Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-t4qhp Total loading time: 0.802 Render date: 2022-08-12T21:10:10.466Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Intentional schema will not do the work of a theory of mind

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

David Premack
Affiliation:
Laboratoire de Psycho-Biologie du Developpement, CNRS, Paris, France; premack@kpbd.msh-paris.fr
Ann James Premack
Affiliation:
Laboratoire de Psycho-Biologie du Developpement, CNRS, Paris, France; premack@kpbd.msh-paris.fr

Abstract

Barresi & Moore's “intentional schema” will not do the work of “theory of mind.” Their model will account neither for fundamental facts of social competence, such as the social attributions of the 10-month-old infant, nor the possibility that, though having a theory of mind, the chimpanzee's theory is “weaker” than the human's.

Type
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1996

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Agar, N. (1993) What do frogs really believe? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71:112. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alberch, P., Gould, S. J., Oster, G. F. & Wake, D. B. (1979) Size and shape in ontogeny and phylogeny. Paleobiology 5:296317. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amsterdam, B. K. (1972) Mirror self-image reactions before age two. Developmental Psychology 5:297305. [aJB, DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andersen, E. S., Dunlea, A. & Kekelis, L. (1993) The impact of input: Language acquistion in the visually impaired. First Language 13:2349. [CS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anisfeld, M. (1991) Neonatal imitation: A review. Developmental Review 11:6097. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Astington, J. W. & Gopnik, A. (1991) Developing understanding of desire and intention. In: Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading, ed. Whiten, A.. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Astington, J. W., Harris, P. L. & Olson, D. R., eds. (1988) Developing theories of mind. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Bahrick, L. E. & Watson, J. S. (1985) Detection of intermodal proprioceptive visual contingency as a potential basis of self-perception in infancy. Developmental Psychology 21:963–73. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bakeman, R. & Adamson, L. (1984) Coordinating attention to people and objects in mother-infant and peer-infant interactions. Child Development 55:1278–89. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin, D. A. (1993) Early referential understanding: Infants' ability to recognize referential acts for what they are. Developmental Psychology 29:832–43. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin, J. M. (1894) Mental development in the child and the race. Macmillan. [aJB]Google Scholar
Bamberg, M. (1987) The acquisition of narratives, de Gruyter. [NB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bamberg, M. (in press) A constructivist approach to narrative development. In: Narrative development—Six approaches, ed. Bamberg, M.. Erlbaum. [NB]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (1989) Perceptual role taking and protodeclarative pointing in autism. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 7:113–28. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (1991) Precursors to a theory of mind: Understanding attention in others. In: Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading, ed. Whiten, A.. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (1994) How to build a baby that can read minds: Cognitive mechanisms in mindreading. Current Psychology of Cognition 13(5):513–52. [SB-C, JCG]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Minilblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. MIT Press. [SB-C, JCG]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M. & Frith, U. (1985) Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition 21:3746. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M. & Frith, U. (1986) Mechanical, behavioral, and intentional understanding of picture stories in autistic children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 4:113–25. [aJB, SB-C]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barresi, J. (1989) Prolegomena toward a causal theory of mind and meaning (Review of Fodor, J., Psychosemantics: The problem of meaning in the philosophy of mind). American Journal of Psychology 102:122–30. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barresi, J. (1995) You can cheat people, but not nature. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:544–45. [rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barresi, J. & Moore, C. (1993) Sharing a perspective precedes the understanding of that perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:513–14. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartsch, K. (1990) Everyday talk about beliefs and desires: Evidence of children's developing theory of mind. Paper presented at a meeting of the Piaget Society, Philadelphia. [DP]Google Scholar
Bartsch, K. & Wellman, H. M. (in press) Children talk about the mind. Oxford University Press. [DP]Google Scholar
Bates, E. (1979) Intentions, conventions, and symbols. In: The emergence of symbols, ed. Bates, E., Benigni, L., Bretherton, I., Camaioni, L. & Volterra, V.. Academic Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Bates, E. (1990) Language about me and you: Pronominal reference and the emerging concept of self. In: The self in transition: Infancy to childhood, ed. Cicchetti, D. & Beeghly, M.. University of Chicago Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Beckwith, R. T. (1991) The language of emotion, the emotions, and nominalist bootstrapping. In: Children's theories of mind: Mental states and social understanding, ed. Frye, D. & Moore, C.. Erlbaum. [rJB]Google Scholar
Ben-Ze'ev, A. (1993) The perceptual system: A philosophical and psychological perspective. Peter Lang. [ABZ]Google Scholar
Bennett, J. (1978) Some remarks about concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:557–60. [aJB, DP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bischof-Kohler, D. (1988) Uber der zusammenhang von empathie und der fahigkeit, sich im spiegel zu erkennen. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologic 47:147–59. [aJB]Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. (1987) Evidence of divergence in vertebrate learning. Behavioral Brain Science 10:659–60. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowerman, M. (1990) When a patient is the subject: Sorting out passives, anticausatives, and middles in the acquisition of English. Paper presented at The Symposium on Voice, University of California, Santa Barbara. [NB]Google Scholar
Brazelton, T. B., Koslowski, B. & Main, M. (1974) The origins of reciprocity. In: The effect of the infant on its caregiver, ed. Lewis, M. & Rosenblum, L.. Wiley. [aJB]Google Scholar
Brentano, F. (1874/1973) Psychology from an empirical standpoint. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [aJB]Google Scholar
Bretherton, I. (1991) Intentional communication and the development of mind. In: Children's theories of mind: Mental states and social understanding, ed. Frye, D. & Moore, C.. Erlbaum. [aJB]Google Scholar
Bruner, J. (1983) Child's talk: Learning to use language. Norton. [aJB]Google Scholar
Bryson, C. Q. (1970) Systematic identification of perceptual disabilities in autistic children. Perceptual and Motor Skills 31:239–46. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryson, C. Q. (1972) Short-term memory and cross-modal information processing in autistic children. Journal of Learning Disabilities 5:2535. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Budwig, N. (1989) The linguistic marking of agentivity and control in child language. Journal of Child Language 16:263–84. [NB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Budwig, N. (1990) The linguistic marking of non-prototypical agency: An exploration into children's use of passives. Linguistics 28:1221–52. [NB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Budwig, N. (1995) A developmental-functionalist approach to child language. Erlbaum. [NB]Google Scholar
Budwig, N. & Wiley, A. (in press) What language reveals about children's categories of personhood. In: Learning about self and other through conversation, eds. Sperry, L. & Smiley, P.. Jossey-Bass. [NB]Google Scholar
Butterworth, G. (1992) Origins of self-perception in infancy. Psychological Inquiry 3:103–11. [AO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butterworth, G. & Cochran, E. (1980) Towards a mechanism of joint visual attention in human infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development 3:253–72. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butterworth, G. & Jarrett, N. (1991) What minds have in common is space: Spatial mechanisms serving joint visual attention in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 9:5572. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, R. W. & Whiten, A., eds. (1988) Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes, and humans. Oxford University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Campos, J. J. (1983) The importance of affective communication in social referencing: A commentary on Feinman. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 29:8387. [aJB]Google Scholar
Case, R. (1992a). The mind's staircase: Exploring the conceptual underpinnings of children's thought and knowledge. Erlbaum. [KN]Google Scholar
Chandler, M. ]. (1988) Doubt and developing theories of mind. In: Developing theories of mind, ed. Astington, J., Harris, P. & Olson, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Charman, T. & Baron-Cohen, S. (1994) Another look at imitation in autism. Development and Psychopathology 6:403–13. [SB-C]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1990) How monkeys see the world: Inside the mind of another species. University of Chicago Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1992) Précis of How monkeys see the world. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:135–82. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chisholm, R. (1967) Intentionality. In: The encyclopedia of philosophy, vol. 4, ed. Edwards, P.. Macmillan. [aJB]Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1980) Response to Piaget. In: Language and learning: the debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky, ed. Piattelli-Palmarini, M.. Harvard University Press. [CS]Google Scholar
Churchland, P. S. & Churchland, P. M. (1978) Internal states and cognitive theories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:565–66. [DP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clements, W.A., & Perner, J. (1994) Implicit understanding of beliefs. Cognitive Development 9:377–95. [GC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Courchesne, E., Akshoomoff, N. A., Townsend, J., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Lincoln, A. J., James, H. E., Haas, R. H., Schreibman, L. & Lau, L. (1993) A new finding: Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. In: Atypical cognitive deficits in developmental disorders: Implications for brain functions, ed. Broman, S. H. & Grafman, J.. Erlbaum. [aJB]Google Scholar
Crimmins, M. (1993) Talk about beliefs. MIT Press. [AM, rJB]Google Scholar
Curcio, F. (1978) Sensorimotor functioning and communication in mute autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 8:281–92. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Custance, D. & Bard, K. A. (1994) The comparative developmental study of self-recognition and imitation: The importance of social factors. In: Self-awareness in animals and humans, ed. Parker, S. T., Mitchell, R. W. & Boccia, M. L.. Cambridge University Press. [DJP]Google Scholar
Damasio, A. (1994) Descartes' error: Emotion, reason and the human brain. Grosset/Putnam. [rJB]Google Scholar
Davenport, R. K. & Rogers, C. M. (1970) Intermodal equivalence of stimuli in apes. Science 168:279–80. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidson, P., Turiel, E. & Black, A. (1983) The effect of stimulus familiarity on the use of criteria and justifications in children's social reasoning. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 1:4965. [SD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, G. & Adams, A. (1984) Imitation and social responsiveness in autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 12:209–25. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawson, G., Hill, D., Spencer, A., Galpert, L. & Watson, L. (1990) Affective exchanges between young autistic children and their mothers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 18:335–45. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLancey, S. (1984) Notes on agentivity and causation. Studies in Language 8:181213. [NB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1978) Beliefs about beliefs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:568–70. [aJB, DP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1987) The intentional stance. MIT Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Dickinson, A. (1989) Expectancy theory in animal conditioning. In: Contemporary learning theories: Pavlovian conditioning and the status of traditional learning theory, ed. Klein, S. & Mowrer, R.. Erlbaum. [aJB]Google Scholar
Dretske, F. (1981) Knowledge and the flow of information. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Dretske, F. (1988) Explaining behavior: Reasons in a world of causes. MIT Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Dreyfus, H. L. & Hall, H., eds. (1984) Husserl, intentionality, and cognitive science. MIT Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Ettlinger, G. & Wilson, W. A. (1990) Cross-modal performance: Behavioural processes, phylogenetic considerations and neural mechanisms. Behavioural Brain Research 40:169–92. [RWM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feinman, S. (1982) Social referencing in infancy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 28:445–70. [aJB]Google Scholar
Fischer, K. W. (1980) A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological Review 87:477531. [AO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flavell, J. H., & Flavcll, E. R., Green, F. L. & Moses, L. J. (1990) Young children's understanding of fact beliefs versus value beliefs. Child Development 61:915–28. [aJB, GC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fodor, J. A. (1987) Psychosemantics: The problem of meaning in the philosophy of mind. MIT Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Fodor, J. A. (1990) A theory of content and other essays. MIT Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Freeman, N. H., & Lewis, C. & Doherty, M. J. (1991) Preschoolers' grasp of a desire for knowledge in false belief prediction: Practical intelligence and verbal report. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 9:139–57. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frith, U. (1989) Autism: Explaining the enigma. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Frye, D. & Moore, C., eds. (1991) Children's theories of mind. Erlbaum. [aJB]Google Scholar
Frye, D., Rawling, P., Moore, C., & Myers, I. (1983) Object-person discrimination at 3 and 10 months. Developmental Psychology 19:303–9. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frye, D., Zelazo, P. & Palfai, T. (1993) The cognitive basis of theory of mind. Unpublished manuscript. New York University. [aJB]Google Scholar
Galef, B. G. (1988) Imitation in animals: History, definition, and interpretation of data front the psychological laboratory. In: Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives, ed. Zentail, T. & Galef, B.. Erlbaum. [aJB]Google Scholar
Galef, B. G. (1990) Tradition in animals: Field observations and laboratory analyses. In: Comparative perspectives, ed. Beckoff, M. & Jamieson, D.. Westview Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Gallup, G. G. Jr (1970) Chimpanzees: Self-recognition. Science 167:8687. [aJB, DJP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallup, G. G. Jr (1977) Self-recognition in primates: A comparative approach to the bidirectional properties of consciousness. American Psychologist 32:329–38. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallup, G. G. Jr (1982) Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in primates. American Journal of Primatology 2:237–48. [aJB, GGG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallup, G. G. Jr (1985) Do minds exist in species other than our own? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 9:631–41. [GGG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gee, J. & Savasir, I. (1985) On the use of “will” and “gonna”: Towards a description of activity-types for child language. Discourse Processes 8:143–75. [NB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gergely, G., Csibra, G., Biro, S. & Koos, O. (1994, 06) The comprehension of intentional action in infancy. Poster presented at the 9th International Conference of Infant Studies (ICIS), Paris. [GC]Google Scholar
Gergely, G., Nádasdy, Z., Csibra, G. & Biro, S. (1995) Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition 56:165–93. [GC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerhardt, J. & Savasir, I. (1986) The use of the simple present in the speech of two 3-year-olds: Normativity not subjectivity. Language in Society 15:501–36. [NB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gewirtz, J. L. & Pelaez-Nogueras, M. (1992) Social referencing as a learned process. In: Social referencing and the social construction of reality in infancy, ed. Feinman, S.. Plenum. [aJB]Google Scholar
Goldman, A. I. (1989) Interpretation psychologized. Mind & Language 4:161–85. [aJB, JC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldman, A. I. (1992a) In defense of the simulation theory. Mind & Language 7:104–19. [aJB, JC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldman, A. I. (1992b) Empathy, minds, and morals. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66:1741. [rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldman, A. I. (1993) Ethics and cognitive science. Ethics 10–3:337–60. [rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldman, A. I. (1995) Simulation and interpersonal utility. Ethics 105:709–26. [rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomez, J. C. (1991) Visual behavior as a window for reading the mind of others in primates. In: Natural theories of mind. Evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading, ed. Whiten, A.. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Gomez, J. C. (1994a) Mutual awareness in primate communication: A Gricean approach. In: Self-recognition and awareness in apes, monkeys and children, ed. Parker, S. T., Boccia, M. & Mittchel, R.. Cambridge University Press. [JCG]Google Scholar
Gomez, J. C. (1994b) Shared attention in ontogeny and phylogeny: SAM, TOM, Grice and the great apes. Current Psychology of Cognition 13(5):590–98. [JCG]Google Scholar
Gomez, J. C. (in press) Ostensive behavior in great apes: The role of eye contact. In: Reaching into thought, ed. Russon, A., Parker, S. T. & Bard, K.. Cambridge University Press. [JCG]Google Scholar
Goodall, J. (1986) The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Harvard University Press. [ABZ]Google Scholar
Goodall, J. (1990) Through a window: My thirties years with the chimpanzees of Gombe. Houghton Mifflin. [aJB]Google Scholar
Gopnik, A. (1993) How we know our minds: The illusion of first-person knowledge of intentionality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:114. [arJB, JC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gopnik, A. & Astington, J. W. (1988) Children's understanding of representational change and its relation to the understanding of false belief and the appearance-reality distinction. Child Development 59:2637. [arJB, RWM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gopnik, A. & Slaughter, V. (1991) Young children's understanding of changes in their mental states. Child Development 62:98110. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gopnik, A., Slaughter, V. & Meltzoff, A. (1995) Changing your views: How understanding visual perception can lead to a new theory of the mind. In: Origins of a theory of mind, ed. Lewis, C. & Mitchell, P.. Erlbaum. [AM]Google Scholar
Gordon, (1995b) Radical simulation. In: Theories of theories of mind, ed. Carruthers, P. & Smith, P.. Cambridge University Press. [RMG]Google Scholar
Gordon, R. M. (1986) Folk psychology as simulation. Mind and Language 1:156–71. [Reprinted (1995) Folk psychology: The theory of mind debate, ed. M. Davies & T. Stone. Blackwell.] [aJB, RMG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. M. (1987) The structure of emotions. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Gordon, R. M. (1992) The simulation theory: Objections and misconceptions. Mind & Language 7:527. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. M. (1995) Sympathy, simulation, and the impartial spectator. Ethics 105 (07). Reprinted in: Mind and morals: Essays on ethics and cognitive science. MIT Press. [RMG, rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, S. J. (1977) Ontogeny and phylogeny. Harvard University. [DJP]Google Scholar
Greenfield, P. M. & Smith, J. H. (1976) The structure of communication in early language development. Academic Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Gyori-Stefanik, K. (1995, 02) Mirror self-recognition and developmental deficits in autistic children. Paper presented at the University of Southampton, Southampton, England. [AO]Google Scholar
Happé, F. (1994) Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. UCL Press. [AO]Google Scholar
Harman, G. (1978) Studying the chimpanzee's theory of mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:576–77. [DP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, P. L. (1989) Children and emotion. Blackwell. [aJB, JC]Google Scholar
Harris, P. L. (1991) The work of the imagination. In: Natural theories of mind: The evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading, ed. Whiten, A.. Blackwell. [aJB, JC]Google Scholar
Hart, D. & Karmel, M. P. (in press) Self-awareness and self-knowledge in humans, apes, and monkeys. To appear in: Reaching into thought, ed. Russon, A., Bard, K. & Parker, S.. Cambridge University Press. [AO]Google Scholar
Hayes, K. J. & Hayes, C. 91952) Imitation in a home-raised chimpanzee. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 45:450–59. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyes, C. (1993) Anecdotes, training, trapping, and triangulating: Do animals attribute mental states? Animal Behavior 46:177–88. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyes, C. (1994) Reflections on self-recognition in primates. Animal Behavior 47:909–191. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyes, C. & Dickinson, A. (1990) The intentionality of animal action. Mind & Language 5:87104. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higgins, E.T. (1989) Continuities and discontinuities in self-regulatory and self evaluative processes: A developmental theory relating self and affect. Journal of Personality 57:407–44. [AO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hobson, R. F. (1989) Beyond cognition: A theory of autism. In: Autism. Nature, diagnosis, and treatment, ed. Dawson, G.. Guilford. [aJB]Google Scholar
Hobson, R. F. (1990a) On acquiring knowledge about people and the capacity to pretend: Response to Leslie. Psychological Review 97:114–21. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hobson, R. F. (1990b) On the origins of self and the case of autism. Development and Psychopathology 2:163–81. [AO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobson, R. F. (1991) Against the theory of ‘theory of mind’. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 9:3351. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobson, R. F. (1993a) Understanding persons: The role of affect. In: Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism, ed. Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Cohen, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Hobson, R. F. (1993b) Autism and the development of mind. LEA. [JCG]Google Scholar
Hobson, R. F. (1993c) Through feeling and sight to self and symbol. In: The perceived self: Ecological and interpersonal sources of self-knowledge, ed. Neisser, U.. Cambridge University Press. [rJB]Google Scholar
Hobson, R. P., Lee, A. & Chiat, S. (1991) Autism and “the self”: An experimental study of personal pronoun comprehension and use. Paper presented to the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle. [aJB]Google Scholar
Hobson, R. P., Ouston, J. & Lee, A. (1989) Naming emotion in faces and voices: Abilities and disabilities in autism and mental retardation. British Journal of Developmental Psychobgy 7:237–50. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, M. L. (1977) Empathy, its development and prosocial implications. In: Nebraska symposium on motivation, vol. 25: Social cognitive development, ed. Keasey, C. B.. University of Nebraska Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Humphrey, N. (1981) Consciousness: A just-so story. New Scientist 95:474–78. [GGG]Google Scholar
Humphrey, N. (1984) Consciousness regained. Oxford University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Huttenlocher, J., Smiley, P. & Charney, R. (1983) Emergence of action categories in the child: Evidence from verb meaning. Psychological Review 90:7293. [NB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackendoff, R. (1992) Languages of the mind. MIT Press. [SD]Google Scholar
Jaedicke, S., Storoschuk, S. & Lord, C. (1994) Subjective experience and causes of affect in high-functioning children and adolescents with autism. Development and Psychopathology 6:273–84. [AO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, C. N. (1988) Theory of mind and the structure of conscious experience. In: Developing theories of mind, ed. Astington, J., Harris, P., & Olson, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Johnson, D. B. (1982) Altruistic behavior and the development of the self in infants. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 28:379–88. [aJB]Google Scholar
Jones, E. E. & Nisbett, R. E. (1972) The actor and the observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. In Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior, ed. Jones, E. E., Kanouse, D. E., Kelly, H. H., Nisbett, R. E., Valins, S. & Weiner, B.. General Learning Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Kanner, L. (1943) Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child 2:217–50. [aJB]Google Scholar
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992) Beyond Modularity. MIT Press. [SD, KN]Google Scholar
Kasari, C., Sigman, M., Mundy, P. & Yirimiya, N. (1990) Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic, and mentally retarded children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 20:87100. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kazak, S. (1992) Understanding knowledge as a mental state in normal and autistic children. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Warwick. [aJB]Google Scholar
Keasey, C. B. (1977) Children's developing awareness and usage of intentionality and motive. In: Nebraska symposium on motivation, vol. 25, ed. Keasey, C. B.. University of Nebraska Press. [SD]Google ScholarPubMed
Krebs, J. R. & Dawkins, R. (1984) Animal signals: Mind-reading and manipulation. In: Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach, 2d ed., ed. Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B.. Blackwell. [JCG]Google Scholar
Landry, S. H. & Loveland, K. A. (1989) The effect of social context on the functional communication skills of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 19:283–99. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, A., Hobson, R. P. & Chiat, S. (1994) I, you, me, and autism: An experimental study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24:155–76. [AO, rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leslie, A. M. (1987) Pretense and representation: The origins of “theory of mind.” Psychological Review 94:412–26. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leslie, A. M. (1988) Some implications of pretense for mechanisms underlying the child's theory of mind. In: Developing theories of mind, ed. Astington, J., Harris, P., & Olson, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Leslie, A. M. & Frith, U. (1990) Prospects for a cognitive neuropsychology of autism: Hobson's choice. Psychological Review 97:122–31. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leslie, A. M. & Happé, F. (1989) Autism and ostensive communication: The relevance of metarepresentation. Development and Psychopathology 1:205–12. [JCG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, D. (1969) Convention: A philosophical study. Harvard University Press. [DP]Google Scholar
Lewis, M. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1979) Social cognition and the acquisition of self. Plenum. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, M., Sullivan, M. W., Stanger, C. & Weiss, M. (1989). SelMevelopment and self-conscious emotions. Child Development 60:146–56. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loveland, K. & Landry, S. (1986). Joint attention and language in autism and developmental language delay. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 16:335–49. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackintosh, N. J. (1987) From null hypothesis to null dogma. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:689–90. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macphail, E. M. (1987) The comparative psychology of intelligence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:649–56. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, R. & Barresi, J. (1995) Hazlitt on the future of the self. Journal of the History of Ideas 56:463–81. [rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAlpine, L. & Moore, C. (in press) Developing social understanding in children with a visual impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness. [rJB]Google Scholar
McGurk, H. & McDonald, J. (1976) Hearing lips and seeing voices: A new illusion. Nature 264:746–48. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meltzoff, A. N. (1988) Infant imitation and memory: Nine-month-olds in immediate and deferred tests. Child Development 59:217–25. [GC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. N. (1990) Foundations for developing a concept of self: The role of imitation in relating self to other and the value of social mirroring, social modeling, and self practice in infancy. In: The self in transition: Infancy to childhood, ed. Cicchetti, D. & Beeghly, M.. University of Chicago Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Meltzoff, A. N. & Borton, R. W. (1979) Intermodal matching by human neonates. Nature 282:403–4. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. N. & Gopnik, A. (1993) The role of imitation in understanding persons and developing a theory of mind. In: Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism, ed. Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Cohen, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Meltzoff, A. N. & Moore, M. K. (1977) Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198:7578. [aJB, DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. N. (1983) Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures. Child Development 54:702–9. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. N. (1989) Imitation in newborn infants: Exploring the range of gestures imitated and the underlying mechanisms. Developmental Psychology 25:954–62. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964) The primacy of perception. Northwestern University Press. [aJB[Google Scholar
Miles, H. L. (1986) How can 1 tell a lie? Apes, language and the problem of deception. In: Deception: Perspectives on human and rumhuman deceit, ed. Mitchell, R. & Thompson, N.. State University of New York Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Miles, H. L. (1990) The cognitive foundations for reference in a signing orangutan. In: “Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative developmental perspectives, ed. Parker, S. & Gibson, K.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB[Google Scholar
Millikan, R. (1989) Biosemantics. The Journal of Philosophy 86:281–97. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, P. & Lacohee, H. (1991) Children's early understanding of false belief. Cognition 39:107–28. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, R. W. (1993) Mental models of mirror self-recognition: Two theories. New Ideas in Psychology 11:295325. [aJB, RWM, AO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, R. W. (1994) The evolution of primate cognition: Simulation, self-knowledge, and knowledge of other minds. In: Hominid culture in primate perspective, ed. Quiatt, D. & Itani, J.. University Press of Colorado. [aJB, RWM)Google Scholar
Mitchell, R. W. & Neal, M. L. (1995) Children understand their own pretense before they understand another's. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Indianapolis. [RWM]Google Scholar
Moore, B. (1992) Avian movement imitation and a new form of mimicry: Tracing the evolution of complex learning. Behaviour 122:231–63. [arJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, C. (1993) The role of convention in the communication of private events. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:656–57. [rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, C. & Barresi, J. (1993) Knowledge of the psychological states of self and others is not only theory-laden but also data-driven. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:6162. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, C. & Corkum, V. (1994) Social understanding at the end of the first year of life. Developmental Review 14:349–72. [arJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, C., Pure, K. & Furrow, D. (1990) Children's understanding of the modal expression of speaker certainty and uncertainty and its relation to the development of a representational theory of mind. Child Development 61:722–30. [arJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moran, G., Krupka, A., Tutton, A. & Symons, D. (1987) Patterns of maternal and infant imitation during play. Infant Behavior and Development 10:477–91. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mundy, P. & Sigman, M. (1989) Specifying the nature of the social impairment in autism. In: Autism: Nature, diagnosis, and treatment, ed. Dawson, G.. Guilford. [aJB]Google Scholar
Mundy, P., Sigman, M. & Kasari, C. (1990) A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 20:115–28. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nagel, T. (1970) The possibility of altruism. Clarendon. [rJB]Google Scholar
Nagel, T. (1974) What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 83:435–50. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagell, K., Olguin, R. S. & Tomasello, M. (1993) Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology 107:174–86. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, K. (1989) Monologue as the linguistic construction of self in time. In: Narratives from the crib, ed. Nelson, K.. Harvard University Press. [NB]Google Scholar
Neuman, C. J. & Hill, S. D. (1978) Self-recognition and stimulus preference in autistic children. Developmental Psychobiology 11:571–78. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newcomb, T. & Hartley, E. L. eds. (1947) Readings in social psychology. Holt. [CS]Google Scholar
Oatley, K. & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1995) The communicative theory of emotions: Empirical tests, mental models, and implications for social interaction. In: Coals and affect, ed. Martin, L. L. & Tesser, A.. Erlbaum. [ABZ]Google Scholar
Ohta, M. (1987) Cognitive disorders of infantile autism: A study employing the WISC, spatial relationship conceptualization, and gesture imitation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 17:4562. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, D. R. (1989) Making up your mind. Canadian Psychology 30:617–27. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, D. R. (1993) The development of representations: The origins of mental life. Canadian Psychology 34:293306. [aJB, DRO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oosterwegel, A. (1995) Private goals and social influences: The complexity of studying self-system development. In: The self in European and North American culture: Development and processes, ed. Oosterwegel, A. & Wicklund, R.A.. Kluwer. [AO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oosterwegel, A. & Oppenheimer, L. (1993) The self-system: Developmental changes between and within self-concepts. Eribaum. [AO]Google Scholar
Parker, S. T., Mitchell, R. W. & Boccia, M. L., eds. (1994) Self-awareness in animals and humans. Cambridge University Press. [RWM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patterson, F. & Linden, E. (1981) The education of Koko. Holt. [aJB]Google Scholar
Pérez-Pereira, M. & Castro, J. (1992) Pragmatic functions of blind and sighted children's language: A twin case study. First Language 12:1737. [CS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perner, J. (1988) Developing semantics for theories of mind: From propositional attitudes to mental representation. In: Developing theories of mind, ed. Astington, J., Harris, P. & Olson, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Perner, J. (1991) Understanding the representational mind. MIT Press. [arJB, JC, AM]Google Scholar
Perner, J., Leekam, S. R. & Wimmer, H. (1987) Three-year-olds' difficulty with false belief: The case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 5:125–37. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piaget, J. (1932) The moral judgment of the child. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [SD]Google Scholar
Piaget, J. (1953) The origin of intelligence in the child Routledge & Kegan Paul. [aJB]Google Scholar
Piaget, J. (1962) Play, dreams, and imitation. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [aJB]Google Scholar
Potì, P. & Spinozzi, G. (1994) Early sensorimotor development in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 108:93103. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povinelli, D. J. (1993) Reconstructing the evolution of mind. American Psychologist 48:493509. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povinelli, D. J. (in press) Chimpanzee theory of mind? The long road to strong inference. In: Theories of theories of mind, ed. Carruthers, P. & Smith, P.. Cambridge University Press. [DJP]Google Scholar
Povinelli, D. J. & Davis, D. R. (1994) Differences between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans (Homo sapiens) in the resting state of the index finger: Implications for pointing. Journal of Comparative Psychology 108:134–39. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Povinelli, D. J. & Eddy, T. J. (in press a). Chimpanzees: Joint visual attention. Psychological Science. [DJP]Google Scholar
Povinelli, D. J. (in press b). What young chimpanzees know about seeing. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. [DJP, rJB]Google Scholar
Povinelli, D. J., Nelson, K. E. & Boysen, S. T. (1990) Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 104:203210. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povinelli, D. J., Nelson, K. E. & Boysen, S. T. (1992) Comprehension of role reversal in chimpanzees: Evidence of empathy? Animal Behavior 43:633–40. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povinelli, D. J., Parks, K. A. & Novak, M. A. (1991) Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) attribute knowledge and ignorance to others? Journal of Comparative Psychology 105:318–25. [GGG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povinelli, D. J., Parks, K. A. & Novak, M. A. (1992) Role reversal by rhesus monkeys, but no evidence of empathy. Animal Behavior 44:269–81. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povinelli, D. J., Rulf, A. R.. Landau, K. & Bierschwale, D. T. (1993) Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence. Journal of Comparatbx Psychology 107:347–72. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Premack, D. (1988a) ‘Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind’ revisited. In: Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes, and humans, ed. Byrne, R. & Whiten, A.. Oxford University Press. [aJB, GGG]Google Scholar
Premack, D. (1988b) “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?” revisited. In: Machiavellian intelligence, ed. Byrne, R. & Whiten, A.. Clarendon. [DP]Google Scholar
Premack, D. (1990) The infants theory of self-propelled objects. Cognition 36:116. [DP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Premack, D. & Dasser, V. (1991) Perceptual origins and conceptual evidence for theory of mind in apes and children. In: Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading, ed. Whiten, A.. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Premack, D. & Premack, A. J. (1995a) Origins of social competence. In: Cognitive neurosdence, ed. Gazzaniga, M.. MIT Press. [DP]Google Scholar
Premack, D. (1995b) Intention as psychological cause. In: Causal cognition, ed. Sperber, D., Premack, D. & Premack, A. J.. Clarendon. [DP]Google Scholar
Premack, D. (in press) Infants attribute value to the goal-directed action of self-propelled objects. Cognition. [DP]Google Scholar
Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978) Do chimpanzees have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:516–26. [aJB, DP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reddy, V. (1991) Playing with others’ expectations: Teasing and mucking about in the first year. In: Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading, ed. Whiten, A.. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Rogers, S. J. & Pennington, B. F. (1991) A theoretical approach to the deficits in infantile autism. Development and Psychopathology 3:137–62. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, J. (1994) “At two with nature”: Agency and the development of self-world dualism. In: The body and the self, eds. Bermudez, J., Marcel, A. & Eilan, N.. MIT Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Russon, A. E. & Galdikas, B. M. F. (1993) Imitation in free-ranging rehabilitant orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 107:147–61. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Sevick, R. A. & Hopkins, W. D. (1988) Symbolic cross modal transfer in two species of chimpanzees. Child Development 59:617–25. [DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scaife, M. & Bruner, J. (1975) The capacity for joint visual attention in the infant. Nature 253:265–66. [aJB, DJP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schaffer, H. R. (1984) The child's entry into a social world. Academic Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Scheler, M. (1954) The nature of sympathy. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [aJB]Google Scholar
Searle, J. R. (1992) The rediscovery of the mind. MIT Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Shapiro, L. A. (1992) Darwin and disjunction: Foraging theory and univocal assignments of content. Philosophy of Science Association 1:469–80. [aJB]Google Scholar
Shatz, M., Wellman, H. M. & Silber, S. (1983) The acquisition of mental verbs: A systematic investigation of first reference to mental states. Cognition 14:301–21. [DP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Short, A. B. & Schopler, E. (1988) Factors relating to age of onset in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 18:207–16. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shweder, R., Mahapatra, M. & Miller, J. (1987) Culture and moral development. In: The emergence of morality in young children, ed. Kagan, J. & Lamb, S.. University of Chicago Press. [SD]Google Scholar
Siegal, M. & Beattie, K. (1991) Where to look first for children's knowledge of false beliefs. Cognition 38:112. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sigman, M. & Ungerer, J. (1984) Cognitive and language skills in autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children. Developmental Psychology 20:293302. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sigman, M., Mundy, P., Ungerer, J. & Sherman, T. (1986) Social interactions of autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children and their caregivers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 27:647–56. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slobin, D. (1985) Crosslinguistic evidence for the language-making capacity. In: The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition, vol. 2, ed. Slobin, D.. Eribaum. [NB]Google Scholar
Smith, I. M. & Bryson, S. E. (1994) Imitation and action in autism. Psychological Bulletin 116:259–73. [arJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smuts, B. B. (1985) Sex and friendship in baboons. Aldine. [ABZ]Google Scholar
Sorce, J. F., Emde, R. N., Campos, J. & Klinnert, M. D. (1985) Maternal emotional signalling: Its effect on the visual cliff behavior of one-year-olds. Developmental Psychology 21:195200. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spelke, E. S. (1979) Perceiving bimodally specified events in infancy. Developmental Psychology 15:626–36. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spiker, D. & Ricks, M. (1984) Visual self-recognition in autistic children: Developmental relationships. Child Development 55:214–25. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strawson, P. F. (1959) Individuals: An essay in descriptive metaphysics. Methuen. [aJB, RMC, AM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, C., Barresi, J. & Moore, C. (in preparation) The development of prudence and altruism. [rJB]Google Scholar
Tomasello, M., Kruger, A. C. & Ratner, H. H. (1993a) Cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:495511. [arJB, KN]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomasello, M., Savage-Rumbaugh, S. & Kruger, A. C. (1993b) Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Child Development 64:16881705. [arJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trevarthen, C. (1979) Communication and cooperation in early infancy: A description of primary intersubjectivity. In: Before speech: The beginnings of interpersonal communication, ed. Bullowa, M.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Trevarthen, C. & Hubley, P. (1978) Secondary intersubjectivity: Confidence, confiding, and acts of meaning in the first year. In: Action, gesture, and symbol: The emergence of language, ed. Lock, A.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Turiel, E. (1983) The development of social knowledge. Cambridge University Press. [SD]Google Scholar
Walker, A. S. (1982) Intermodal perception of expressive behaviors by human infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 33:514–35. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watson, J. S. (1972) Smiling, cooing, and “the game.” Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 18:323–39. [aJB]Google Scholar
Wellman, H. M. (1988) First steps in the child's theorizing about the mind. In: Developing theories of mind, ed. Astington, J., Harris, P. & Olson, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Wellman, H. M. (1990) The child's theory of mind. MIT Press. [aJB, SD]Google Scholar
Wellman, H. M. & Bartsch, K. (1988) Young children's reasoning about beliefs. Cognition 30:239–77. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wellman, H. M. & Woolley, J. D. (1990) From simple desires to ordinary beliefs: The early development of everyday psychology. Cognition 35:245–75. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whiten, A., ed. (1991a) Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Whiten, A. (1991b) The emergence of mindreading: Steps towards an interdisciplinary enterprise. In: Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development, and simulation of everyday mindreading, ed. Whiten, A.. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Whiten, A. (1993) Evolving theories of mind: The nature of non-verbal mentalism in other primates. In: Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism, ed. Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Cohen, D.. Cambridge University Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Whiten, A. & Byrne, R. W. (1988) Tactical deception in primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:233–44. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiten, A. & Ham, R. (1992) On the nature and evolution of imitation in the animal kingdom: Reappraisal of a century of research. In: Advances in the study of behavior, vol. 21, ed. Slater, P., Rosenblatt, J., Beer, C. & Milinski, M.. Academic Press. [aJB]Google Scholar
Wimmer, H. & Hartl, M. (1991) Against the Cartesian view on mind: Young children's difficulty with own false beliefs. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 9:125–38. [rJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wimmer, H. & Perner, J. (1983) Beliefs about beliefs: Representations and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition 13:103–28. [aJB, RWM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wimmer, H. & Weichbolt, V. (1994) Children's theory of mind: Fodor's heuristics examined. Cognition 53:4557. [DRO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wing, L., Gould, J., Yeates, S. & Brierley, L. (1977) Symbolic play in severely mentally retarded and in autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 18:167–78. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wintre, M. G. & Vallance, D. D. (1994) A developmental sequence in the comprehension of emotions: Intensity, multiple emotions, and valence. Developmental Psychology 30:509–14. [ABZ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wittgenstein, L. (1958) Philosophical investigations. Blackwell. [aJB]Google Scholar
Woodruff, G. & Premack, D. (1979) Intentional communication in the chimpanzee: The development of deception. Cognition 7:333–62. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yirmiya, N., Kasari, C., Sigman, M. & Mundy, P. (1989) Facial expressions of affect in autistic, mentally retarded and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30:725–35. [aJB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed