Alcock, L. 2003. Kings and warriors, craftsmen and priests in northern Britain AD 550–850. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Allen, J.R. & Anderson, J.. 1903. The early Christian monuments of Scotland. Edinburgh: Neill & Co. Ltd.
Ashmore, P. 1980. Low cairns, long cists and symbol stones. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 110: 346–55.
Blackwell, A., Goldberg, M. & Hunter, F.. 2017. Scotland's early silver. Edinburgh: National Museum Scotland.
Blair, J. 1995. Anglo-Saxon pagan shrines and their prototypes. Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 8: 1–28.
Campbell, E. & Driscoll, S.T. (ed.). In press. Royal Forteviot: Forteviot in the first and second millennia. London: Council for British Archaeology.
Campbell, E., Driscoll, S., Gondek, M. & Maldonado, A.. 2019. An early medieval and prehistoric nexus: the ‘Strathearn Environs and Royal Forteviot’ project, in Blackwell, A.E. (ed.) Scotland in early medieval Europe: 85–102. Leiden: Sidestone.
Cary, E. (ed. and trans.). 1927. Dio's Roman history (volume IX). London: William Heinemann.
Clancy, T.O. (ed.). 1998. The Triumph Tree: Scotland's earliest poetry, 550–1350. Edinburgh: Canongate.
Edel, D. 2015. Inside the Táin: exploring Cú Chulainn, Fergus, Ailill, and Medb. Berlin: Curach Bhán.
Enright, M.J. 1996. Lady with a mead cup: ritual, prophecy, and lordship in the warband from La Tène to the Viking Age. Dublin: Four Courts.
Evans, N. 2014. A historical introduction to the northern Picts. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen.
Forsyth, K. 1995. The inscriptions on the Dupplin Cross, in Bourke, C. (ed.) From the Isles of the North: medieval art in Ireland and Britain: 237–44. Belfast: HMSO.
Forsyth, K. 1997. Some thoughts on Pictish symbols as a formal writing system, in Henry, D. (ed.) The worm, the germ, and the thorn: 85–98. Balgavies: Pinkfoot.
Fraser, I. 2008. The Pictish symbol stones of Scotland. Edinburgh: RCAHMS.
Fraser, J.E. 2012. Warfare in northern Britain, c. 500–1093, in Spiers, E.M., Crang, J.A. & Strickland, M.J. (ed.) A military history of Scotland: 65–93. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Hall, M.A. 2007 Playtime in Pictland: the material culture of gaming in early medieval Scotland. Rosemarkie: Groam House Museum.
Hall, M.A. 2013. Performing prehistory in early medieval Scotland: making sense of the meanings of masks on Pictish sculpture, in Meller, H. & Maraszek, R. (ed.) Masken der Vorzeit in Europa [II], International Tagung vom 19. Bis 21. November 2010 in Halle (Saale): 93–110. Halle: Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt.
Hall, M.A. 2018. Taking a line for a walker: a newly discovered, incised, figurative Pictish sculpture from Tulloch, Perth, Perth & Kinross. Pictish Arts Society News 88: 10–11.
Hall, M.A., Driscoll, S., Campbell, E. & Scott, I.G.. In press. The Forteviot sculptural assemblage, in Campbell, E. & Driscoll, S.T. (ed.) Royal Forteviot: Forteviot in the first and second millennia. London: Council for British Archaeology.
Halsall, G. 1995. Early medieval cemeteries. Glasgow: Cruithne.
Harding, D.W. 2015. Death and burial in Iron Age Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harding, D.W. & Gilmour, S.. 2000. The Iron Age settlement at Beirgh, Riof, Isle of Lewis: excavations 1985–95: volume 1: the structures and stratigraphy. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
Härke, H. 2001. Cemeteries as places of power, in de Jong, M., Theuws, F. & van Rhijn, C. (ed.) Topographies of power in the Early Middle Ages. Volume 6: the transformation of the Roman world: 9–30. Leiden: Brill.
Haycock, M. 2016. Living with war: poets and the Welsh experience c. 600–1300, in Rekdal, J.E. & Doherty, C. (ed.) Kings and warriors in early Northwest Europe: 24–87. Dublin: Four Courts.
Hedeager, L. 1999. Myth and art: a passport to political authority in Scandinavia during the Migration Period, in Dickinson, T. & Griffiths, D. (ed.) The making of kingdoms (Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 10): 151–56. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Henderson, G. 1972. Early medieval. London: Pelican.
Henderson, G. & Henderson, I.. 2004. The art of the Picts: sculpture and metalwork in early medieval Scotland. London: Thames & Hudson.
Hines, J.A. & Bayliss, A.L. (ed.). 2013. Anglo-Saxon graves and grave goods of the sixth and seventh centuries AD: a chronological framework (Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph 33). Leeds: Society for Medieval Archaeology.
Hunter, F. 2007. Beyond the edge of the empire: Caledonians, Picts and Romans. Rosemarkie: Groam House.
Kelly, F. 1988. A guide to early Irish law. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Kinsella, T. (trans.). 1969. The Táin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Koch, J.T. 1997. The Gododdin of Aneurin: text and context from Dark Age north Britain. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Lee, R. 2010. The use of information theory to determine the language character type of Pictish symbols. Scottish Archaeological Journal 32: 137–76. https://doi.org/10.3366/saj.2010.0014 Lee, R., Jonathan, P. & Ziman, P.. 2010. Pictish symbols revealed as a written language through application of Shannon entropy. Proceedings of the Royal Society 10: 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3366/saj.2010.0014
Lindqvist, M. 2004. Barn På Vikingatiden. Gotländsk Arkiv 76: 74–77.
Lines, M. 1993. Collessie Stone, Halhill Farm (Collessie parish), in Batey, C.E. (ed.) Discovery & excavation in Scotland 1993: an annual survey of Scottish archaeological discoveries, excavation and fieldwork: 30. Edinburgh: Council for Scottish Archaeology.
Mack, A. 2007. Symbols and pictures: the Pictish legacy in stone. Brechin: Pinkfoot.
Mann, J.C. & Penman, R.G.. 1996. Literary sources for Roman Britain (Lactor 11). London: London Association of Classical Teachers.
Maxwell, H. 1933. Eleventh report with inventory of monuments and constructions in the counties of Fife, Kinross, and Clackmannan. Edinburgh: Stationery Office.
Noble, G., Gondek, M., Campbell, E. & Cook, M.. 2013. Between prehistory and history: the archaeological detection of social change among the Picts. Antiquity 87: 1136–50. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00049917 Noble, G., Goldberg, M. & Hamilton, D.. 2018. The development of the Pictish symbol system: inscribing identity beyond the edges of Empire. Antiquity 364: 1329–48. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2018.68 Noble, G., Gondek, M., Campbell, E., Evans, N., Hamilton, D., Ross, A. & Taylor, S.. 2019. A powerful place of Pictland: interdisciplinary perspectives on a post-Roman power centre. Medieval Archaeology 63: 56–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/00766097.2019.1588529 NRHE. 2018. National Record of the Historic Environment. Available at https://canmore.org.uk/ (accessed 13 November 2019).
O'Brien, E. 2009. Pagan or Christian? Burial in Ireland during the fifth to eighth centuries AD, in Edwards, N. (ed.) The archaeology of the early medieval Celtic churches (Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph 29): 135–54. Leeds: Society for Medieval Archaeology.
O'Brien, E. & Bhreathnach, E.. 2011. Irish boundary ferta, their physical manifestation and historical context, in Edmonds, F. & Russell, P. (ed.) Tome: studies in medieval Celtic history and law in honour of Thomas Charles-Edwards (Studies in Celtic History 31): 53–64. Woodbridge: Boydell.
O'Sullivan, A., McCormick, F., Kerr, T.R. & Harney, L.. 2014. Early medieval Ireland AD 400–1100: the evidence from archaeological excavation. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. https://doi.org/10.3318/978-1-908996-29-9 Pedersen, A. 2014. Dead warriors in living memory: a study of weapon and equestrian burials in Viking-Age Denmark, AD 800–1000 (Studies in Archaeology & History 20:1). Copenhagen: National Museum Denmark. https://doi.org/10.3318/978-1-908996-29-9
Price, N. 2002. The Viking way: religion and war in Late Iron Age Scandinavia. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
Price, N., Hedenstierna-Jonson, C., Zachrisson, T., Kjellström, A., Storå, J., Krzewińska, M., Sobrado, V., Jokobsson, M. & Götherström, A.. 2019. Viking warrior women? Reassessing Birka chamber grave Bj.581. Antiquity 93: 181–98. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2018.258
RCAHMS. 2007. In the shadow of Bennachie: a field archaeology of Donside, Aberdeenshire. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland/RCHAMS.
Ringtved, J. 1999. The geography of power: South Scandinavia before the Danish kingdom, in Dickinson, T. & Griffiths, D. (ed.) The making of kingdoms (Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 10): 49–64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ritchie, A. 1994. Perceptions of the Picts: from Eumenius to John Buchan. Rosemarkie: Groam House.
Ritchie, A. 2006. People of early Scotland. Brechin: Pinkfoot.
Ross, A. 1967. Pagan Celtic Britain. London: Constable.
Scragg, D. (ed.). 1991. The battle of Maldon AD 991. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Steuer, H. 1982. Frühgeschichtliche Sozialstrukturen in Mitteleuropa. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht.
Stuart, J. 1867. Sculptured stones of Scotland (volume 2). Edinburgh: Spalding Club.
Swanton, M. (ed. and trans.). 1978. Beowulf. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Taylor, S. & Márkus, G.. 2010. The place-names of Fife, volume four: North Fife between Eden and Tay. Donington: Shaun Tyas.
Taylor, S. & Márkus, G.. 2012. The place-names of Fife, volume five: discussion, glossaries, and edited texts. Donington: Shaun Tyas.
Whittaker, C. (ed. and trans.) 1969. Herodian (volume I). London: William Heinemann.
Winlow, S. 2011. A review of Pictish burial practices in Tayside and Fife, in Driscoll, S.T., Geddes, J. & Hall, M. (ed.). Pictish progress: new studies on northern Britain in the Early Middle Ages: 335–50. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004187597.i-384.80