun Yinxu wenhua fenqi (Xuwan). Beijing daxue xuebao 1964 (5): 6390.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Jin et al supplementary material
Jin et al supplementary material 1

 PDF (282 KB)
282 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 112 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 386 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 6th December 2017 - 16th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.