Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-x64cq Total loading time: 0.635 Render date: 2022-05-22T14:53:55.386Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The shared circuits model (SCM): How control, mirroring, and simulation can enable imitation, deliberation, and mindreading

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 April 2008

Susan Hurley
Affiliation:
Department of Philosophy, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TB, and All Souls College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 4AL, United KingdomSusan.hurley@bristol.ac.ukhttp://eis.bris.ac.uk/~plslh/

Abstract

Imitation, deliberation, and mindreading are characteristically human sociocognitive skills. Research on imitation and its role in social cognition is flourishing across various disciplines. Imitation is surveyed in this target article under headings of behavior, subpersonal mechanisms, and functions of imitation. A model is then advanced within which many of the developments surveyed can be located and explained. The shared circuits model (SCM) explains how imitation, deliberation, and mindreading can be enabled by subpersonal mechanisms of control, mirroring, and simulation. It is cast at a middle, functional level of description, that is, between the level of neural implementation and the level of conscious perceptions and intentional actions. The SCM connects shared informational dynamics for perception and action with shared informational dynamics for self and other, while also showing how the action/perception, self/other, and actual/possible distinctions can be overlaid on these shared informational dynamics. It avoids the common conception of perception and action as separate and peripheral to central cognition. Rather, it contributes to the situated cognition movement by showing how mechanisms for perceiving action can be built on those for active perception.;>;>The SCM is developed heuristically, in five layers that can be combined in various ways to frame specific ontogenetic or phylogenetic hypotheses. The starting point is dynamic online motor control, whereby an organism is closely attuned to its embedding environment through sensorimotor feedback. Onto this are layered functions of prediction and simulation of feedback, mirroring, simulation of mirroring, monitored inhibition of motor output, and monitored simulation of input. Finally, monitored simulation of input specifying possible actions plus inhibited mirroring of such possible actions can generate information about the possible as opposed to actual instrumental actions of others, and the possible causes and effects of such possible actions, thereby enabling strategic social deliberation. Multiple instances of such shared circuits structures could be linked into a network permitting decomposition and recombination of elements, enabling flexible control, imitative learning, understanding of other agents, and instrumental and strategic deliberation. While more advanced forms of social cognition, which require tracking multiple others and their multiple possible actions, may depend on interpretative theorizing or language, the SCM shows how layered mechanisms of control, mirroring, and simulation can enable distinctively human cognitive capacities for imitation, deliberation, and mindreading.

Type
Main Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adolphs, R. (2002) Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: Psychological and neurological mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 1:2161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Akins, C., Klein, E. & Zentall, T. (2002) Imitative learning in Japanese quail (Conturnix japonica) using the bidirectional control procedure. Animal Learning and Behavior 30:275–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akins, C. & Zentall, T. (1996) Imitative learning in male Japanese quail (Conturnix japonica) using the two-action method. Journal of Comparative Psychology 110:316–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akins, C. & Zentall, T. (1998) Imitation in Japanese quail: The role of reinforcement of demonstrator responding. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 5:694–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anisfeld, M. (1979) Interpreting “imitative” responses in early infancy. Science 205:214–15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anisfeld, M. (1984) Language development from birth to three Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Anisfeld, M. (1991) Neonatal imitation. Developmental Review 11:6097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anisfeld, M. (1996) Only tongue protrusion modeling is matched by neonates. Developmental Review 16:149–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anisfeld, M. (2005) No compelling evidence to dispute Piaget's timetable of the development of representational imitation in infancy. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 107–31. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Anisfeld, M., Turkewitz, G., Rose, S., Rosenberg, F., Sheiber, F., Couturier-Fagan, D., Ger, J. & Sommer, I. (2001) No compelling evidence that newborns imitate oral gestures. Infancy 2:111–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arbib, M. (2005) From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(2):105–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arbib, M., Billard, A., Iacoboni, M. & Oztop, E. (2000) Synthetic brain imaging: Grasping, mirror neurons and imitation. Neural Networks 13:975–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arbib, M. & Rizzolatti, G. (1997) Neural expectations: A possible evolutionary path from manual skills to language. Communication and Cognition 29:393424. (Reprinted in The nature of concepts: Evolution, structure, and representation, ed. P. van Loocke, pp. 128–54. Routledge.Google Scholar
Baldwin, D. (1995) Understanding the link between joint attention and language. In: Joint Attention: Its origin and role in development, ed. Moore, C. & Dunham, P., pp. 131–58. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Baldwin, J. (1896) A new factor in evolution. American Naturalist 30:s441–51, 536–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bargh, J. (1999) The most powerful manipulative messages are hiding in plain sight. The Chronicle of Higher Education 45 (January 29):B6.Google Scholar
Bargh, J. (2005) Bypassing the will: Towards demystifying the nonconscious control of social behavior. In: The new unconscious, ed. Hassin, R., Uleman, J. & Bargh, J.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bargh, J. & Chartrand, T. (1999) The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist 54:462–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bargh, J., Chen, M. & Burrows, L. (1996) The automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait concept and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71:230–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bargh, J., Gollwitzer, P., Lee-Chai, A., Barndollar, K. & Trötschel, R. (2001) The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81:1014–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barkley, R. A. (2001) The executive functions and self-regulation: An evolutionary neuropsychological perspective. Neuropsychology Review 11(1):129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bekkering, H. & Wohlschläger, A. (2002) Action perception and imitation: A tutorial. In: Attention and performance XIX. Common mechanisms in perception and action, ed. Prinz, W. & Hommel, B., pp. 294314. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bermúdez, J. (2000) Personal and subpersonal: A difference without a distinction. Philosophical Explorations (Special Issue) 2:6382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bermúdez, J. (2003) Nonconceptual mental content. In: The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, Spring 2003 edition, ed. Zalta, E. N.. Stanford University Press. Available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2003/entries/content-nonconceptual/.Google Scholar
Blackmore, S. (1999) The meme machine Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Blackmore, S. (2000) The meme's eye view. In: Darwinizing culture: The status of memetics as a science, ed. Aunger, R., pp. 2542. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Blackmore, S. (2001) Evolution and memes: The human brain as a selective imitation device. Cybernetics and Systems 32:225–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blakemore, S. & Decety, J. (2001) From the perception of action to the understanding of intention. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 2:561–67.Google ScholarPubMed
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. (1982) Cultural transmission and the evolution of cooperative behavior. Human Ecology 10:325–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. (1985) Culture and the evolutionary process University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Brass, M. (1999) Imitation and ideomotor compatibility. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Munich, Germany.Google Scholar
Brass, M., Bekkering, H. & Prinz, W. (2001) Movement observation affects movement execution in a simple response task. Acta Psychologica 106:322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brass, M., Derrfuss, J., Matthew-von Cramon, G., von Cramon, D. Y.. (2003) Imitative response tendencies in patients with frontal brain lesions. Neuropsychology 17(2):265–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brooks, R. (1999) Cambrian intelligence MIT Press.Google Scholar
Buccino, G., Binkofski, F., Fink, G. R., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., Seitz, R. J., Zilles, K., Rizzolatti, G. & Freund, H.-J. (2001) Action observation activates premotor and parietal areas in a somatotopic manner: An fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience 13:400404.Google Scholar
Byrne, R. (1995) The thinking ape: Evolutionary origins of intelligence Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, R. (1998) Imitation: The contributions of priming and program-level copying. In: Intersubjective communication and emotion in early ontogeny, ed. Braten, S., pp. 228–44. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Byrne, R. (1999) Imitation without intentionality: Using string parsing to copy the organization of behavior. Animal Cognition 2:6372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, R. (2002a) Imitation of complex novel actions: What does the evidence from animals mean? Advances in the Study of Behavior 31:77105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, R. (2002b) Seeing actions as hierarchically organized structures: Great ape manual skills. In: The imitative mind, ed. Meltzoff, A. & Prinz, W., pp. 122–40. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, R. (2005) Detecting, understanding, and explaining animal imitation. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 225–42. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Byrne, R. & Russon, A. (1998) Learning by imitation: A hierarchical approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:667721.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrne, R. & Whiten, A., eds. (1988) Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes and humans Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Call, J., Agnetta, B. & Tomasello, M. (2000) Social cues that chimpanzees do and do not use to find hidden objects. Animal Cognition 3:2334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Call, J. & Carpenter, M. (2002) Three sources of information in social learning. In: Imitation in animals and artifacts, ed. Dautenhahn, K. & Nehaniv, C., pp. 211–28. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Call, J. & Tomasello, M. (1994) The social learning of tool use by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Human Evolution 9:297313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Call, J. & Tomasello, M. (1999) A nonverbal theory of mind test: The performance of children and apes. Child Development 70:381–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, M., Akhtar, N. & Tomasello, M. (1998) Fourteen- through 18-month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. Infant Behavior and Development 21:315–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chartrand, T. & Bargh, J. (1999) The chameleon effect: The perception-behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76:893910.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chartrand, T., Maddux, W. & Lakin, J. (2005) Beyond the perception-behavior link: The ubiquitous utility and motivational moderators of nonconscious mimicry. In: The new unconscious, ed. Hassin, R., Uleman, J.& Bargh, J.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Christiansen, M. (1994) Infinite languages, finite minds: Connectionism, learning and linguistic structure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
Christiansen, M. (2005) On the relation between language and (mimetic) culture. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 391–96. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Christiansen, M. H. & Kirby, S. (2003) Language evolution: Consensus and controversies. Trends in Cognitive Science 7(7):300307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craighero, L., Buccino, G. & Rizzolatti, G. (2002) Speech listening specifically modulates the excitability of tongue muscles: A TMS study. European Journal of Neuroscience 15:399402.Google Scholar
Csibra, G. (2005) Mirror neurons and action observation: Is simulation involved? In: What do mirror neurons mean? Interdisciplines Web Forum, available at: http://www.interdisciplines.org/mirror/papers/4.Google Scholar
Danielson, P. (1991) Closing the compliance dilemma: How it's rational to be moral in a Lamarckian world. In: Contractarianism and rational choice, ed. Vallentyne, P., pp. 291322. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Danielson, P. (1992) Artificial morality: Virtuous robots for virtual games Routledge.Google Scholar
Davies, M. & Stone, T. (1995a) Folk psychology. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Davies, M. & Stone, T. (1995b) Mental simulation Blackwell.Google Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1976/1989) The selfish gene Oxford University Press (Original publication 1976; second edition 1989.)Google Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1982) The extended phenotype Oxford University Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Deacon, T. (1997) The symbolic species: The coevolution of language and the human brain Penguin Books/Norton.Google Scholar
Decety, J. & Chaminade, T. (2003) Neural correlates of feeling sympathy. Neuropsychologia 41(2):127–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J. & Chaminade, T. (2005) The neurophysiology of imitation and intersubjectivity. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 119–40. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Decety, J., Grèzes, J., Costes, N., Perani, D., Jeannerod, M., Procyk, E., Grassi, F. & Fazio, F. (1997) Brain activity during observation of action: Influence of action content and subject's strategy. Brain 120:1763–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dennett, D. (1969) Content and consciousness Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Dennett, D. (1991) Consciousness explained Little, Brown.Google Scholar
Dennett, D. (1995) Darwin's dangerous idea: Evolution and the meanings of life Simon & Schuster/Penguin.Google Scholar
Dijksterhuis, A. (2005) Why we are social animals: The high road to imitation as social glue. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2: Imitation, human development, and culture, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 207–20. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Dijksterhuis, A. & Bargh, J. (2001) The perception-behavior expressway: Automatic effects of social perception on social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 33:140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dijksterhuis, A. & van Knippenberg, A., (1998) The relation between perception and behavior or how to win a game of Trivial Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:865–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., & Rizzolatti, G.. (1992) Understanding motor events: A neurophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research 91:176–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eidelberg, L. (1929) Experimenteller beitrag zum Mechanismus der Imitationsbewegung, Jahresbucher fur Psychiatrie und Neurologie 45:170–73.Google Scholar
Elton, M. (2000) Consciousness: Only at the personal level. Philosophical Explorations (Special Issue) 3(1):2542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fadiga, L., Craighero, L., Buccino, G. & Rizzolatti, G. (2002) Speech listening specifically modulates the excitability of tongue muscles: A TMS study. European Journal of Neuroscience 15:399402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Pavesi, G. & Rizzolatti, G. (1995) Motor facilitation during action observation: A magnetic stimulation study. Journal of Neurophysiology 73:2608–11.Google ScholarPubMed
Flanagan, J., Vetter, P., Johansson, R. & Wolpert, D. (2003) Prediction precedes control in motor learning. Current Biology 13:146–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fogassi, L., Ferrari, P. F., Gesierich, B., Rozzi, S., Chersi, F. & Rizzolatti, G. (2005) Parietal lobe: From action organization to intention understanding. Science 308:662–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frith, C. (1992) The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia Erlbaum/Taylor & Francis.Google ScholarPubMed
Frith, C., Blakemore, S. & Wolpert, D. (2000a) Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 355:1771–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frith, C. & Wolpert, D. (2004) The neuroscience of social interaction Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Galef, B. (1988) Imitation in animals: History, definition, and interpretation of data from the psychological laboratory. In: Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives, ed. Zentall, T. & Galef, B., pp. 328. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Galef, B. (1998) Recent progress in the study of imitation and social learning in animals. In: Advances in psychological science, vol. 2: Biological and cognitive aspects, ed. Sabourin, M., Craik, F. & Roberts, M., pp. 275–79. Psychological Press.Google Scholar
Galef, B. (2005) Breathing new life into the study of animal imitation: What and when do chimpanzees imitate? In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 295–97. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Gallese, V. (2000) The inner sense of action: Agency and motor representations. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7(10):2340.Google Scholar
Gallese, V. (2001) The “shared manifold” hypothesis: From mirror neurons to empathy. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8:3350.Google Scholar
Gallese, V. (2003) The manifold nature of interpersonal relations: The quest for a common mechanism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 358:517–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gallese, V. (2005) “Being like me”: Self-other identity, mirror neurons and empathy. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 101–18. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Gallese, V. & Goldman, A. (1998) Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mindreading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2:493501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallese, V., Keysers, C. & Rizzolatti, G. (2004) A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8(9):396403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gergely, G., Bekkering, H. & Király, I. (2002) Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature 415:755.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gil-White, F. (2005) Common misunderstandings of memes (and genes): The promise and the limits of the genetic analogy to cultural transmission processes. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol.,2 ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 317–38. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Goldman, A. (1989) Interpretation psychologized. Mind and Language 4:161–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldman, A. (1992) In defense of the simulation theory. Mind and Language 7:104–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldman, A. (2005) Imitation, mindreading, and simulation. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp.7993. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Gordon, R. (1986) Folk psychology as simulation. Mind and Language 1:159–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. (1995a) Simulation without introspection or inference from me to you. In: Folk psychology, ed. Davies, M. & Stone, T., pp. 5367. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Gordon, R. (1995b) Sympathy, simulation, and the impartial spectator. Ethics 105:727–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. (1996) “Radical” simulationism. In: Theories of theories of mind, ed. Carruthers, P. & Smith, P., pp. 1121. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. (2002) Simulation and reason explanation: The radical view. Philosophical Topics (Special Issue) 29:175–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. (2005) Intentional agents like myself. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 95106. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Gray, J. (1991) The neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(1):184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. (2004) Consciousness: Creeping up on the hard problem Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Graziano, M., Taylor, C., Moore, T. & Cooke, D. (2002) The cortical control of movement revisited. Neuron 36:349–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenwald, A. (1970) Sensory feedback mechanisms in performance control: With special reference to the ideo-motor mechanism. Psychological Review 77:7399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenwald, A. (1972) On doing two things at once: Time sharing as a function of ideomotor compatibility. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94:5257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grush, R. (1995) Emulation and cognition. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Philosophy, University of California at San Diego.Google Scholar
Grush, R. (2004) The emulation theory of representation: Motor control, imagery, and perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:377442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hare, B., Call, J., Agnetta, B. & Tomasello, M. (2000) Chimpanzees know what conspecifics do and do not see. Animal Behaviour 59:771–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hare, B., Call, J. & Tomasello, M. (2001) Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know and do not know? Animal Behaviour 61:139–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hari, R., Forss, N., Avikainen, S., Kirveskari, E., Salenius, S. & Rizzolatti, G. (1998) Activation of human primary motor cortex during action observation: A neuromagnetic study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95:15061–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, P. & Want, S. (2005) On learning what not to do: The emergence of selective imitation in young children's tool use. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 148–62. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Haruno, M., Wolpert, D. & Kawato, M. (2001) Mosaic model for sensorimotor learning and control. Neural Computation 13:2201–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heiser, M., Iacoboni, M., Maeda, F., Marcus, J. & Mazziotta, J. C. (2003) The essential role of Broca's area in imitation. European Journal of Neuroscience 17:1123–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henrich, J. & Boyd, R. (1998) The evolution of conformist transmission and the emergence of between-group differences. Evolution and Human Behavior 19:215–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henrich, J. & Gil-White, F. (2001) The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred status as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior 22:165–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herman, L. (2002) Vocal, social, and self-imitation by bottlenosed dolphins. In: Imitation in animals and artifacts, ed. Dautenhahn, K. & Nehaniv, C., pp. 63106. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Hesslow, G. (2002) Conscious thought as simulation of behaviour and perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:242–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyes, C. (1996) Genuine imitation? In: Social learning in animals: The roots of culture, ed. Heyes, C. & Galef, B. Jr., pp. 371–89. Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyes, C. (1998) Theory of mind in nonhuman primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:101–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyes, C. (2001) Causes and consequences of imitation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5:253–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyes, C. (2005) Imitation by association. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1: Mechanisms of imitation and imitation in animals, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 157–76. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Heyes, C. & Dickinson, A. (1993) The intentionality of animal action. In: Consciousness, ed. Davies, M. & Humphreys, G.. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Heyes, C. & Galef, B., eds. (1996) Social learning in animals: The roots of culture Academic.Google Scholar
Hornsby, J. (2000) Personal and sub-personal: A defence of Dennett's early distinction. Philosophical Explorations (Special Issue) 3:624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howard, J. (1988) Co-operation in the prisoner's dilemma. Theory and Decision 24:203–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunt, G. & Gray, R. (2003) Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B: Biological Sciences 270:867–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurley, S. (2001) Perception and action: Alternative views. Synthese 291:340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurley, S. (2005a) Social heuristics that make us smarter. Philosophical Psychology 18(5):585611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurley, S. (2005b) The shared circuits model: How control, mirroring and simulation can enable imitation and mindreading. In: What do mirror neurons mean? Interdisciplines Web Forum. Available at: http://www.interdisciplines.org/mirror/papers/5.Google Scholar
Hurley, S. (2006b) Making sense of animals. In: Rational animals? ed. Hurley, S. & Nudds, M.. Oxford University Press. (Revised version of Hurley, S. [2003] Animal action in the space of reasons. Mind and Language 18:231–56.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurley, S. (in press) Varieties of externalism. In: The extended mind, ed. Menary, R.. Ashgate.Google Scholar
Hurley, S. & Chater, N., eds. (2005a) Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vols 1 & 2. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Hurley, S. (2005b) Introduction: The importance of imitation. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1: Mechanisms of imitation and imitation in animals, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 152. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Hurley, S. & Noë, A. (2003) Neural plasticity and consciousness. Biology and Philosophy 18:131–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurley, S. L. (1989) Natural reasons: Personality and polity Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hurley, S. L. (1998) Consciousness in action Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Iacoboni, M. (2005) Understanding others: Imitation, language, empathy. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1: Mechanisms of imitation and imitation in animals, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 7799. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J. & Rizzolatti, G. (2005) Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system. PloS Biology 3(3):529–35 e79.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeannerod, M. (1997) The cognitive neuroscience of action Blackwell.Google Scholar
Jeannerod, M. (2001) Neural simulation of action: A unifying mechanism for motor cognition. Neuroimage 14:S103S109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kinsbourne, M. (2005) Imitation as entrainment: Brain mechanisms and social consequences. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2: Imitation, human development, and culture, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 163–72. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Krebs, J. & Dawkins, R. (1984) Animal signals: Mindreading and manipulation. In: Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach, 2nd edition, ed. Krebs, J. & Davies, N., pp. 380402. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Lhermitte, F. (1983) “Utilization behaviour” and its relation to lesions of the frontal lobes. Brain 106:237–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lhermitte, F. (1986) Human autonomy and the frontal lobes: Part II. Annals of Neurology 19:335–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lhermitte, F., Pillon, B. & Serdaru, M. (1986) Human autonomy and the frontal lobes. Part I: Imitation and utilization behavior: A neuropsychological study of 75 patients. Annals of Neurology 19:326–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marken, R. (2002) More mindreadings: Methods and models in the study of purpose New View.Google Scholar
McDowell, J. (1994) The content of perceptual experience. Philosophical Quarterly 44:190205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meltzoff, A. (1988a) Infant imitation after a 1-week delay: Long-term memory for novel acts and multiple stimuli. Developmental Psychology 24:470–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. (1990) Foundations for developing a concept of self: The role of imitation in relating self to other and the value of social mirroring, social modeling, and self practice in infancy. In: The self in transition: Infancy to childhood, ed. Cicchetti, D. & Beeghly, M., pp. 139–64. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Meltzoff, A. (1995) Understanding of the intentions of others: Re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. Developmental Psychology 31:838–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. (1996) The human infant as imitative generalist: A 20-year progress report on infant imitation with implications for comparative psychology. In: Social learning in animals: The roots of culture, ed. Heyes, C. & Galef, B. Jr., pp. 347–70. Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meltzoff, A. (2002a) Elements of a developmental theory of imitation. In: The imitative mind, ed. Meltzoff, A. & Prinz, W., pp. 1941. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. (2002b) Imitation as a mechanism of social cognition: Origins of empathy, theory of mind, and the representation of action. In: Handbook of childhood cognitive development, ed. Goswami, U., pp. 625. Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meltzoff, A. (2005) Imitation and other minds: The “like me” hypothesis. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 5577. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. (1977) Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198:7578.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. (1983a) Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198:7578.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. (1983b) Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures. Child Development 54(3):702709.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. (1989) Imitation in newborn infants: Exploring the range of gestures imitated and the underlying mechanisms. Developmental Psychology 25(6):954–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. (1997) Explaining facial imitation: A theoretical model. Early Development and Parenting 6:179–92.3.0.CO;2-R>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. (1999) Persons and representations: Why infant imitation is important for theories of human development. In: Imitation in infancy, ed. Nadel, J. & Butterworth, G., pp. 935. Cambridge Studies in Cognitive and Perceptual Development. Cambridge University Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. (2000) Resolving the debate about early imitation. In: Infant development: The essential readings, ed. Muir, D., pp. 167–81. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Miall, R. C. (2003) Connecting mirror neurons and forward models. Neuroreport 14(16):13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milgram, S. (1963) Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67:371–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Millikan, R. (1991) Perceptual content and Fregean myth. Mind 100(4):439–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Millikan, R. (1993) Content and vehicle. In: Spatial representation, ed. Eilan, N., McCarthy, R. & Brewer, B., pp. 256–68. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Millikan, R. (2005) Some reflections on the simulation theory–theory theory debate. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 182–88. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Millikan, R. (2006) Styles of rationality. In: Rational animals? ed. Hurley, S. & Nudds, M., pp. 117–26. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milner, A. D. & Goodale, M. (1995) The visual brain in action Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nagell, K., Olguin, R. & Tomasello, M. (1993) Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology 107:174–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakahara, K. & Miyashita, Y. (2005) Understanding intentions: Through the looking glass. Science 308:644–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nehaniv, C. & Dautenhahn, K. (2002) The correspondence problem. In: Imitation in animals and artifacts, ed. Dautenhahn, K. & Nehaniv, C., pp. 4261. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Noë, A. (2004) Action in perception MIT Press.Google Scholar
O'Regan, J. K. & Noë, A. (2001a) A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:883917.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Regan, J. K. & Noë, A. (2001b) Acting out our sensory experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:955–75.Google Scholar
O'Regan, J. K. & Noë, A. (2001c) What it is like to see: A sensorimotor theory of perceptual experience. Synthese 129:79103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oztop, E., Wolpert, D. & Kawato, M. (2005) Mental state inference using visual control parameters. Cognitive Brain Research 29:129–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pascual-Leone, A. (2001) The brain that plays music and is changed by it. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 930:315–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pepperberg, I. (1999) The Alex studies: Cognitive and communicative studies on grey parrots Harvard University Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Pepperberg, I. (2002) Allospecific referential speech acquisition in Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus): Evidence for multiple levels of avian vocal imitation. In: Imitation in animals and artifacts, ed. Dautenhahn, K. & Nehaniv, C., pp. 109–31. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Pepperberg, I. (2005) Insights into vocal imitation in Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 243–62. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Peterson, G. & Trapold, M. (1982) Expectancy mediation of concurrent conditional discriminations. American Journal of Psychology 95:571–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Povinelli, D. (1996) Chimpanzee theory of mind? In: Theories of theories of mind, ed. Carruthers, P. & Smith, P., pp. 293329. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povinelli, D. (2000) Folk physics for apes Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Povinelli, D. & Vonk, J. (2006) We don't need a microscope to explore the chimpanzee's mind. In: Rational animals? ed. Hurley, S. & Nudds, M.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Powers, W. T. (1973) Behavior: The control of perception Aldine.Google Scholar
Preston, S. D. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002) Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25(1):172.Google ScholarPubMed
Prinz, J. (2005) Imitation and moral development. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol. 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 267–82. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Prinz, W. (1984) Modes of linkage between perception and action. In: Cognition and motor processes, ed. Prinz, W. & Sanders, A. F., pp. 185–93. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prinz, W. (1987) Ideomotor action. In: Perspectives on perception and action, ed. Heuer, H. & Sanders, A., pp. 4776. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Prinz, W. (1990) A common-coding approach to perception and action. In: Relationships between perception and action: Current approaches, ed. Neumann, O. & Prinz, W., pp. 167201. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prinz, W. (2002) Experimental approaches to imitation. In: The imitative mind, ed. Meltzoff, A. & Prinz, W., pp. 143–62. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prinz, W. (2005) An ideomotor approach to imitation. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 141–56. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Rakoczy, H., Warneken, F. & Tomasello, M. (2007) “This way!”, “No, that way!” – 3-year olds know that two people can have mutually incompatible desires. Cognitive Development 22:4768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rietveld, E. (in preparation) Affordance selection and monitoring. Paper presented at Philisophy of Psychology, Neuroscience and Biology Graduate Conference, All-Souls, Oxford, April 2005.Google Scholar
Rizzolatti, G. (2005) The mirror neuron system and imitation. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 5576. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Rizzolatti, G. & Arbib, M. (1998) Language within our grasp. Trends in Neuroscience 21:188–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rizzolatti, G. & Arbib, M. (1999) From grasping to speech: Imitation might provide a missing link Reply. Trends in Neuroscience 22:152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rizzolatti, G., Camarda, R., Fogassi, M., Gentilucci, M., Luppino, G. & Matelli, M. (1988) Functional organization of inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey: II. Area F5 and the control of distal movements. Experimental Brain Research 71:491507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L. & Gallese, V. (2002) From mirror neurons to imitation: Facts and speculations. In: The imitative mind: Development, evolution and brain bases, ed. Meltzoff, A. & Prinz, W., pp. 247–66. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V. & Fogassi, L. (1995) Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research 3:131–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Matelli, M., Bettinardi, V., Paulesu, E., Perani, D. & Fazio, F. (1996) Localization of grasp representation in humans by PET: Observation versus execution. Experimental Brain Research 111:246–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruby, P. & Decety, J. (2001) Effect of subjective perspective taking during simulation of actions: A PET investigation of agency. Nature Neuroscience 4:546–50.Google ScholarPubMed
Schmitt, A. & Grammer, K. (1997) Social intelligence and success: Don't be too clever in order to be smart. In: Machiavellian intelligence II: Extensions and evaluations, ed. Whiten, A. & Byrne, R., pp. 86111. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stamenov, M. & Gallese, V., eds. (2002) Mirror neurons and the evolution of brain and language John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sterelny, K. (2003) Thought in a hostile world Blackwell.Google Scholar
Thorndike, E. (1898) Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative process in animals. Psychological Review Monograph Supplement 2(4):551–53.Google Scholar
Tomasello, M. (1996) Do apes ape? In: Social learning in animals: The roots of culture, ed. Heyes, C. & Galef, B. Jr., pp. 319–46. Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomasello, M. (1998) Emulation learning and cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:703704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomasello, M. (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Tomasello, M. & Call, J. (1997) Primate cognition Oxford University Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Tomasello, M. & Call, J. (2006) Do chimpanzees know what others see – or only what they are looking at? In: Rational animals? ed. Hurley, S. & Nudds, M.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tomasello, M. & Carpenter, M. (2005) Intention reading and imitative learning. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol 2, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 133–48. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Tomasello, M., Kruger, A. & Ratner, H. (1993) Cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:495552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Umiltà, M., Kohler, E., Gallese, V., Fogassi, L., Fadiga, L., Keysers, C. & Rizzolatti, G. (2001) I know what you are doing: A neurophysiological study. Neuron 31:155–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Voelkl, B. & Huber, L. (2000) True imitation in marmosets. Animal Behaviour 60:195202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weir, A., Chappell, J. & Kacelnik, A. (2002) Shaping of hooks in New Caledonian crows. Science 297:981.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whiten, A. (1996) When does smart behaviour-reading become mindreading? In: Theories of theories of mind, ed. Carruthers, P.& Smith, P., pp. 277–92. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiten, A. (1997) The Machiavellian mindreader. In: Machiavellian intelligence II: Extensions and evaluations, ed. Whiten, A. & Byrne, R., pp. 144–73. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiten, A. (2002) Imitation of sequential and hierarchical structure in action: Experimental studies with children and chimpanzees. In: Imitation in animals and artifacts, ed. Dautenhahn, K. & Nehaniv, C., pp. 191209. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Whiten, A. & Byrne, R., eds. (1997) Machiavellian intelligence II: Extensions and evaluations. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiten, A., Custance, D., Gomez, J., Teixidor, P. & Bard, K. (1996) Imitative learning of artificial fruit processing in children (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 110:314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiten, A., Horner, V. & Marshall-Pescini, S. (2005b) Selective imitation in child and chimpanzee: A window on the construal of others' actions. In: Perspectives on imitation: From neuroscience to social science, vol 1, ed. Hurley, S. & Chater, N., pp. 263–83. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Williams, J., Whiten, A., Suddendorf, T. & Perrett, D. (2001) Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 25:287–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolpert, D. (1997) Computational approaches to motor control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1:209–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolpert, D., Doya, K. & Kawato, M. (2003) A unifying computational framework for motor control and social interaction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 358:593602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolpert, D. & Kawato, M. (1998) Multiple paired forward and inverse models for motor control. Neural Networks 11:1317–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zentall, T. (2001) Imitation and other forms of social learning in animals: Evidence, function, and mechanisms. Cybernetics and Systems 32:5396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
234
Cited by