Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-7nm9g Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-01T20:57:22.236Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Natural language and natural selection

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2011

Steven Pinker
Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, Electronic mail:
Paul Bloom
Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, Electronic mail:


Many people have argued that the evolution of the human language faculty cannot be explained by Darwinian natural selection. Chomsky and Gould have suggested that language may have evolved as the by-product of selection for other abilities or as a consequence of as-yet unknown laws of growth and form. Others have argued that a biological specialization for grammar is incompatible with every tenet of Darwinian theory – that it shows no genetic variation, could not exist in any intermediate forms, confers no selective advantage, and would require more evolutionary time and genomic space than is available. We examine these arguments and show that they depend on inaccurate assumptions about biology or language or both. Evolutionary theory offers clear criteria for when a trait should be attributed to natural selection: complex design for some function, and the absence of alternative processes capable of explaining such complexity. Human language meets these criteria: Grammar is a complex mechanism tailored to the transmission of propositional structures through a serial interface. Autonomous and arbitrary grammatical phenomena have been offered as counterexamples to the position that language is an adaptation, but this reasoning is unsound: Communication protocols depend on arbitrary conventions that are adaptive as long as they are shared. Consequently, language acquisition in the child should systematically differ from language evolution in the species, and attempts to analogize them are misleading. Reviewing other arguments and data, we conclude that there is every reason to believe that a specialization for grammar evolved by a conventional neo-Darwinian process.

Target Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1990

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abler, W. L. (1989) On the particulate principle of self-diversifying systems. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 12:113. [MS-K]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, R. (1987) The origin and dispersal of modem humans. Paper presented at the conference at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, England, March 22–26. Science 236:668–69. [aSP]Google Scholar
Armstrong, E., Zilles, K., Curtis, M. & Schleicher, A. (1989) The lunate sulcus and the evolution of the human occipital lobe. Manuscript. [WW]Google Scholar
Axelrod, R. & Hamilton, W. D. (1981) The evolution of cooperation. Science 211:1390–96. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ayala, F. (1983) Microevolution and macroevolution. In: Evolution from molecules to man, ed. Bendall, D. S.. Cambridge University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Baldwin, J. M. (1896) A new factor in evolution. American Naturalist 30:441–51. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin, J. M. (1902) Development and evolution, including psychophysical evolution, evolution by orthoplasy, and the theory of genetic modes. Macmillan. [JL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkow, J. H. (1989) Broad training for social scientists (letter). Science 243:992. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. ed. (in press) The adapted mind. Oxford University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Bates, E. & MacWhinney, B. (1982) Functionalist approaches to grammar. In: Language acquisition: The state of the art, ed. Wanner, E. & Gleitman, L. R.. Cambridge University Press. [rSP, EB]Google Scholar
Bates, E. (1976) Language and context: Studies in the acquisition of pragmatics. Academic Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1989) Functionalism and the competition model. In: The crosslinguistic study of sentence processing, ed. MacWhinney, B. & Bates, E.. Cambridge University Press. [EB]Google Scholar
Bates, E., Benigni, L., Bretherton, I., Camaioni, L. & Volterra, V. (1979). The emergence of symbols: Cognition and communication in infancy. Academic Press. [EB]Google Scholar
Bates, E., Bretherton, I. & Snider, L. (1988) From first words to grammar: Individual differences and dissociable mechanisms. Cambridge University Press. [JRH]Google Scholar
Bates, E., Thai, D. & Marchman, V. (1989) Symbols and syntax: A Darwinian approach to language development. In: The biological foundations of language development, ed. Krasnegor, N., Rumbaugh, D., Studdert-Kennedy, M., & Schiefelbusch, R.. Oxford University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Bendall, D. S., ed. (1983) Evolution from molecules to men. Cambridge University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1985) The acquisition of syntactic knowledge. MIT Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Berwick, R. C. & Weinberg, A. S. (1984) The grammatical basis of linguistic performance. MIT Press. [aSP, NH, LF]Google Scholar
Berwick, R. C. & Wexler, K. (1987) Parsing efficiency, binding, c-command, and learnability. In: Studies in the acquisition of anaphora, ed. Lust, B.. Reidel. [arSP]Google Scholar
Best, C, Morgeniello, B. & Robson, R. (1981) Perceptual equivalence of acoustic cues in speech and nonspeech perception. Perception and Psychophysics 29:191211. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bever, T. G. (1970) The cognitive basis for linguistic structures. In: Cognition and the development of language, ed. Hayes, J. R.. Wiley. [aSP]Google Scholar
Bever, T. G., Carrithers, C, Cowart, W. & Townsend, D. J. (in press) Tales of two sites: The quasimodularity of language. In: Neurology and language, ed. A. Galaburda. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Bickerton, D. (1981) The roots of language. Karoma. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1984) The language bioprogram hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7:173212. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1986) More than nature needs? A reply to Premack. Cognition 23:7379. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1990) Language and species. University of Chicago Press [WW]Google Scholar
Bloom, P. (1989) Nominals in child language. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1990) Syntactic distinctions in child language. Journal of Child Language 17:343–55. [arSP, LB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bobick, A. (1987) Natural object categorization. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Technical Report 1001. [rSP]Google Scholar
Boesch, C. & Boesch, H. (in press) Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica. [PL]Google Scholar
Bolinger, D. (1980) Language: the loaded weapon. Longman. [aSP]Google Scholar
Boorse, C. (1973) Wright on functions. Philosophical Review 82:139–68. [rSP]Google Scholar
Brandon, E. N. & Hornstein, N. (1986) From icons to symbols: Some speculations on the origin of language. Biology and Philosophy 1:169–89. [arSP, NH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bresnan, J. (1982) Control and complementation. In: The mental representation of grammatical relations, ed. Bresnan, J.. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Bresnan, J. & Kaplan, R. M. (1982) Grammars as mental representations of language. In: The mental representation of grammatical relations, ed. Bresnan, J.. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Brown, R. & Hanlon, C. (1970) Derivational complexity and order of acquisition in child speech. In: Cognition and the development of language, ed. Hayes, J. R.. Wiley. [aSP]Google Scholar
Bybee, J. (1985) Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Benjamins. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cain, A. J. (1964) The perfection of animals. Viewpoints in Biology 3:3663. [MR]Google Scholar
Carey, S. (1978) The child as word learner. In: Linguistic theory and psychological reality, ed. Halle, M., Bresnan, J. & Miller, G.. MIT Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Catania, A. C. (1978) The psychology of learning: Some lessons from the Darwinian revolution. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 309:1828. [ACC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1985a) The two psychologies of learning: Blind alleys and nonsense syllables. In: A century of psychology as science, ed. Koch, S. & Leary, D. E.. McGraw-Hill. [ACC]Google Scholar
(1985b) Rule-governed behavior and the origins of language. In: Behavior analysis and contemporary psychology, ed. Lowe, C. F., Richelle, M., Blackman, D. E. & Bradshaw, C.. Erlbaum. [ACC]Google Scholar
(in press) The phylogeny and ontogeny of language function. In: Biobehavioral foundations of language acquisition, ed. N. A. Krasnegor. Edbaum. [ACC]Google Scholar
Catford, J. C. (1977). Fundamental problems in phonetics. Indiana University Press. [Bh]Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1965) Aspects of the theory of syntax. MIT Press. [aSP, JFE, AN]Google Scholar
(1966a) Cartesian linguistics. Harper & Row. [CPO]Google Scholar
(1966b) Language and mind. Paper read at the University of Chicago. University of Chicago Press. [CPO]Google Scholar
(1968) Language and mind. Harcourt, Brace and World. [JRH]Google Scholar
(1970) Language and freedom. Abraxas 1:1 (Fall) 9–24. [CO]Google Scholar
(1971) Problems of knowledge and freedom. The Russell Lectures. Pantheon. [CO]Google Scholar
(1972) Language and mind. Harcourt, Brace and World, (extended edition). [aSP, CPO]Google Scholar
(1973) For reasons of state. Pantheon. [CO]Google Scholar
(1975) Reflections on language. Pantheon. [aSP, AN, CO]Google Scholar
(1980a) Rules and representations. Columbia University Press. [aSP, CPO, IU, JRH, DM]Google Scholar
(1980b) Rules and representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:161. [ACC, PL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1982a) The generative enterprise: A discussion with Riny Huybregts and Henk van Riemsdijk. Foris. [aSP, CPO, JRH]Google Scholar
(1982b) Discussion of Putnam's comments. In: Language and learning: The debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky, ed. Piattelli-Palmarini, M.. Harvard University Press. [aSP, WW, CPO, LF]Google Scholar
(1982c) Lectures on government and binding. Foris Publications. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1986) Knowledge of language: Its nature, origin, and use. Praeger. [aSP, CPO, LF]Google Scholar
(1987) The Chomsky reader, ed. Peck, J.. Pantheon. [CO]Google Scholar
(1988a) Language and problems of knowledge. The Managua Lectures. MIT Press. [aSP, CPO, IU, JRH]Google Scholar
(1988b) Prospects for the study of language and mind. Paper presented at the conference Linguistics and Cognitive Science: Problems and mysteries, University of Tel Aviv, April. [aSP, CPO]Google Scholar
(1989a) Mental constructions and social reality. Paper presented at the conference on Knowledge and Language, Groningen, May. [CPO]Google Scholar
(1989b) Language and politics, ed. Otero, C. P.. Black Rose. [CPO]Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. & Halle, M. (1968) The sound pattern of English. Harper & Row. [JJF]Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. & Lasnik, H. (1977) Filters and control. Linguistic Inquiry 8:425504. [aSP]Google Scholar
Clements, G. N. (1985) The geometry of phonological features. Phonology Yearbook 2:255–52. [RJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1990) The role of the sonority cycle in core syllabification. In: Papers in laboratory phonology I: Between the grammar and physics of speech, ed. Kingston, J. & Beckman, M.. Cambridge University Press. [JK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1983) Selection in relation to sex. In: Evolution from molecules to men, ed. Bendall, D. S.. Cambridge University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Coleman, W. (1976) Morphology between type concept and descent theory. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 31:149–75. [MR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Comrie, B. (1981) Language universals and linguistic typology: Syntax and morphology. Basil Blackwell. [aSP]Google Scholar
Corballis, M. C. (1989) Laterality and human evolution. Psychological Review 96:492505. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cosmides, L. (1989) The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition 31:187276; [arSP, JT, DP, MP-P]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1987) From evolution to behavior: Evolutionary psychology as the missing link. In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT Press. [rSP, IU, JJF]Google Scholar
(1989) Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, Part II. Case study: A computational theory of social exchange. Ethology and Sociobiology 10:5197. [arSP, MP-P, JT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grain, S. & Fodor, J. D. (in press) Competence and performance in child language. In: Language and cognition: A developmental perspective, ed. E. Dromi. Ablex. [rSP]Google Scholar
Crick, F. H. C. (1968) The origin of the genetic code. Journal of Molecular Biology 38:367–79. [MR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cromer, R. (1976) The cognitive hypothesis of language acquisition and its implications for child language deficiency. In: Normal and deficient child language, ed. Morehead, D. M. & Morehead, A. E.. University Park Press. [MM]Google Scholar
(1988) The cognition hypothesis revisited. In: The development of language and language researchers, ed. Kessel, F.. Erlbaum. [MM]Google Scholar
Crossin, K. L. & Edelman, G. M. (1989) Adhesion molecules in pattern formation and neural histogenesis. In: From reading to neurons, ed. Galaburda, A. M.. Bradford Books/M.I.T. Press. [MP-P]Google Scholar
Crothers, J. (1978) Typology and universals of vowel systems. In: Universals of human language, vol. 2, ed. Greenberg, J. H., Ferguson, C. A. & Moravcsik, E. A.. Stanford University Press. [BL]Google Scholar
Crothers, J., & Shibatani, M. (1975) Fundamental concepts of phonology. In: Essays on the sound pattern of English, ed. Goyvaerts, D. L. & Pullum, G. K.. E. Story-Scientia. [JJF]Google Scholar
Cummins, R. (1984) Functional analysis. In: Conceptual issues in evolutionary biology, ed. Sober, E.. MIT Press. [arSP]Google Scholar
Damon, W. (1977) The social world of the child. Jossey-Bass. [DP]Google Scholar
Darwin, C. (1859/1964) On the origin of species. Reprinted by Harvard University Press. [aSP, MS-K, PL]Google Scholar
Dasser, V., Ulbaek, I. & Premack, D. (1989) The perception of intention. Science. [DP]Google ScholarPubMed
Dawkins, R. (1976) The selfish gene. Oxford University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1982) The extended phenotype: The gene as the unit of selection. Freeman. [arSP, ACC, JT]Google Scholar
(1983) Universal Darwinism. In: Evolution from molecules to man, ed. Bendall, D. S.. Cambridge University Press. [aSP, BL, MS-K, MP-P]Google Scholar
(1986) The blind watchmaker: Why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design. Norton. [aSP, MS-K, JT, MP-P]Google Scholar
Deese, J. (1980) Pauses, prosody, and the demands of production in language. In: Temporal variables in speech: Studies in honor of Frieda Goldman-Eisler, ed. Dechert, H. W. & Raupach, M.. Mouton. [LF]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1983) Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: The 'Panglossian Paradigm' defended. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:343–90. [arSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Saussure, F. (1959) Course in general linguistics. McGraw-Hill. [aSP]Google Scholar
Diehl, R. L. (1976) Feature analyzers for the phonetic distinction: Stop vs. continuant. Perception & Psychophysics 19(3):267–72. [KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1991) The role of phonetics in phonology, theme issue. Phonetica, April 1991, in press. [BL]Google Scholar
Diehl, R. & Kluender, K. (1989) On the objects of speech perception. Ecological Psychology 1(2):121–44. [JK, KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dik, S. (1978) Functional grammar. North-Holland. [JRH]Google Scholar
Dodd, J. & Jessell, T. M. (1988) Axon guidance and the patterning of neuronal projections in vertebrates. Science 242:692–99. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dowty, D. (1990) A semantic account of sequence of tense. Communication presented at the workshop Time in Language, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, March. [MP-P]Google Scholar
Dresher, B. E. (1989) A parameter-based learning model for metrical phonology. Conference on Language Development, program in applied linguistics, Boston University. [PL]Google Scholar
Dumford, J. & Wilkins, W. (1990) Hominid brain evolution and neurolinguistic progenitors. Manuscript. [WW]Google Scholar
Eden, M. (1967) Inadequacies of neo-Darwinian evolution as a scientific theory. In: Mathematical challenges to the neo-Darwinian interpretation of evolution, ed. Moorehead, P. S. & Kaplan, M. M.. Wistar Institute Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Edmunds, M. (1974) Defence in animals. Longman. [MR]Google Scholar
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1989) Human ethology. Aldine de Gruyter. [rSP]Google Scholar
Eimas, P. D. & Corbit, J. D. (1973) Selective adaptation of linguistic feature detectors. Cognitive Psychology 4:99109. [KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975) Unmasking the face. Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Etcoff, N. L. (1986) The neuropsychology of emotional expression. In: Advances in clinical neuropsychology, vol. 3., ed. Goldstein, G. & Tarter, R. E.. Plenum. [aSP]Google Scholar
Eldredge, N., & Gould, S. J. (1972). Punctuated equilibria: An alternative to phyletic gradualism. In: Models in paleobiology, ed. Schopf, T. J. M.. Freeman. [aSP]Google Scholar
Eldredge, N. & Tattersall, I. (1982) The myths of human evolution. Columbia University Press. [CO]Google Scholar
En, M. (1990) Tenses and time arguments. Communication presented at the workshop Time in Language, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, March. [MP-P]Google Scholar
Falk, D. (1980) A reanalysis of the South African australopithecine natural endocasts. American journal of Physical Anthropology 53:525–39. [WW]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
(1983) Cerebral cortices of East African early hominids. Science 221:1072–74. [aSP, WW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, C. A. & Farwell, C. B. (1975) Words and sounds in early language acquisition: English initial consonants in the first fifty words. Language 51:419–30. [MS-K]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, R. A. (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. Clarendon Press. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fodor, J. A. (1975) The language of thought. Thomas Crowell. [arSP]Google Scholar
(1983) The modularity of mind. Bradford Books/MIT Press. [aSP, IU, KRK]Google Scholar
(1987) Psychosemantics. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Fodor, J. A. & Pylyshyn, Z. (1988) Connectionism and cognitive architecture: a critical analysis. Cognition 28:371. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foley, W. & , Van Valin (1984) Functional syntax and universal grammar. Cambridge University Press. [GAB].Google Scholar
Fowler, C. A. (1983) Converging sources of evidence on spoken and perceived rhythms of speech: Cyclic production of vowels in sequences of monosyllablic stress feet. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112:386412. [JK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1986) An event approach to the study of speech perception from a direct-realist perspective. Journal of Phonetics 14:149–70. [KRK]Google Scholar
Fowler, C. A. & Rosenblum, L. D. (1990) The perception of phonetic gestures. In: Modularity and the motor theory of speech perception, ed. Mattingly, I. G.. Erlbaum. [KRK]Google Scholar
Franks, H., Crompton, A., & German, R.. (1984) Mechanism of intraoral food transport in macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 65:275–82. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frazier, L., Clifton, C. & Randall, J. (1983) Filling gaps: decision principles and structure in sentence comprehension. Cognition 13:187222. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freidin, R. (1978) Cyclicity and the theory of grammar. Linguistic Inquiry 9:519–49. [aSP]Google Scholar
Freidin, R. & Quicoli, C. (1989) Zero-stimulation for parameter-setting. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:338–39. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freyd, J. J. (1983) Shareability: The social psychology of epistemology. Cognitive Science 7:191210. [aSP, JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1987) Dynamic mental representations. Psychological Review 94:427–38. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Futuyma, D. J., Lewontin, R. C, Mayer, G. C, Seger, J. & Stubblefield, J. W. III (1981) Macroevolution conference (letter). Science 221:770. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galef, B. G. Jr. (1981). The ecology of weaning. In: Parental care in mammals, ed. Gubernick, D. J. & Klopfer, P.. Plenum Press. [DP]Google Scholar
Gardner, R. A. & Gardner, B. T. (1984) A vocabulary test for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 4:381404. [PL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1988) The role of cross-fostering in sign language studies of chimpanzees. Human Evolution 3(1–2):6579. [IU]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garstang, W. (1922) The theory of recapitulation: A critical restatement of the biogenetic law. Journal of the Linnaean Society 35:81101. [MS-K]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gazdar, G., Klein, E., Pullman, G. & Sag, I. A. (1985) Generalized phrase structure syntax. Harvard University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Geschwind, N. (1965) Disconnexion syndromes in animal and man, part 1. Brain 88:237–94. [WW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1980) Some comments on the neurology of language. In: Biological studies of mental processes, ed. Caplan, D.. MIT Press. [aSP, DS]Google Scholar
Girotto, V., Blaye, A. & Farioli, F. (1989) A reason to reason: Pragmatic basis of children's search for counter examples. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology 9(3):297321. [MP-P]Google Scholar
Girotto, V. & Legrenzi, P. (1990) Not all potential cheaters are equal: Pragmatic strategies in deductive reasoning. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [MP-P]Google Scholar
Givon, T. (1979) On understanding grammar. Academic Press. [GAB]Google Scholar
Glantz, K. & Pearce, J. K. (1989) Exiles from Eden. Norton. [rSP]Google Scholar
Goldsmith, J. (1990) Autosegmental and metrical phonology. Blackwell. [RJ]Google Scholar
Goodall, J. (1988) The chimpanzees of Gombi Stream. Harvard University Press. [DP]Google Scholar
Gopnik, M. (1990) Feature blind grammar and dysphasia. Nature 344:715. [aSP, MG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(in press) Feature-blindness: A case study. Language Acquisition. [aSP, MG, MP-P]Google Scholar
(submitted) Is there a gene for linguistic features? Cognition. [MG]Google Scholar
Gordon, P. (1985) Level-ordering in lexical development. Cognition 21:7393. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gould, S. J. (1977a) Darwin's untimely burial. In: Ever since Darwin: Reflections on natural history, ed. Gould, S. J.. Norton. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1977b) Problems of perfection, or, How can a clam mount a fish on its rear end? In: Ever since Darwin: Reflections on natural history, ed. Gould, S. J.. Norton. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1977c) Ontogeny and phylogeny. Harvard University Press/Belknap. [MS-K]Google Scholar
(1979) Panselectionist pitfalls in Parker & Gibson's model of the evolution of intelligence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:385–86. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1980a) Caring groups and selfish genes. In: The panda's thumb, ed. Gould, S. J.. Norton. [rSP]Google Scholar
(1980b) Natural selection and the human brain: Darwin vs. Wallace. In: The panda's thumb, ed. Gould, S. J.. Norton. [rSP ]Google Scholar
(1980c) Is a new and general theory of evolution emerging? Paleobiology 6:119–30. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1980d) The panda's thumb: More reflections in natural history. Norton. [GAB]Google Scholar
(1981) Return of the hopeful monster. In: The panda's thumb: More reflections on natural history, ed. Gould, S. J.. Norton. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1987a) The limits of adaptation: Is language a spandrel of the human brain? Paper presented to the Cognitive Science Seminar, Center for Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, October. [aSP, PL, WW]Google Scholar
(1987b) Integrity and Mr. Rifkin. In: An urchin in the storm: Essays about books and ideas, ed. Gould, S. J.. Norton. [arSP]Google Scholar
(1989a) Evolutionary considerations. Paper presented to the McDonnell Foundation conference Selection vs. Instruction, Venice, May 22 -27. [aSP, CPO]Google Scholar
(1989b) Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Norton. [rSP, MR, JT]Google Scholar
Gould, S. J. & Eldredge, N. (1977) Punctuated equilibria: The tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:115–51. [arSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, S. J. & Lewontin, R. C. (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 205:281–88. [aSP, PL, JT, RCL]Google Scholar
Gould, S. J. & Piattelli-Palmarini, M. (1987) Evolution and cognition. Course taught at Harvard University. [aSP]Google Scholar
Gould, S. J. & Vrba, E. S. (1982) Exaptation - a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8:415. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, S. (1975) Communication by a graded vocal system in Japanese monkeys. In: Primate behavior 4, ed. Rosenblum, L.. Academic Press. [JK]Google Scholar
Greenberg, J. H., Ferguson, C. A. & Moravcsik, E. A., eds. (1978) Universals of human language 4 vols. Stanford University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1966a) Language universals, with special reference to feature hierarchies. Mouton. [JJF]Google Scholar
(1966b) Universals of language. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Greenfield, P. (1987) Departmentmental colloquium, Department of Psychology, Harvard University. [aSP]Google Scholar
Greenfield, P. & Smith, J. (1976) The structure of communication in early language development. Academic Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Grimshaw, J. (1981) Form, function, and the language acquisition device. In: The logical problem of language acquisition, ed. Baker, C. L. & McCarthy, J. J.. MIT Press. [JT]Google Scholar
Grimshaw, J. & Pinker, S. (1989) Positive and negative evidence in language acquisition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12(2):341–42. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haldane, J. B. S. (1927) A mathematical theory of natural and artificial selection, part V: Selection and mutation. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 23:838–44. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hale, K. (1973) Person marking in Warlpiri. In: A Festschrift for Morris Halle, ed. Anderson, V. S. and Kiparsky, P.. Holt Rinehart & Winston. [RGB]Google Scholar
Hale, M. (forthcoming) Features. In: Oxford University Press Encyclopedia of Linguistics. [RJ]Google Scholar
Halliday, M. A. K. (1985) Introduction to functional grammar. Edward Arnold. [GAB, JRH]Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The genetical evolution of social behavior, 1 & 2. Journal of Theoretical Biology 104:451–71. [aSP]Google Scholar
Hamad, S. R., Steklis, H. S. & Lancaster, J., eds. (1976) Origin and evolution of language and speech. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280. [aSP]Google Scholar
Harrelson, A. L. & Goodman, C. S. (1988) Growth cone guidance in insects: Fasciclin II is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Science 242:700–08. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkins, J. ed. (1988) Explaining language universals. Basil Blackwell. [aSP]Google Scholar
Hawkins, J. & Cutler, A. (1988) Psycholinguistic factors in morphological asymmetry. In: Explaining language universals, ed. Hawkins, J.. Basil Blackwell. [aSP]Google Scholar
Hiiemae, K. & Crompton, A.. (1984) Mastication, food transport, and swallowing. In: Functional vertebrate morphology, ed. Hildebrand, M.. Harvard University Press. [JK]Google Scholar
Hinton, G. E. & Nowlan, S. J. (1987) How learning can guide evolution. Complex Systems 1:495502. [aSP}Google Scholar
Hockett, C. F. (1960) The origin of speech. Scientific American 203:88111. [rSP, KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holloway, R. (1981) Revisiting the South African Taung australopithecine endocast: The position of the lunate sulcus as determined by the stereoplotting technique. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 56:4358. [WW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Homstein, N. (1977) Towards a theory of tense. Linguistic Inquiry 8:521–57. [RGB]Google Scholar
Hurford, J. R. (1989a) Biological evolution of the Saussurean sign as a component of the language acquisition device. Lingua 77:187222. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1989b) The evolution of the critical period for language acquisition. Unpublished manuscript. Linguistics Department, University of Edinburgh. Cognition. [aSP]Google Scholar
Isaac, F. J. (1983) Aspects of human evolution. In: Evolution from molecules to men, ed. Bendall, D. S.. Cambridge University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Jackendoff, R. (1977) X-bar syntax: A study of phrase structure. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1983) Semantics and cognition. MIT Press. [aSP, WW, RJ]Google Scholar
(1989a) Why are they saying these things about us? Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6:435–42. [rSP]Google Scholar
(1989b) A comparison of rhythmic structures in music and language. In: Phonetics and phonology, vol. 1: Rhythm and meter, ed. Youmans, G. & Kiparsky, P., Academic Press. [RJ]Google Scholar
(1990) Semantic structures. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Jacob, F. (1977) Evolution and tinkering. Science 196:1161–66. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
(1982) The possible and the actual. University of Washington Press. [CO]Google Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1977) The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Houghton Mifflin. [ACC]Google Scholar
Kaplan, D. & Bresnan, J. (1982) Lexical functional grammar: A formal system for grammatical representations. In: The mental representation of grammatical relations, ed. Bresnan, J.. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Keenan, E. O. (1976) Towards a universal definition of “subject.” In: Subject and topic, ed. Li, C.. Academic Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Kimura, D. (1979) Neuromotor mechanisms in the evolution of human communication. In: Neurobiology of social communication in primates, ed. Steklis, H. D. & Raleigh, M. J.. Academic Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
King, M. & Wilson, A. (1975) Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188:107–16. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kingsolver, J. G. & Koehl, M. A. R. (1985) Aerodynamics, thermoregulation, and the evolution of insect wings: Differential scaling and evolutionary change. Evolution 39:488504. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiparsky, P. (1976) Historical linguistics and the origin of language. In: Origin and evolution of language and speech, ed. S. R. Harnad, H. S. Steklis & J. Lancaster. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280. [aSP]Google Scholar
Kitcher, P. (1985a) Vaulting ambition: Sociobiology and the quest for human nature. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1985b) Abusing science. MIT Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Klima, E. S. & Bellugi, U. (1979) The signs of the language. Harvard University Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Kluender, K. R. (1988) Auditory constraints on phonetic categorization: Trading relations in humans and nonhumans. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. [KRK]Google Scholar
Kluender, K. R., Diehl, R. L. & Killeen, P. R. (1987) Japanese quail can learn phonetic categories. Science 237:1195–97. [KRK, JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kluender, K., Diehl, R. & Wright, B. (1988) Vowel-length differences before voiced and voiceless consonants: An auditory explanation. Journal of Phonetics 16:153–69. [KRK, JK]Google Scholar
Konner, M. (1982) The tangled wing: Biological constraints on the human spirit. Harper. [arSP]Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. & Dawkins, R. (1984) Animal signals: mind-reading and manipulation. In: Behavioral ecology, 2nd ed., ed. Krebs, J. R. and Davies, N. B.. Basil Blackwell. [IU]Google Scholar
Kroodsma, D. E. & Miller, E. H., eds. (1982) Acoustic communication in birds, vol. 2: Song learning and its consequences. Academic Press. [ACC]Google Scholar
Kuhl, P. (1981) Discrimination of speech by nonhuman animals: Basic auditory sensitivities conducive to the perception of speech-sound categories. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 70:340–49. [JK, KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhl, P. & Padden, D. (1983) Enhanced discriminability at the phonetic boundaries for the place feature in macaques. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73:1003–10. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuhl, P. & Miller, J. (1978) Speech perception by the chinchilla: Identification functions for synthetic VOT stimuli. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 63:905–17. [JK, KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kummer, H. (1978) Analogs of morality among nonhuman primates. In: Morality as a biological phenomenon, ed. Stent, G. S.. Dahlem Konferenzen. [DP]Google Scholar
Kuno, S. (1973) Constraints on internal clauses and sentential subjects. Linguistic Inquiry 4:363–85. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1974) The position of relative clauses and conjunctions. Linguistic Inquiry 5:117–36. [aSP]Google Scholar
Lachter, J. & Bever, T. G. (1988) The relation between linguistic structure and associative theories of language learning: A constructive critique of some connectionist learning models. Cognition 28:195247. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ladefoged, P. (1987) Revising the international phonetic alphabet, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Section 64.5.1, Tallinn, Estonia. [BL]Google Scholar
Laitman, J., Heimbuch, R. & Crelin, E. (1979) The basicranium of fossil hominids as an indicator of their upper respiratory systems. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 51:1534. [JK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langacker, R. (1987) Foundation of cognitive grammar. Stanford University Press. [EB]Google Scholar
Lebeaux, D. (1988) Language acquisition and the form of the grammar. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. [RGB]Google Scholar
Lenneberg, E. H. (1964) A biological perspective on language. In: New directions in the study of language, ed. Lenneberg, E. H.. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1967) Biological foundations of language. Wiley. [aSP, ACC]Google Scholar
Lerdahl, F. & Jackendoff, R. (1983) A generative theory of tonal music. MIT Press. [RJ]Google Scholar
Lewin, R. (1980a) Evolutionary theory under fire. Science 210:883–87. [rSP, CPO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
(1980b) Is your brain really necessary? Science 210:1232–34. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewontin, R. C. (1966) Review of G. C. Williams's “Adaptation and Natural Selection”. Science 152:338–39. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1978) Adaptation. Scientific American 239:157–69. [arSP, ES]Google Scholar
(1981) The inferiority complex. The New York Review of Books, Oct. 22:1316. [rSP]Google Scholar
(1983) Elementary errors about evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:367–68. [rSP]Google Scholar
(1990) Evolution of cognition. In: Thinking: An invitation to cognitive science, vol. 3, ed. Osherson, D. & Smith, E. E.. MIT Press. [rSP, CO, MP-P]Google Scholar
Liberman, A. & Mattingly, I. (1985) The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition 51:136. [rSP, JK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1989) A specialization for speech perception. Science 243:489–96. [arSP, KRK, JK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Shankweiler, D. P. & Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1967) Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review 74:431–61. [arSP, JT, KRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lieberman, P. (1976) Interactive models for evolution: Neural mechanisms, anatomy, and behavior. In: Origin and evolution of language and speech, ed. S. R. Harnad, H. S. Steklis, & J. Lancaster. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1984) The biology and evolution of language. Harvard University Press. [arSP, PL, JRH]Google Scholar
(1985) On the evolution of human syntactic ability: Its pre-adaptive bases -motor control and speech. Journal of Human Evolution 14:657–68. [PL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1988) On human speech, syntax, and language. Human Evolution 3:318. [IU]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1989a) Some biological constraints on universal grammar and learnability. In: The teachability of language, ed. Rice, M. & Schiefelbusch, R. L.. Paul H. Brookes. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1989b) The origins of some aspects of human language and cognition. In: The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives in the origins of modern humans, ed. Mellars, P. and Stringer, C. B.. Edinburgh University Press. [PL]Google Scholar
(in press) Uniquely human: The evolution of speech, thought and selfless behavior. Harvard University Press. [PL]Google Scholar
Lieberman, P., Friedman, J. & Feldman, L. S. (in press) Syntactic deficits in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. [3PL]Google Scholar
Light, P., Girotto, V. & Legrenzi, P. (submitted) Children's reasoning on conditional promises and permissions. Cognitive Development. [MP-P]Google Scholar
Lightfoot, D. (1982) The Language lottery. MIT Press. [IU]Google Scholar
Limber, J. (1973) The genesis of complex sentences. In: Cognitive development and the acquisition of language, ed. Moore, T.. Academic Press. [JL]Google Scholar
(1976) Syntax and sentence interpretation. In: New approaches to language mechanisms, ed. Wales, R. J. & Walker, E.. North Holland. [JL]Google Scholar
(1977) Language in child and chimp? American Psychologist 32:280–95. [JL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1982) What can chimps tell us about the origins of language? In: Language Development, vol. 2, ed. Kuczaj, S.. Erlbaum. [JL]Google Scholar
Lindblom, B. (1983) Economy of speech gestures. In: The production of speech, ed. MacNeilage, P. F.. Springer-Verlag. [MS-K]Google Scholar
(1984) Can the models of evolutionary biology be applied to phonetic problems? In: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, ed. van den Broecke, M. & Cohen, A.. Foris. [BL, MS-K]Google Scholar
(1986) Phonetic universals in vowel systems. In: Experimental phonology, ed. Ohala, J. J. & Jaeger, J. J.. Academic Press. [BL]Google Scholar
(1988a) The status of phonetic gestures. In: Modularity and the motor theory of speech perception, ed. Mattingly, I. & Studdert-Kennedy, M.. LEA. [BL]Google Scholar
(1988b) Role of phonetic content in phonology. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Phonology Meeting and Third International Morphology Meeting, ed. Dressier, W., University of Vienna. [BL]Google Scholar
(1988c) Models of phonetic variation and selection. In: Language change and biological evolution, ed. Cavalli-Sforza, L. & Piazza, A.. Stanford University Press. [BL]Google Scholar
(1989a) Some remarks on the origin of the phonetic code In: Brain and Reading, ed. von Euler, C., Lundberg, I. & Lennerstrand, G.. Stockton Press. [BL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1989b) “Explaining phonetic variation: A sketch of the H&H theory. In: Speech production and speech modeling, ed. Hardcastle, W. J. & Marchal, A.. Kluwer Publishers. [BL]Google Scholar
(1989c) On the notion of possible speech sounds. In: Linguistic approaches to phonetics, special Journal of Phonetics theme issue dedicated to Ian Catford, ed. P. S. Beddor. [BL]Google Scholar
(in press) Models of phonetic variation and selection. In: Language change and biological evolution, ed. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. Piazza. Stanford University Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Lindblom, B., MacNeilage, P. & Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1983) Self organizing processes and the explanation of phonological universals. In: Explanations for language universals, ed. Butterworth, B., Comrie, B. & Dahl, V.. Mouton. [BL, KRK, MS-K]Google Scholar
(in preparation) Evolution of spoken language. Academic Press. [BL]Google Scholar
Ludtow, C. L. & Cooper, J. A. (1983) Genetic aspects of speech and language disorders: Current status and future directions. In: Genetic aspects of speech and language disorders, ed. Ludlow, C. L. & Cooper, J. A.. Academic Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
MacNeilage, P. F. (1987) The evolution of hemispheric specialization for manual function and language. In: Higher brain functions: Recent explorations of the brains emergent properties, ed. Wise, S.. Wiley. [MS-K]Google Scholar
(in press) The “postural origins” theory of primate neurobiological asymmetries. In: Biobehavioral foundations of language development, ed. N. Krasnegor, D. Rumbaugh, R. Schiefelbusch & M. Studdert-Kennedy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [MS-K]Google Scholar
MacNeilage, P. F., Studdert-Kennedy, M. & Lindblom, B. (1987) Primate handedness reconsidered. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:247263. [MS-K]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1988) Primate handedness: A foot in the door. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:748–58. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Macken, M. A. (1979) Developmental reorganization of phonology: A hierarchy of basic units of a acquisition. Lingua 49:1149. [MS-K]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacNamara, J. (1982) Names for things: A study of child language. MIT Press. [JT]Google Scholar
Maddieson, I. (1984) Patterns of sound. Cambridge University Press. [BL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manktelow, K. I. & Over, D. E. (1990) Deontic thought and the selection task. In: Lines of thinking: Reflections on the psychology of thought, ed. Gilhooly, K. J., Keane, M. T. G. et al. John Wiley & Sons. [MP-P ]Google Scholar
Maratsos, M. (1983) Some current issues in the study of the acquisition of grammar. In: Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 4th ed., ed. Mussen, P.. Wiley. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1988) Innateness and plasticity in language acquisition. In: The teachability of language, ed. Rice, M. & Schiefelbusch, R. L.. Paul H. Brookes. [aSP]Google Scholar
Marr, D. (1982) Vision. W. H. Freeman. [rSP]Google Scholar
Marr, D. & Nishihara, H. K. (1978). Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three-dimensional shapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B200:269–94. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. (1969) The status of neo-Darwinism. In: Toward a theoretical biology, vol. 2, ed. Waddington, C. H.. Aldine. [MS-K]Google Scholar
(1974) The theory of games and the evolution of animal conflicts. Journal of Theoretical Biology 47:209–21. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1978) Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:3156. [MR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1982) Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge University Press. [MR]Google Scholar
(1984) Optimization theory in evolution. In: Conceptual issues in evolutionary biology, ed. Sober, E.. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1987) When learning guides evolution. Nature 329:762. [aSP]Google Scholar
Mayr, E. (1982) The growth of biological thought. Harvard University Press. [arSP]Google Scholar
(1983) How to carry out the adaptationist program? The American Naturalist 121:324–34. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, J. (1988) Feature geometry and dependency: A review. Phonetica 45:84108. [RJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMahon, T. A. & Bonner, J. T. eds. (1983) On size and life. Scientific American Library. [CO]Google Scholar
Mehler, J. (1985) Review of P. Lieberman's “The Biology and Evolution of Language.” Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 80:1558–60. [aSP]Google Scholar
Meltzoff, A. N. (1988) Imitation, objects, tools, and the rudiments of language in human ontogeny. Human Evolution. 3:4766. [PL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menn, L. (1986) Language acquisition, aphasia and phonotactic universals. In: Markedness, ed. Eckman, F. R., Moravcsik, E. A. & Wirth, J. R.. Plenum Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Miles, L. H. (1983) Apes and languages: The search for communicative competence. In Languages in primates, ed. de Luce, J. and Wilder, H. T.. Springer Verlag. [IU]Google Scholar
Miller, J. L. & Jusczyk, P. W. (1989) Seeking the neurological bases of speech perception. Cognition 33:111–37. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, J. S., Wier, C. C, Pastore, R. E., Kelly, W. J. & Dooling, R. J. (1976) Discrimination and labeling of noise-buzz sequence with varying noise-lead times: An example of categorical perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 60:410–17. [KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyamoto, M. M., Slightom, J. L. & Goodman, M. (1987) Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in the g[yh]-globin region]. Science 238:369–73. [aSP ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monod, J. (1970) Le hasard et la necessite. Seuil. [CPO]Google Scholar
(1971) Chance and necessity. Alfred A. Knopf. [CPO]Google Scholar
Moorhead, P. S. & Kaplan, M. M., eds. (1967) Mathematical challenges to the Neo-Darwinian interpretation of evolution. Wister Institute Press (Wistar Institute monograph 5). [rSP, CO]Google Scholar
Morgan, J. & Travis, C. (in press) Limits on, negative information in language input. Journal of Child Language. [aSP]Google Scholar
Morgan, J. L. (1986) From simple input to complex grammar. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Munhall, K. (1985) An examination of intra-articulator timing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 78:1548–53. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newmeyer, F. (in press) Functional explanation in linguistics and the origin of language. Language and Communication. [rSP, FJN]Google Scholar
Newport, E. L. (1981) Constraints on structure: Evidence from American Sign Language and language learning. In Aspects of the development of competence. Minnesota symposia on child psychology, vol 14, ed. Collins, W. A.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [JJF]Google Scholar
Newport, E. L. & Meier, R. P. (1985) The acquisition of American Sign Language. In: The cross-linguistic study of language acquisition, vol. 1: The data, ed. Slobin, D. I.. Erlbaum. [aSP]Google Scholar
Ohala, J. J. (1980) Chairman's introduction to the symposium on phonetic universals in phonological systems and their explanation. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1979, Institute of Phonetics, University of Copenhagen, ed. Ohala, J. J. & Jaeger, J. J.. Academic Press. [BL]Google Scholar
(1983) Cross-language use of pitch: An ethological view. Phonetica 40:118. [JK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohman, S. (1966) Coarticulation in VCV utterances: Spectrographic measurements. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 39:151–68. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Osherson, D. N., Stob, M. & Weinstein, S. (1985) Systems that learn. MIT Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Otero, C. P. (1988) Review-article on Fred D'Agostino's Chomsky's system of ideas (pub. 1986). In: Mind and language 3:306–19. [CPO]Google Scholar
Parker, IE. (1988) Auditory constraints on the perception of stop voicing: The influence of lower-tone frequency on judgments of tone-onset simultaneity. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 83:15971607. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, E., Diehl, R. & Kluender, K. (1986) Trading relations in speech and nonspeech. Perception and Psychophysics 39:129–42. [JK, KRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, S. T. & Gibson, K. R. (1979) A developmental model of the evolution of language and intelligence in early hominids. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:367408. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pastore, R. E., Ahroon, W. A., Baffuto, K. J., Friedman, C, Puleo, J. S. & Fink, E. A. (1977) Common factor model of categorical perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 3:686–96. [KRK]Google Scholar
Petitto, L. (1987) On the autonomy of language and gesture: Evidence from the acquisition of personal pronouns in American Sign Language. Cognition 27:152. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Piattelli-Palmarini, M., ed. (1980) Language and learning: The debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky. Harvard University Press. [CO]Google Scholar
Piattelli-Palmarini, M. (1989) Evolution, selection, and cognition: From “learning” to parameter setting in biology and the study of language Cognition 31:144. [aSP, LF, PL, MP-P, MR, DS, WW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pike, K. L. (1943) Phonetics. University of Michigan Press. [BL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pinker, S. (1979) Formal models of language learning. Cognition 7:217–83. [arSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
(1982) A theory of the acquisition of lexical interpretive grammars. In: The mental representation of grammatical relations, ed. Bresnan, J.. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [JT]Google Scholar
(1984) Language learnability and language development. Harvard University Press. [arSP, JT, EB]Google Scholar
(1989a) Language acquisition. In: Foundations of cognitive science, ed. Posner, M. I.. MIT Press. [arSP]Google Scholar
(1989b) Learnability and cognition: The acquisition of argument structure. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Pinker, S. & Prince, A. (1988) On language and connectionism: Analysis of a Parallel Distributed Processing model of language acquisition. Cognition 28:73193. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
(1989) The nature of human concepts: Evidence from an unusual source. Unpublished manuscript, MIT. [aSP]Google Scholar
Poizner, H., Klima, E. S. and Bellugi, U. (1987) What the hands reveal about the brain. MIT Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Popkin, R. H. (1979) The history of skepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza. University of California Press. [CO]Google Scholar
Premack, D. (1984) Pedagogy and aesthetics as sources of culture. In: Handbook of cognitive neuroscience, ed. Gazzaniga, M.. Plenum Press. [DP]Google Scholar
(1985) ‘Gavagai!’ or the future history of the animal language controversy. Cognition 19:207–96. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1986) Pangloss to Cyrano de Bergerac: “Nonsense, it's perfect!” Cognition 23:8188. [arSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1988) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? revisited. In: Machiavellian intelligence, ed. Byrne, R. & Whiten, A.. Oxford University Press. [DP]Google Scholar
(1990) The aesthetic basis of pedagogy. In: Festschrifft for J. J. Jenkins, ed. Hoffman, R. & Palermo, D.. Lawrence Erlbaum Press. [DP]Google Scholar
(in press) The infant's theory of self-propelled objects. Cognition. [DP]Google Scholar
Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1(4):515–26. [DP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Provine, R. R. (1986) Yawning as a stereotyped action pattern and releasing stimulus. Ethology 72:109–22. [ACC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raff, R. A. & Kaufman, J. C. (1983) Embryos, genes and evolution. MacMillan. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Ramachadran, V. S. (1990) Visual perception in people and machines. In: AI. and the eye, ed. Blake, A. & Troscianko, T.. Wiley. [JT]Google Scholar
Reichenbach, H. (1947) Elements-of symbolic logic. Macmillan. [aSP]Google Scholar
Remez, R. (1979) Adaptation of the category boundary between speech and nonspeech: A case against feature detectors. Cognitive. Psychology 11:3857. [KRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Repp, B. (1982) Phonetic trading relations and context effects: New experimental evidence for a speech mode of perception. Psychological Bulletin 92:129–32. [KRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Restak, R. M. (1979) The brain: The last frontier. Doubleday. [CO]Google Scholar
Ricklefs, R. (1973) Ecology. Chiron Press. [RGB]Google Scholar
Ridley, M. (1986a) The problems of evolution. Oxford University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1986b) Evolution and classification. Longman/John Wiley. [MR]Google Scholar
Rosch, E. (1978) Principles of categorization. In: Cognition and categorization, ed. Rosch, E. & Lloyd, B. B.. Erlbaum. [rSP]Google Scholar
Rose, M. (1980) The mental arms race amplifier. Human Ecology 8:285–93. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rozin, P. (1976) The evolution of intelligence and access to the cognitive unconscious. In: Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology, ed. Sprague, L. & Epstein, A. N.. Academic Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Rumbaugh, D. M., ed. (1977) Language learning by a chimpanzee: The LANA project. Academic Press. [IU]Google Scholar
Sagay, E. C. (1986) The representation of features and relations in nonlinear phonology. Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [RJ]Google Scholar
Samuels, M. L. (1972) Linguistic evolution. Cambridge University Press. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1986) Ape language: From conditioned response to symbol. Oxford University Press. [IU]Google Scholar
Schiitzenherger, M. P. (1967) Algorithms and the neo-Darwinian theory of evolution. In: Mathematical challenges to the neo-Darwinian interpretation of evolution, ed. Moorehead, P. S. & Kaplan, M. M.. Wistar Institute Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Seidenberg, M. S. (1986) Evidence from the great apes concerning the biological bases of language. In: Language learning and concept acquisition: Foundational issues, ed. Demopoulos, W. & Marras, A.. Ablex. [aSP, IU]Google Scholar
Seidenberg, M. S. & Petitto, L. A. (1979) Signing behavior in apes: A critical review. Cognition 7:177215. [aSP, EB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1987) Communication, symbolic communication, and language: Comment on Savage-Rumbaugh, McDonald, Sevcik, Hopkins, and Rupert (1986). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 116:279–87. [aSP, EB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shepard, R. N. (1986) Evolution of a mesh between principles of the mind and regularities of the world. In: The latest on the best: Essays on optimization and evolution, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT Press. [aSP, JT]Google Scholar
Shopen, T., ed. (1985) Language typology and syntactic description, 3 vols. Cambridge University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Shostak, M. (1983) Nisa: The life and words of a fKung woman. Random House. [rSP]Google Scholar
Simon, H. A. (1969) The architecture of complexity. In: The sciences of the artificial, ed. Simon, H.. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Simons, E. (1989) Human origins. Science 245:1343–50. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simpson, G. G. (1951) Horses. Oxford University Press. [ACC]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1957) Verbal behavior. Appleton. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slobin, D. I. (1977) Language change in childhood and in history. In: Language learning and thought, ed. Macnamara, J.. Academic Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1982) Universal and particular in the acquisition of language. In: Language acquisition, ed. Wanner, E. R. & Gleitman, L. R.. Cambridge University Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Smolensky, P. (1988) The proper treatment of connectionism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:174. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sober, E. (1984) The nature of selection. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. (1986) Relevance: Communication and cognition. Harvard University Press. [DS, IU]Google Scholar
(1987) Precis of “Relevance: Communication and Cognition.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:697754. [DS]Google Scholar
Stebbins, G. L. (1982) Darwifi to DNA, molecules to humanity. Freeman. [aSP]Google Scholar
Stebbins, G. L. & Ayala, F. J. (1981) Is a new evolutionary synthesis necessary? Science 213:967–71. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steele, S., Akmajian, A., Demers, R., Jelinek, E., Kitagawa, C, Oehrle, R. & Wasow, T. (1981) An encyclopedia of AUX: A study of cross-linguistic equivalence. MIT Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
Stringer, C. B. & Andrews, P. (1988) Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. Science 239:1263–68. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1987) The phoneme as a perceptuomotor structure. In: Language perception and production, ed. Allport, A., MacKay, D., Prinz, W. & Scheerer, E.. Academic Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Studdert-Kennedy, M. & Lane, H. (1980) Clues from the differences between signed and spoken languages. In: Signed and spoken language: Biological constraints on linguistic form, ed. Bellugi, U. & Studdert-Kennedy, M.. Verlag Chemie. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Studdert-Kennedy, M., Liberman, A. M., Harris, K. S. & Cooper, F. S. (1970) Motor theory of speech perception: A reply to Lane's critical review. Psychological Review 77:234–49. [KRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stuss, D. T. & Benson, D. F.. (1986) The frontal lobes. Raven. [PL]Google Scholar
Symons, D. (1979) The evolution of human sexuality. Oxford University Press. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1987) If we're all Darwinians, what's the fuss about? In: Sociohiology and psychology, ed. Crawford, C., Smith, M. & Krebs, D.. Lawrence Erlbaum. [IU]Google ScholarPubMed
(1989) A critique of Darwinian anthropology. Ethology and Sociohiology 10:131–44. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Talmy, L. (1983) How language structures space. In: Spatial orientation: Theory, research, and applicaiton, ed. Pick, H. & Acredolo, L.. Plenum. [aSP]Google Scholar
(1988) Force dynamics in language and cognition. Cognitive Science 12:49100. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terrace, H. T. (1985) In the beginning was the “name.” American Psychologist 40:1011–28. [IU]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tobias, P. V. (1981) The emergence of man in Africa and beyond. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B292:4356. [aSP, WW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tolman, E. C. & Brunswik, E. (1935) The organism and the causal texture of the environment. Psychological Review 42:4377. [rSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomlin, R. S., ed. (1987) Coherence and grounding in discourse. John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (in press a) On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: The role of genetics and adaptation. Journal of Personality. [aSP, AN]Google Scholar
(in press b) The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and Sociohiology. [rSP]Google Scholar
Tooby, J. & DeVore, I. (1987) The reconstruction of hominid evolution through strategic modeling. In: The evolution of human behavior: Primate models, ed., Kinzey, W. G.. SUNY Press. [arSP]Google Scholar
Travis, L. (1984) Parameters and effects of word order variation. Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [aSP]Google Scholar
Trivers, R. L. (1971) The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology 46:3557. [arSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1974) Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist 14:249–64. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuller, B. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1984) The timing of articulatory gestures: Evidence for relational invariants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 76:1030–36. [JK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tuller, B., Harris, K. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1982) Interarticulator phasing as an index of temporal regularity in speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 8:460–72. [JK]Google Scholar
Tversky, A. &. Kahneman, D. (1981) The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science 211:453–58. [aSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ulbaek, I. (1989) Evolution, language and cognition. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (in Danish; English abstract). [IU]Google Scholar
(in press) Language origin: The role of animal cognition. In: The origin of human language, ed. B. Chiarelli. Kluwer Academic Press. [IU]Google Scholar
Viertel, J. (1966) Concepts of language underlying the 18th century controversy about the origins of language. Monograph Series on Language and Linguistics 19:109–32. [CO]Google Scholar
Von Helmholtz, H. (1885) Treatise on physiological optics (trans. Southall, J. P. S.). Dover. [rSP]Google Scholar
Von Humboldt, W. (1836/1972) Linguistic variability and intellectual development, (trans. Buck, G. C. & Raven, R. A.) University of Pennsylvania Press. [MS-K]Google Scholar
Wang, W. S-Y. (1976) Language change. In: Origin and evolution of language and speech, ed. S. R. Hamad, H. S. Steklis & J. Lancaster. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280. [aSP]Google Scholar
Watson, J. D., Hopkins, N. H., Roberts, J. W., Steitz, J. A. & Weiner, A. M. (1987) Molecular biology of the gene, 4th ed.Benjamin/Cumrnings. [CO]Google Scholar
Wexler, K. (1981) Some issues in the theory of learaability. In: The logical problem of language acquisition, ed. Baker, C. L. and McCarthy, J.. MIT Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Wexler, K. & Culicover, P. (1980) Formal principles of language acquisition. MIT Press. [arSP, JT]Google Scholar
Wexler, K. & Manzini, R. (1984) Parameters and leamability in binding theory. In: Parameter setting, ed. Roeper, T. & Williams, E.. Reidel. [aSP]Google Scholar
Wilford, J. N. (1985) The riddle of the dinosaur. Random House. [rSP]Google Scholar
Williams, G. C. (1966) Adaptation and natural selection: A critique of some current evolutionary thought. Princeton University Press. [arSP, JT]Google Scholar
Wilson, A. C. (1985) The molecular basis of evolution. Scientific American 253:164–73. [CO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wittgenstein, L. (1953) Philosophical investigations. Blackwell. [AN]Google Scholar
Wright, R. (1988) Three scientists and their gods. Harper & Row. [rSP]Google Scholar
(1990) Review of S. J. Gould's “Wonderful Life.” The New Republic Jan. 29:2835. [rSP]Google Scholar
(1967) Comments on the preliminary working papers of Eden and Waddington. In: Mathematical challenges to the neo-Darwinian interpretation of evolution, ed. Moorehead, P. S. & Kaplan, M. M.. Wistar Institute Press. [rSP]Google Scholar
Yellen, J. E. (1990) The transformation of the Kalahari! Kung. Scientific American April:96–105. [rSP]Google Scholar
Zubrow, E. (1987) The origin and dispersal of modem humans: Behavioral and biological perspectives, paper presented at the conference University of Cambridge, England, March 22–27. Science 237:1290–91. [aSP]Google Scholar