Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The Xiongnu settlements of Egiin Gol, Mongolia

  • Joshua Wright (a1), William Honeychurch (a2) and Chunag Amartuvshin (a3)
Abstract

The Xiongnu people have long been considered an archetypical nomadic group, characterised archaeologically mainly from their tombs – which have reinforced the stereotype. Thanks to a sophisticated survey project, the authors are able to reveal the Xiongnu's economic complexity. Although primarily pastorialists they practiced cultivation and their ceramics reveal a settlement hierarchy which chimes with the broader social and settlement system of the region.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Allard, F., Erdenebaatar, D., Batbold, N. & Miller, B.. 2002. A Xiongnu cemetery found in Mongolia. Antiquity 76: 6378.
Barfield, T. 1989. The perilous frontier: nomadic empires and China. Cambridge (MA): Basil Blackwell.
Barfield, T. 1981. The Hsiung-Nu imperial confederacy: organization and foreign policy. Journal of Asian Studies 41: 4561.
Batsaikhan, Z. & Baatarbileg, E.. 2002. Arkhangai aimgiin Ogiinuur Sumyn nutagt shineer oldson gurvan kherem [Three recently discovered walled sites in Ogiinuur Sum, Arkhangai province]. Arkheologi, Antropologi, Ugsaatan Sudlal 13: 36–8.
Danilov, S.V. & Zhavoronkova, T.V.. 1995. Gorodiche Bayan Onder - Nov'ii Pamiatnik Khunnu Zabaikal'e, V., in Konovalov, P.B. (ed.) Kultury i pami'atniki bronzovogo i rannego zheleznogo vekov Zabaikalia i Mongolii [Cultures and sites of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Zabaikalye and Mongolia]. Ulan-Ude: Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Division Buryat Institute of Social Sciences.
Davydova, A.V. 1968. The Ivolga Gorodishche (A monument of the Hiung-Nu culture in the Trans-Baikal region). Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarium Hungaricae 20: 209–45.
Davydova, A.V. 1995. Ivolginskoe gorodishche [The Ivolga fortress]. Saint Petersburg: Asiatic Fund.
Davydova, A.V. 1996. The Ivolga archaeological complex. Part 2: the Ivolga cemetery. Saint Petersburg: Asiatic Fund.
Di Cosmo, N. 1994. Ancient Inner Asian nomads: their economic basis and its significance in Chinese history. The Journal of Asian Studies 53: 1092–126.
Di Cosmo, N. 2002. Ancient China and its enemies: the rise of nomadic power in East Asian history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dorjsuren, T. 1961. Umard Khunnu [The northern Khunnu]. Ulaanbaatar: Academy of Sciences.
Erdélyi, I., Dorjsüren, T. & Navan, D.. 1967. Mongol-Hungarian 1961-1964 report. Acta Archaeologica 19: 335–70.
Erdenebaatar, D., Erdenebat, U., Torbat, T., Crubézy, E., Maureille, P. & Haye, L.. 1998. Burkhan Tolgoin khunnu bulshny sudalgaa [Research on the Xiongnu burials of Burkhan Tolgoi]. Arkheologiin Sudlal 18: 92107.
Feng, Z.-D. 2001. Gobi dynamics in the northern Mongolian plateau during the past 20,000+yr: preliminary results. Quaternary International 76/77: 7783.
Hall, M. & Minyaev, S.. 2002. Chemical analyses of Xiong-nu pottery: a preliminary study of exchange and trade on the Inner Asian steppe. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 135–44.
Hall, M., Honeychurch, W., Wright, J., Batsaikhan, Z. & Bilegt, L.. 1999a. Chemical analysis of prehistoric Mongolian pottery. Arctic Anthropology 36: 133–50.
Hall, M., Batsaikhan, Z. & Honeychurch, W.. 1999b. Radiocarbon dates from northern Mongolia. Radiocarbon 41: 103–10.
Honeychurch, W. 2004. Inner Asian warriors and Khans: a regional spatial analysis of nomadic political organization and interaction. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.
Honeychurch, W. & Amartuvshin, C.. 2006. States on horseback: the rise of Inner Asian confederations and empires, in Stark, M. (ed.) Archaeology of Asia. Malden (MA) & Oxford: Blackwell.
Honeychurch, W., Wright, J. & Amartuvshin, C.. 2007. A nested approach to survey in the Egiin Gol Valley, Mongolia. Journal of Field Archaeology 32: 339–52.
Honeychurch, W. In press. Re-writing monumental landscapes as Inner Asian political process, in Hanks, B. & Linduff, K. (ed.) Monuments, metals, and mobility: trajectories of complexity in the late prehistory of the Eurasian Steppe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Horiuchi, K., Minoura, K., Hoshino, K., Oda, T., Nakamura, T. & Kawai, T.. 2000. Palaeoenvironmental history of Lake Baikal during the last 23 000 years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 157: 95108.
Ilyashuk, B.P. & Ilyashuk, E.A.. 2007. Chironomid record of Late Quaternary climatic and environmental changes from two sites in Central Asia (Tuva Republic, Russia) - local, regional or global causes? Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 705–31.
Ishjamts, N. 1994. Nomads in eastern Central Asia, in Harmatta, J., Puri, B.N. & Etemadi, G.F. (ed.) History of civilizations of Central Asia, the development of sedentary and nomadic civilization 700 BC to AD 250. Paris: Unesco.
Karabanov, E.B., Prokopenko, A.A., Williams, D.F. & Khursevich, G.K.. 2000. A new record of Holocene climate change from the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 156: 211–24.
Keyser-Tracqui, C., Crubézy, E. & Ludes, B.. 2003. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a 2000-year-old necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia. American Journal of Human Genetics 73: 247–60.
Khazanov, A. 1994. Nomads and the outside world. Madison (WI): The Univsersity of Wisconsin Press.
Kozlov, P.M.K. 1927. Discoveries in Mongolia. Palacio 23: 6045.
Lattimore, O. 1940. Inner Asian frontiers of China. New York (NY): American Geographical Society.
Lewis, M.E. 1990. Sanctioned violence in early China. New York (NY): SUNY Press.
Liu, H., Xu, L. & Cui, H.. 2002. Holocene history of desertification along the woodland-steppe border in northern China. Quaternary Research 57 (2): 259–70.
Martynova, G.S. 1988. Beginning of the Hunnic epoch in south Siberia. Arctic Anthropology 25: 6183.
Mearns, R. 1993. Territoriality and land tenure among Mongolian pastoralists: variation, continuity and change. Nomadic peoples 33: 73103.
Minyaev, S. 1990. Niche grave burials of the Xiong-Nu period in Central Asia. Information Bulletin of the International Association for the Study of Cultures in Central Asia 17: 91113.
Minyaev, S. 1988. Dureni II - Mnogocloinoe Poselenie V Zapadnom Zabaikal'e. Sovetskaia Arkheologiia 2: 228–33.
Murail, P., Crubézy, E., Martin, H., Haye, L., Bruzek, J., Giscard, P.H., Turbat, T. & Erdenebaatar, D.. 2000. The man, the woman, and the hyoid bone: from archaeology of the burial practices of the Xiongnu people (Egyin Gol Valley, Mongolia). Antiquity 74: 531–6.
Naran, B. 2004. Pathological cases of the Hunnu period in Mongolia. Paper presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 14-17 April 2004, Tempe, AZ.
Peck, J.A., Khosbayar, P., Fowell, S.J., Pearce, R.B., Ariunbileg, S., Hansen, B.C.S. & Soninkhishig, N.. 2002. Mid to Late Holocene climate change in north central Mongolia as recorded in the sediments of Lake Telmen. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 183: 135–53.
Pedersen, M.A. 2003. Networking and the nomadic landscape: place, power and decision making in northern Mongolia, in Roepstorff, A., Bubandt, N. & Kull, K. (ed.) Imagining nature: practices of cosmology and identity. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.
Perlee, K. 1961. Mongol Ard Ulsyn ert, dundad ueiin khot suuriny tovchoon [A brief history of ancient and medieval period settlements in the Mongolian People's Republic]. Ulaanbaatar: Academy of Sciences.
Polosmak, N.L., Bogdanov, E. & Erdene-Ochir, N.. 2007. Excavation of Tomb No. 20 from Noyon Uul. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference of Archaeological Research in Mongolia, 19-23 August 2007 Ulaanbaatar.
Prouse, T. 2005. Mongol-American Egiin Gol-Selenge valley survey report: phytolith analysis of sediments. Unpublished MA dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University College London.
Rudenko, S.I. 1962. Kul'tura khunnov i Noinulinskie kurgany [Khunnu culture and the Kurgans of Noin Ula]. Moscow: Nauka.
Simukov, A.D. 2007 [1934]. [Works about Mongolia and for Mongolia]. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
Sinor, D. (ed.) 1990. The Cambridge history of early Inner Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tian, G. & Li, Z.. 1980. Neimenggu Aluchaideng Faxian de Xiongnu Yiwu [Discoveries of Xiongnu artefacts in Aluchaideng, Inner Mongolia]. Kaogu 4: 333–8.
Trever, K.C. 1932. Excavations in northern Mongolia. Leningrad: Nauka.
Trigg, H. 2003. Report on flotation and wood samples from Mongolia. Unpublished Preliminary Report.
Turbat, T., Amartuvshin, C. & Erdenbat, U.. 2003. [Archaeological Monuments of Egiin Gol Valley]. Ulaanbataar: Mongolian Academy of Science, Institute of Archaeology.
Voskresenskii, A.A. & Tikhonov, N.P. (ed.). 1932. Tekhnologicheskoe izuchenie materialov kurgannykh pogrebenii Noin-Ula [Technological study of materials found in the tumuli Noin-Ula]. Leningrad: Nauka.
Watson, B. 1961. Records of the grand historian of China, translated from the Shih Chi of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. New York (NY): Columbia University Press.
Wright, J. 2006. The adoption of pastoralism north-east Asia: monumental transformation in the Egiin Gol Valley, Mongolia. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University.
Wu, E. 1990. Lun Xiongnu kaogu yanjiu zhong de jige wenti [Some questions on the archaeological study of the Xiongnu]. Kaogu Xuebao 4: 409–37.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed