Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Discriminating multiple JPEG compressions using first digit features

  • Simone Milani (a1), Marco Tagliasacchi (a1) and Stefano Tubaro (a1)
Abstract

The analysis of JPEG double-compressed images is a problem largely studied by the multimedia forensics community, as it might be exploited, e.g., for tampering localization or source device identification. In many practical scenarios, like photos uploaded on blogs, on-line albums, and photo sharing web sites, images might be JPEG compressed several times. However, the identification of the number of compression stages applied to an image remains an open issue. We proposes a forensic method based on the analysis of the distribution of the first significant digits of the discrete cosine transform coefficients, which follow Benford's law in images compressed just once. Then, the detector is optimized and extended in order to identify accurately the number of compression stages applied to an image. The experimental validation considers up to four consecutive compression stages and shows that the proposed approach extends and outperforms the previously-published algorithms for double JPEG compression detection.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Discriminating multiple JPEG compressions using first digit features
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Discriminating multiple JPEG compressions using first digit features
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Discriminating multiple JPEG compressions using first digit features
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: S. Milani simone.milani@polimi.it
References
Hide All
[1] Piva, A.: An overview on image forensics. ISRN Signal Processing, 2013, 2013, article ID 496701.
[2] Milani, S. et al. : An overview on video forensics. APSIPA Trans. Signal Inf. Process., 1 (12) (2012).
[3] Farid, H.: Exposing digital forgeries in scientific images, in Proc. of the 8th Workshop on Multimedia and Security (MM&Sec 2006), September 26–27, 2006, pp. 2936.
[4] Lukás, J., Fridrich, J.: Estimation of primary quantization matrix in double compressed JPEG images, in Proc. DFRWS, Cleveland, OH, USA, August 2003.
[5] Wallace, G.: The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard, Commun. ACM, 34 (4) (1991), 3044.
[6] Milani, S.; Tagliasacchi, M.; Tubaro, M.: Discriminating multiple JPEG compression using first digit features, in Proc. 37th Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2012), Kyoto, Japan, March 25–30, 2012, pp. 22532256.
[7] Pevny, T.; Fridrich, J.: Estimation of primary quantization matrix for steganalysis of double-compressed JPEG images, in Proc. SPIE, 6819, San Jose, CA, USA, January 2008, pp. 11-111-13.
[8] Galvan, F.; Puglisi, G.; Bruna, A.R.; Battiato, S.: First quantization matrix estimation from double compressed JPEG images. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, 9 (8) (2014) 12991310.
[9] Benford, F.: The law of anomalous numbers. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 78 (4) (1938) 551572, jSTOR 984802.
[10] Pérez-González, F., Heileman, G.L.; Abdallah, C.T.: Benford's law in image processing, in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing (ICIP 2007), San Antonio, TX, USA, September 2007.
[11] Lam, E.Y.; Goodman, J.W.: A mathematical analysis of the DCT coefficient distributions for images. IEEE Trans. Image Process., 9 (10) (2000) 16611666.
[12] Wang, W.; Farid, H.: Exposing digital forgeries in video by detecting double JPEG compression, in Proc. of ACM MM&Sec 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, September 2006, pp. 3747.
[13] Lin, Z.; He, J.; Tang, X.; Tang, C.-K.: Fast, automatic and fine-grained tampered JPEG image detection via DCT coefficient analysis. Pattern Recognit., 42 (11) (2009) 24922501.
[14] Fu, D.; Shi, Y.Q.; Su, W.: A generalized Benford's law for JPEG coefficients and its applications in image forensics, in Proc. of SPIE, 6505, January 28–Februbay 1, 2009, pp. 3948.
[15] Xian-Zhe, M.N. Shao-Zhang, , Jian-Chen, Z.: Tamper detection for shifted double JPEG compression, in Proc. IIH-MSP 2010, Darmstadt, Germany, October 2010, pp. 434437.
[16] Barni, M.; Costanzo, A.; Sabatini, L.: Identification of cut & paste tampering by means of double-JPEG detection and image segmentation, in Proc. of ISCAS 2010, Paris, France, May 30–June 2, 2010, pp. 16871690.
[17] Qu, Z.; Luo, W.; Huang, J.: A convolutive mixing model for shifted double JPEG compression with application to passive image authentication,' in ICASSP. IEEE, 2008, pp. 16611664. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2008.4517946
[18] Li, B.; Shi, Y.Q.; Huang, J.: Detecting doubly compressed JPEG images by using mode based first digit features,' in Proc. of MMSP 2008, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, October 2008, pp. 730735.
[19] Bianchi, T.; Rosa, A.D.; Piva, A.: Improved dct coefficient analysis for forgery localization in JPEG images, in Proc. of the 36th Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2011), Prague, Czech Republic, March 22–27, 2011, pp. 24442447.
[20] Wang, J.; Cha, B.; Cho, S.; Kuo, C.: Understanding Benford's law and its vulnerability in image forensics, in Proc. of the 2009 IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2009), June 28–July 1, 2009, pp. 15681571.
[21] Battersby, S.: Statistics hint at fraud in Iranian election. New Scientist, no. 2714, June 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www. newscientist.com/article/mg20227144.000-statistics-hint-at-fraud-in-iranian-election.html
[22] Deckert, J.; Myagkov, M.; Ordeshook, P.C.: The irrelevance of Benford's law for detecting fraud in elections. Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project, no. Working paper no. 9, September 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.vote.caltech.edu/drupal/node/327
[23] Nigrini, M.J.: I've got your number. J. Account., May 1999. [Online]. Available: http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/1999/May/nigrini
[24] Müller, H.C.: Greece was lying about its budget numbers. Forbes, September 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2011/09/12/greece-was-lying-about-its-budget-numbers/
[25] Schaefer, G.; Stich, M.: UCID – An uncompressed colour image database, in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5307, San Jose, CA, USA, January 2004, pp. 472480.
[26] Milani, S.: Multiple JPEG Compression Detector Website, December 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.dei.unipd.it/sim1mil/materiale/mjpegdetector/
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing
  • ISSN: 2048-7703
  • EISSN: 2048-7703
  • URL: /core/journals/apsipa-transactions-on-signal-and-information-processing
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 23
Total number of PDF views: 275 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 343 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.