Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Are movement parameters recognizably coded in the activity of single neurons?

  • Eberhard E. Fetz (a1)

To investigate neural mechanisms of movement, physiologists have analyzed the activity of task-related neurons in behaving animals. The relative onset latencies of neural activity have been scrutinized for evidence of a functional hierarchy of sequentially recruited centers, but experiments reveal that activity changes occur largely in parallel. Neurons whose activity covaries with movement parameters have been sought for evidence of explicit coding of parameters such as active force, limb displacement, and behavioral set. Neurons with recognizable relations to the task are typically selected from a larger population, ignoring those cells with complex relations to the task and unmodulated cells. Selective interpretations are also used to support the notion that different motor regions perform different motor functions; again, current evidence suggests that units with similar properties are distributed over widely different regions.

These coding issues are reexamined for premotoneuronal (PreM) cells, whose correlational links with motoneurons are revealed by spike-triggered averages. PreM cells are recruited over long times relative to their target muscles; they show diverse response patterns relative to the muscle force they produce; functionally disparate PreM cells such as afferent fibers and descending corticomotoneuronal and rubromotoneuronal cells can exhibit similar patterns. Neural mechanisms have been further elucidated by neural network simulations of sensorimotor behavior; the pre-output hidden units typically show diverse response patterns in relation to their target units. Thus, studies in which both the activity and the connectivity of the same units are known reveal that units with both simple and complex relations to the task contribute significantly to the output. This suggests that the search for explicit coding may be diverting us from understanding distributed neural mechanisms that operate without literal representations.

Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively; if those authors also wrote a commentary, c precedes their initials.

Abbott, B. C. & Aubert, X. M. (1952) The force exerted by active striated muscle during and after change of length. Journal of Physiology (London) 117:7786. [GCA]
Abdusamatov, R. M., Adamovich, S. V., Berkinblit, M. B., Chernavsky, A. V. & Feldman, A. G. (1988) Rapid one-joint movements: A qualitative model and its experimental verification. In: Stance and motion: Facts and concepts, ed. Gurfinkel, V. S., loffe, M. E., Massion, J. & Roll, J. P.. Plenum. [SVA]
Abdusamatov, R. M., Adamovich, S. V. & Feldman, A. G. (1987) A model for one-joint motor control in man. In: Motor control, ed. Gantchev, G. N., Dimitrov, B. & Gatev, P.. Plenum. [SVA]
Abeles, M. (1991) Corticonics. Neural circuits of the cerebral cortex. Cambridge University Press. [VB]
Abend, W., Bizzi, E. & Morasso, P. (1982) Human arm trajectory formation. Brain 105:331–48. [aSCG, JDe]
Abernethy, B. & Sparrow, W. A. (1992) The rise and fall of dominant paradigms in motor behavior research. In: Approaches to the study of motor control and learning, ed. Summers, J. J.. North-Holland. [JJS]
Abraham, L. D. & Loeb, G. E. (1985) The distal musculature of the cat: Patterns of normal use. Experimental Brain Research 58:580–93. [CAP]
Abraham, L., Potegal, M. & Miller, S. (1983) Evidence for a caudate nucleus involvement in an egocentric spatial task. Physiological Psychology 11:1117. [DI]
Adamovich, S. V., Burlachkova, N. I. & Feldman, A. G. (1984) Wave nature of the central process of formation of the trajectories of change in the joint angle in man. Biophysics 29:130–34. [SVA]
Adamovich, S. V. & Feldman, A. G. (1984) Model of the central regulation of the parameters of motor trajectories. Biophysics 29:338–42. [SVA, DJO]
Adamovich, S. V. & Feldman, A. G. (1989) The prerequisites for one-joint motor control theories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:210–11. [MLL, SVA]
Ahissar, M., Ahissar, E., Bergman, H. & Vaadia, E. (1992) Encoding of sound-source location and movement: Activity of single neurons and interactions between adjacent neurons in the monkey auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 67:203–15. [APo]
Albin, R. L., Young, A. B. & Penney, J. B. (1989) The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends in Neuroscience 12:366–75. [aGEA]
Albus, J. S. (1971) A theory of cerebellar function. Mathematical Bioscience 10:2561. [PFCG, RFT]
Alexander, G. E. (1987) Selective neuronal discharge in monkey putamen reflects intended direction of planned limb movements. Experimental Brain Research 67:623–34. [aGEA]
Alexander, G. E. (1992) For effective sensorimotor processing must there be explicit representations and reconciliation of differing frames of reference? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:323–24. [MF]
Alexander, G. E. & Crutcher, M. D. (1990a) Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: Neural substrates of parallel processing. Trends in Neuroscience 13:266–71. [aGEA, JMF]
Alexander, G. E. & Crutcher, M. D. (1990b) Preparation for movement: Neural representations of intended direction in three motor areas of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:133–50. [aGEA]
Alexander, G. E. & Crutcher, M. D. (1990c) Neural representations of the target (goal) of visually guided arm movements in three motor areas of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:164–78. [aGEA, aEEF]
Alexander, G. E., Crutcher, M. D. & DeLong, M. R. (1990) Basal gangliathalamocortical circuits: Parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, “prefrontal” and “limbic” functions. Progress in Brain Research 85:119–46. [AB]
Alexander, G. E. & DeLong, M. R. (1985) Microstimulation of the primate neostriatum. II. Somatotopic organization of striatal microexcitable zones and their relation to neuronal response properties. Journal of Neurophysiology 53:1417–30. [aGEA]
Alexander, G. E. & Fuster, J. (1973) Effects of coding prefrontal cortex on cell firing in the nucleus medialis dorsalis. Brain Research 61:93105. [aEEF]
Al-Falahe, N. A., Nagaoka, M. & Vallbo, Å B. (1990) Response profiles of human muscle afferents during active finger movements. Brain 113:325–46. [aSCG]
Al-Falahe, N. A. & Vallbo, Å B. (1988) Role of the human fusimotor system in a motor adaptation task. Journal of Physiology (London) 401:7795. [arSCG]
Allen, G. I. & Tsukahara, N. (1974) Cerebellar communication systems. Physiological Reviews 54:9571006. [aGEA, aJRB, cJFS]
Allum, J. H. J. (1975) Responses to load disturbances in human shoulder muscles: The hypothesis that one component is a pulse test information signal. Experimental Brain Research 22:307–26. [aEB, MLL]
Allum, J. H. J. & Mauritz, K.-H. (1984) Compensation for intrinsic muscle stiffness by short-latency reflexes in human triceps surae muscles. Journal of Neurophysiology 52:797818. [TRN]
Aloisi, A. M., Carli, G. & Rossi, A. (1988) Response of hip joint afferent fibers to pressure and vibration in the cat. Neuroscience Letters 90:130–34. [aSCG]
Alstermark, B., Johannisson, T. & Lundberg, A. (1986) The inhibitory feedback pathway from the forelimb to C3-C4 propriospinal neurones investigated with natural stimulation. Neuroscience Research 3:451–56. [DBur]
Alstermark, B. & Kümmel, H. (1990) Transneuronal transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase in last-order spinal interneurones projecting to acromio- and spinodeltoideus motoneurones in the cat. 2. Differential labelling of interneurones depending on movement type. Experimental Brain Research 80:96103. [AL]
Alstermark, B., Kümmel, H., Pinter, M. & Tantisira, B. (1990) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 17. Axonal projection and termination of C3-C4 propriospinal neurones in the C6-Th1 segments. Experimental Brain Research 81:447–61. [AL]
Alstermark, B., Lindström, S., Lundberg, A. & Sybirska, E. (1981a) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 8. Ascending projection to the lateral reticular nucleus from C3–C4 propriospinal neurones also projecting to forelimb motoneurones. Experimental Brain Research 42:282–98. [AL]
Alstermark, B., Lundberg, A., Norrsell, U. & Sybirska, E. (1981b) Integration in decending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 9. Differential behavioural defects after spinal cord lesions interrupting defined pathways from higher centres to motoneurones. Experimental Brain Research 42:299318. [aSCG, DBur, cSCG, AL]
Alstermark, B., Lundberg, A., Pettersson, L.-G., Tantisira, B. & Walkowska, M. (1987) Motor recovery after serial spinal cord lesions of defined descending pathways in cats. Neuroscience Research 5:6873. [AL]
Alstermark, B., Lundberg, A. & Sasaki, S. (1984) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. II. Inhibitory pathways from higher motor centres and forelimb afferents to C3–C4 propriospinal neurones. Experimental Brain Research 56:293307. [rEEF, DBur, AL]
Alstermark, B. & Sasaki, S. (1986) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. 14. Differential control of fast and slow motoneurones from C3–C4 propriospinal neurones. Experimental Brain Research 63:530–42. [AL]
An, C. H., Atkeson, C. G. & Hollerbach, J. M. (1988) Model-based control of a robot manipulator. MIT Press. [aGEA]
An, K. N., Kaufman, K. R. & Chao, E. Y. S. (1989) Physiological considerations of muscle force through the elbow joint. Journal of Biomechanics 22:1249–56. [SVA]
Anastasio, T. J. & Robinson, D. A. (1989) The distributed representation of vestibulo-ocular signals by brain-stem neurons. Biological Cybernetics 61:7988. [aDAR, MF]
Anastasio, T. J. & Robinson, D. A. (1990a) Distributed parallel processing in the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex: Learning networks compared to tensor theory. Biological Cybernetics 63:161–67. [arDAR, RE]
Anastasio, T. J. & Robinson, D. A. (1990b) Distributed parallel processing in the vestibulo-oculomotor system. Neural Computation 1:230–41. [aGEA, rDAR]
Andén, N. E., Jukes, M. G. M. & Lundberg, A. (1967) The effect of DOPA on the spinal cord. I. Influence on transmission from primary afferents. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 67:373–86. [aDAM]
Andersen, R. A. (1987) Inferior parietal lobule function in spatial perception and visuomotor integration. In: Handbook of physiology, ed. Plum, F. & Mountcastle, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [aJFS]
Andersen, R. A. (1989) Visual and eye movement functions of posterior parietal cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 12:377404. [aJFS]
Andersen, R. A., Asanuma, C. & Cowan, W. M. (1985a) Callosal and prefrontal associational projecting cell populations in area 7a of the macaque monkey: A study using retrogradely transported fluorescent dyes. Journal of Comparative Neurology 232:443–55. [aJFS]
Andersen, R. A., Asanuma, C. Essick, G. & Siegel, R. M. (1990a) Corticocortical connections of anatomically and physiologically defined subdivisions of inferior parietal lobule. Journal of Comparative Neurology 296:65113. [aJFS]
Andersen, R. A., Bracewell, R. M., Barash, S., Gnadt, J. W. & Fogassi, L. (1990b) Eye position effects on visual, memory, and saccade-related activity in areas LIP and 7a of the macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 10:1176–96. [arJFS, RAA, CLC, JWG, APo]
Andersen, R. A., Essick, G. & Siegel, R. M. (1985b) Encoding of spatial location by posterior parietal neurons. Science 230:456–58. [aEB, aJFS, RAA, JWG]
Andersen, R. A., Essick, G. & Siegel, R. M. (1987) Neurons of area 7 activated by both visual stimuli and oculomotor behavior. Experimental Brain Research 67:316–22. [aDAR]
Andersen, R. A. & Gnadt, J. W. (1989) Posterior parietal cortex. In: The neurobiology of saccadic eye movements, ed. Wurtz, R. H. & Goldberg, M. E.. Elsevier. [JWG]
Andersen, R. A. & Mountcastle, V. B. (1983) The influence of the angle of gaze upon the excitability of light sensitive neurones in the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 3:532–48. [aJFS]
Andersen, R. A. & Zipser, D. (1988) The role of the posterior parietal cortex in coordinate transformations for visual-motor integration. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 66:488501. [MF]
Anderson, M. E. (1977) Segmental reflex inputs to motoneurons innervating dorsal neck musculature in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 28:175–87. [GEL]
Andrews, C. J. (1973) Influence of dystonia on the response to long-term L-Dopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 36:630–36. [GMa]
Andrews, J. R. & Hogan, N. (1983) Impedance control as a framework for implementing obstacle avoidance in a manipulator. In: Control of manufacturing and robotic systems, ed. Hardt, D. E. & Book, W. J.. ASME. [rEB]
Angel, R. W. & Malenka, R. C. (1982) Velocity-dependent suppression of cutaneous sensitivity during movement. Experimental Neurology 77:266–74. [aSCG]
Aniss, A. M., Diener, H.-C., Hore, J., Burke, D. & Gandevia, S. C. (1990a) Reflex activation of muscle spindles in human pretibial muscles during standing. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:671–79. [arSCG]
Aniss, A. M., Diener, H.-C., Hore, J., Gandevia, S. C. & Burke, D. (1990b) Behavior of human muscle receptors when reliant on proprioceptive feedback during standing. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:661–70. [arSCG]
Aniss, A. M., Gandevia, S. C. & Burke, D. (1988a) Reflex changes in muscle spindle discharge during a voluntary contraction. Journal of Neurophysiology 59:908–21. [aSCG]
Aniss, A. M., Gandevia, S. C. & Milne, R. J. (1988b) Changes in perceived heaviness and motor commands produced by cutaneous reflexes in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 397:113–26. [aSCG]
Appenteng, K. & Prochazka, A. (1984) Tendon organ firing during active muscle lengthening in awake, normally behaving cats. Journal of Physiology (London) 353:8192. [aSCG]
Araki, T., Eccles, J. C. & Ito, M. (1960) Correlation of the inhibitory postsynaptic potential of motoneurones with the latency and time course of inhibition of monosynaptic reflexes. Journal of Physiology (London) 154:354–77. [DBul]
Arbib, M. A. (1981) Perceptual structures and distributed motor control. In: Handbook of physiology: Nervous system, vol. 2, ed. Brooks, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [CIC, JMF]
Arbib, M. A. (1987) Levels of modeling of mechanisms of visually guided behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10(3):407–65. [CIC]
Arbib, M. A. (1990) Programs, schemas, and neural networks for control of hand movements: Beyond the RS framework. In: Attention and performance XIII. Motor representation and control, ed. Jeannerod, M.. Erlbaum. [aGEA]
Arbib, M. A. (1991) Interaction of multiple representations of space in the brain. In: The brain and space, ed. Paillard, J.. Oxford University Press. [aJFS]
Arkin, R. C. (1987) Towards cosmopolitan robots: Intelligent navigation in extended man-made environments. Technical report 87–80, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Massachusetts. [CIC]
Arnold, D. B. & Robinson, D. A. (1991) A learning network model of the neural integrator of the oculomotor system. Biological Cybernetics 64:447–54. [arDAR]
Artim, J. & Bridgeman, B. (1989) The physiology of attention: Participation of cat striate cortex in behavioral choice. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 50:223–28. [BB]
Asanuma, H. (1989) The motor cortex. Raven Press. [MEI]
Asanuma, C., Andersen, R. A. & Cowan, W. M. (1985) The thalamic relations of the caudal inferior parietal lobule and the lateral prefrontal cortex in monkeys: Divergent cortical projections from cell clusters in the medial pulvinar nucleus. Journal of Comparative Neurology 241:357–81. [aJFS]
Asanuma, C., Thach, W. T. & Jones, E. G. (1983a) Brainstem and spinal projections of the deep cerebellar nuclei in the monkey, with observations on the brainstem projections of the dorsal column nuclei. Brain Research Reviews 5:299322. [aJRB]
Asanuma, C., Thach, W. T. & Jones, E. G. (1983b) Anatomical evidence for segregated focal groupings of efferent cells and their terminal ramifications in the cerebellothalamic pathway of the monkey. Brain Research Reviews 5:267–97. [aJRB]
Asanuma, C., Thach, W. T. & Jones, E. G. (1983c) Distribution of cerebellar terminations and their relation to other afferent terminations in the ventral lateral thalamic region of the monkey. Brain Research Reviews 5:237–65. [aJRB]
Asatryan, D. B. & Feldman, A. G. (1965) Functional tuning of the nervous system with control of movement or maintenance of a steady posture. I. Mechanographic analysis of the work of the joint or execution of a postural task. Biofizika 10:837–46 [English translation 925–35]. [GCA, SVA, AGF]
Ashford, J. A. W. & Fuster, J. M. (1985) Occipital and inferotemporal responses to visual signals in the monkey. Experimental Neurology 90:444–66. [JMF]
Astrom, K. J. & Wittenmark, B. (1989) Adaptive control. Addison-Wesley. [PDN]
Atkeson, C. G. (1989) Learning arm kinematics and dynamics. Annual Review of Neuroscience 12:157–83. [aGEA]
Atkinson, R. C., Bower, G. H. & Crothers, E. J. (1965) An introduction to mathematical learning theory. Wiley. [HH]
Babinski, J. (1899) De l'asynergie cérébelleuse. Revue Neurologique 7:806–16. [AMS]
Baev, K. V. & Shimansky, Y. P. (1992) Principles of organization of neural systems controlling automatic movements in animals. Progress in Neurobiology 39:45112. [rJRB]
Baizer, J., Ungerleider, J. G. & Desimone, R. (1991) Organisation of visual inputs to inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex in macaques. Journal of Neuroscience 11:168–90. [aJFS]
Balaban, C. D., Ito, M. & Watanabe, E. (1981) Demonstration of zonal projections from the cerebellar flocculus to vestibular nuclei in monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Neuroscience Letters 27:101–5. [NHB]
Baldissera, F., Cavallari, P., Fournier, E., Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. & Shindo, M. (1987) Evidence for mutual inhibition of opposite la interneurones in the human upper limb. Experimental Brain Research 66:106–14. [DBul]
Baldissera, F., Hultborn, H. & Illert, M. (1981) Integration in spinal neuronal systems. In: Handbook of physiology: The nervous system II, ed. Brookhart, J. M., Mountcastle, V. B., Brooks, V. B. & Geiger, S. R.. American Physiological Society. [aDAM, rEEF]
Baldissera, F. & Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1989) Facilitation of transmission in the pathway of non-monosynaptic la excitation to wrist flexor motoneurones at the onset of voluntary movement in man. Experimental Brain Research 74:437–39. [aSCG, AL]
Bamber, D. & van Santen, J. P. H. (1985) How many parameters can a model have and still be testable? Journal of Mathematical Psychology 29:443–73. [JGP]
Bando, T., Yamamoto, N. & Tsukahara, N. (1984) Cortical neurons related to lens accommodation in posterior lateral suprasylvian area in cats. Journal of Neurophysiology 52:879–91. [JWG]
Bapi, R. S. & Levine, D. S. (1990) Networks modeling the involvement of the frontal cortex in performance of flexible motor sequences. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [DSL]
Baranyi, A. & Szente, M. B. (1987) Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission requires postsynaptic modifications in the neocortex. Brain Research 423:378–84. [aGEA]
Barash, S., Bracewell, R. M., Fogassi, L., Gnadt, J. W. & Andersen, R. A. (1991) Saccade related activity in the lateral intraparietal area. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:10951124. [aJFS, CLC]
Barbas, H. & Mesulam, H.-M. (1985) Cortical afferent input to principalis region of rhesus monkey. Neuroscience 15:617–37. [aJFS]
Barbeito, R. & Ono, M. (1979) Four methods for locating the egocentre. Behavioral Research Methods Instruments & Computers 11:3136. [aJFS]
Bard, C., Paillard, J., Lajoie, Y., Fleury, M., Teasdale, N., Forget, R. & Lamarre, Y. (1992) Role of afferent information in the timing of motor command: A comparative study with a deafferented patient. Neuropsychologia 30:201–6. [JP]
Barlow, H. B. (1980) Cortical function: A tentative theory. In: Neural mechanics of behaviour, ed. McFadden, D.. Springer. [aJFS]
Barrack, R. L., Skinner, H. B., Brunet, M. E. & Haddad, R. J. (1983a) Functional performance of the knee after intra-articular anesthesia. American Journal of Sports Medicine 11:258–61. [aSCG]
Barrack, R. L., Skinner, H. B., Cook, S. D. & Haddad, R. J. (1983b) Effects of articular disease and total knee arthroplasty on knee joint-position sense. Journal of Neurophysiology 50:684–87. [aSCG]
Barraquand, J. & Latombe, J.-C. (1991) Robot motion planning: A distributed representation approach. International Journal of Robotics Research 10(6):628–49. [CIC]
Barto, A. G. & Sutton, R. S. (1981) Landmark learning, an illustration of associative search. Biological Cybernetics 42:18. [aJFS]
Batini, C. & Billard, J. M. (1985) Release of cerebellar inhibition by climbing fiber deafferentation. Experimental Brain Research 57:370–80. [AMS]
Baum, E. B. (1990) On learning a union of half spaces. Journal of Complexity 6:67101. [HB]
Baumann, T. K., Emonet-Dénand, F. & Hulliger, M. (1982) After-effects of fusimotor stimulation on spindle la afferents' dynamic sensitivity, revealed during slow movements. Brain Research 232:460–65. [aSCG]
Bauswein, E., Kolb, F. P., Leimbeck, B. & Rubia, F. J. (1983) Simple and complex spike activity in cerebellar Purkinje cells during active and passive movements in the awake monkey. Journal of Physiology (London) 339:379894. [JMB]
Baxendale, R. H. & Ferrell, W. R. (1981) The effect of knee joint afferent discharge on transmission in flexion reflex pathways in decerebrate cats. Journal of Physiology (London) 315:231–42. [aSCG]
Bayoumi, A. & Ashby, P. (1988) Projections of group la afferents to motoneurons of thigh muscles in man. Experimental Brain Research 342:16. [aSCG]
Beckstead, R. M. & Cruz, C. J. (1986) Striatal axons to the globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra come mainly from separate cell populations in cat. Neuroscience 19:147–58. [aGEA]
Beek, P. J. & Bootsma, R. J. (1991) Physical and informational principles in modelling coordinated movements. Human Movement Science 10:8192. [GJvIS]
Beer, R. D., Hillel, J. C. & Sterling, L. S. (1991) A biological perspective on autonomous agent design. In: Designing autonomous agents, ed. Maes, A. P.. MIT Press. [SG]
Beitz, A. J. & Chan-Palay, V. (1979) A golgi analysis of neuronal organization in the medial cerebellar nucleus of the rat. Neuroscience 4:4763. [aJRB]
Bekoff, A. (1989) Continuity of pattern generating mechanisms in embryonic and posthatching chicks. In: Neurobiology of early infant behavior, ed. von Euler, V., Forssberg, H., von Hofsten, C., Lagerkranz, H. & Zetterstrom, R.. Macmillan. [CAP]
Bekoff, A., Nusbaum, M. P., Sabichi, A. L. & Clifford, M. (1987) Neural control of limb coordination. I. Comparison of hatching and walking motor output patterns in normal and deafferented chicks. Journal of Neuroscience 7:2320–30. [CAP]
Belinkii, V., Gurfinkel, V. & Paltsev, Y. (1967) Elements of control of voluntary movements. Biofizika 12:135–41. [ADK]
Benecke, R., Rothwell, J. C., Day, B. L., Dick, J. P. R. & Marsden, C. D. (1986) Motor strategies involved in the performance of sequential movements. Experimental Brain Research 63:585–95. [aSCG]
Benedetti, F., Montarolo, P. G. & Rabachi, S. (1984) Inferior olive lesion induces long-lasting functional modification in the Purkinje cells. Experimental Brain Research 55:368–74. [AMS]
Bennett, D. J. (1990) The control of human arm movement: Models and mechanical constraints. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, MIT. [aEB]
Bennett, D. J., Xu, Y., Hollerbach, J. M. & Hunter, I. W. (1989) Identifying the mechanical impedance of the elbow joint during posture and movement. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15:396. [aEB]
Bennett, K. M. B. (1992) Corticomotoneuronal control of precision grip tasks. Doctoral Dissertation, Cambridge University. [RL]
Bennett, K. M. B. & Lemon, R. N. (1991) The activity of monkey corticomotoneuronal (CM) cells is related to their pattern of post-spike facilitation of intrinsic hand muscles. Journal of Physiology 435:53p. [RL]
Benson, D. F. & Greenberg, J. P. (1969) Visual form agnosia. A specific defect in visual discrimination. Archives of Neurology 20:8289. [MAG]
Beppu, H., Nagaoka, M. & Tanaka, R. (1987) Analysis of cerebellar motor disorders by visually-guided elbow tracking movement. 2. Contribution of the visual cues on slow ramp pursuit. Brain 110:118. [aJRB]
Beppu, H., Suda, M. & Tanaka, R. (1984) Analysis of cerebellar motor disorders by visually guided elbow tracking movement. Brain 107:787809. [aJRB, MH]
Berger, W., Altenmuller, E. & Dietz, V. (1984) Normal and impaired development of children's gait. Human Neurobiology 3:163–70. [VD]
Bergman, H., Wichmann, T. & DeLong, M. R. (1990) Reversal of experimental Parkinsonism by lesion of the subthalamic nucleus. Science 249:1436–38. [DSB]
Berkinblit, M. B., Feldman, A. G. & Fukson, O. I. (1986) Adaptability in innate motor patterns and motor control mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:585638. [aEB, GCA, MBB, AP]
Bernstein, N. (1935) The problem of interrelation between coordination and localization [in Russian]. Archives of Biological Sciences 38:135. [MLL]
Bernstein, N. (1940/1967) Biodynamics of locomotion. In: The coordination and regulation of movements (originally published in Russian in 1940). Pergamon Press. [ZH]
Bernstein, N. (1967) The coordination and regulation of movements. Pergamon Press. [aGEA, aEB, aSCG, aDAM, JMF]
Bernstein, N. (1966) Notes on the movement physiology and physiology of activity [in Russian]. Medicina. [AAF]
Berthoz, A. & Grantyn, A. (1986) Neuronal mechanisms of eye head coordination. In: Progressive brain research 64, ed. Freund, U.. Elsevier. [aJFS]
Beuter, A., Belair, J. & Labrie, C. (1992) Feedback and delays in neurological diseases: A modeling study using dynamical systems. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, in press. [AB]
Beuter, A., Labrie, C. & Vasilakos, K. (1991) Transient dynamics in motor control of patients with Parkinson's disease. Chaos 1(3):279–86. [AB]
Bigland-Ritchie, B., Dawson, N. J., Johansson, R. S. & Lippold, O. C. J. (1986) Reflex origin for the slowing of motoneurone firing rates in fatigue of human voluntary contractions. Journal of Physiology (London) 379:451–59. [aSCG]
Biguer, B., Donaldson, I. M. L., Hein, A. & Jeannerod, M. (1988) Neck muscle vibration modifies the representation of visual motion and direction in man. Brain 111:1405–24. [aSCG]
Biguer, B., Jeannerod, M. & Prablanc, C. (1982) The coordination of eye, head, and arm movements during reaching at a single visual target. Experimental Brain Research 46:301–4. [VD]
Billard, J. M., Batini, C. & Daniel, H. (1988) The red nucleus activity in rats deprived of the inferior olivary complex. Behavioral Brain Research 28:127–30. [rJRB]
Binder, M. D. & Stuart, D. G. (1980) Motor-unit muscle receptor interactions: Design features of the neuromuscular control system. In: Progress in clinical neurophysiology, vol. 8: Spinal and supraspinal mechanisms of voluntary motor control and locomotion, ed. Desmedt, J. E.. Karger. [aSCG]
Bindman, L. J., Murphy, K. P. S. J. & Pockett, S. (1988) Postsynaptic control of the induction of long-term changes in efficacy of transmission at neocortical synapses in slices of rat brain. Journal of Neurophysiology 1053–65. [aGEA]
Bischof, H. (1991) Modular, hierarchical and geometrical neural networks. Technical Report (PRIP-TR-9, December), Department for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, Technical University of Vienna. [HB]
Bischof, H., Pinz, A. & Kropatsch, W. G. (1992) Visualization methods for neural networks. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference for Pattern Recognition (ICPR92), The Hague. [HB]
Bisiach, E., Capitani, E. & Porta, E. (1985) Two basic properties of space representation in the brain. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 48:141–44. [aJFS]
Bisiach, E. & Luzatti, C. (1978) Unilateral neglect of representational space. Cortex 14:129–33. [aJFS]
Bizzi, E., Accornero, N., Chapple, W. & Hogan, N. (1982) Arm trajectory formation in monkeys. Experimental Brain Research 46:139–43. [aEB, GCA, SVA, GLG, MLL]
Bizzi, E., Accornero, N., Chapple, W. & Hogan, N. (1984) Posture control and trajectory formation during arm movement. Journal of Neuroscience 4:2738–44. [aEB, aSCG, GCA, SVA, PRC, GEL, RBS]
Bizzi, E., Dev, P., Morasso, P. & Polit, A. (1978) Effect of load disturbances during centrally initiated movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 39:435–44. [aEB, AGF, GEL]
Bizzi, E. & Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. (1990) Emergent issues in the control of multi-joint movements. In: From neuron to action, ed. Deecke, L., Eccles, J. C. & Mountcastle, V. B.. Springer-Verlag. [aEB]
Bizzi, E., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Giszter, S. (1982) Arm trajectory formation in monkeys. Experimental Brain Research 46:139–43. [aEB]
Bizzi, E., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Giszter, S. (1991) Computations underlying the execution of movement: A biological perspective. Science 253:287–91. [aEB, SG]
Bizzi, E., Polit, A. & Morasso, P. (1976) Mechanisms underlying achievement of final head position. Journal of Neurophysiology 39:435–44. [aEB]
Blin, O., Ferrandez, A. M., Pailhous, J. & Serratrice, G. (1991) Dopasensitive and Dopa-resistant gait parameters in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurological Sciences 103:5154. [GMa]
Bloedel, J. R. (1987) Cerebellum and memory storage. Technical comments. Science 238:1728–29. [rJRB]
Bloedel, J. R., Bracha, V., Kelly, T. M. & Wu, J.-Z. (1991) Substrates for motor learning: Does the cerebellum do it all? In: Activity-driven changes in learning and development, ed. J. R. Wolpaw and J. T. Schmidt. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 627:305–18. [arJRB]
Bloedel, J. R. & Courville, J. (1981) Cerebellar afferent systems. In: Handbook of physiology. Section I: The nervous system, ed. Brooks, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [JMB]
Bloedel, J. R. & Ebner, T. J. (1985) Climbing fiber function: Regulation of Purkinje cell responsiveness. In: Cerebellar functions, ed. Bloedel, J. R., Dichgans, J. & Precht, W.. Springer-Verlag. [arJRB]
Bloedel, J. R., Ebner, T. J. & Yu, Q.-Z. (1983) Increased responsiveness of Purkinje cells associated with climbing fiber inputs to neighboring neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 50:220–39. [arJRB, cJFS]
Bloedel, J. R., Gregory, R. S. & Martin, S. H. (1972) Action of interneurons and axon collaterals in cerebellar cortex of a primate. Journal of Neurophysiology 35:847–63. [rJRB]
Bloedel, J. R. & Kelly, T. M. (1992) The dynamic selection hypothesis: A proposed function for cerebellar sagittal zones. In: The cerebellum revisited, ed. Llinas, R. & Sotelo, C.. Springer-Verlag, in press. [aJRB, PFCG]
Bloedel, J. R. & Roberts, W. J. (1969) Functional relationship among neurons of the cerebellar cortex in the absence of anesthesia. Journal of Neurophysiology 32:7584. [rJRB]
Bloedel, J. R. & Roberts, W. J. (1971) The action of climbing fibers in the feline cerebellar cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 34:1731. [rJRB, AMS]
Boegman, R., Parent, A. & Hawkes, R. (1988) Zonation in the rat cerebellar cortex: Patches of high acetylcholinesterase activity in the granular layer are congruent with Purkinje cell compartments. Brain Research 448:237–51. [aJRB, NHB]
Borrett, D. S., Yeap, T. H. & Kwan, H. C. (1992) Neural networks, movements and Parkinson's disease, submitted. [DSB]
Botterman, B. R., Binder, M. D. & Stuart, D. G. (1978) Functional anatomy of the association between motor units and muscle receptors. American Journal of Zoology 18:135–52. [aSCG]
Bouisset, S. & Zattara, M. (1987) Biomechanical study of the programming of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement. Journal of Biomechanics 20:735–42. [ADK]
Bouisset, S. & Zattara, M. (1990) Segmental movement as a perturbation to balance? Facts and concepts. In: Multiple muscle systems, ed. Winters, J. M. & Woo, S. L.-Y.. Springer-Verlag. [ADK, JMW]
Bower, J. M. (1990) Reverse engineering the nervous system: An anatomical, physiological, and computer-based approach. In: An introduction to neural and electronic networks, ed. Zornetzer, S. F., Davis, J. L. & Lau, C.. Academic. [WAM]
Bower, J. M. & Kassel, J. (1990) Variability in tactile projection patterns to cerebellar folia Crus IIA in the Norway rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 302:768–78. [JMB]
Box, G. E. P. & Jenkins, G. M. (1976) Time series analysis: Forecasting and control. Prentice-Hall. [PDN]
Boyd, I. A. & Roberts, T. D. M. (1953) Proprioceptive discharges from stretch-receptors in the knee joint of the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 122:3858. [aSCG]
Bracewell, R. M., Barash, S., Massoni, P. & Andersen, R. A. (1991) Neurones in the macaque lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP) appear to encode the next intended saccade. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:1282. [JWG, APo]
Bracha, V., Wu, J.-Z., Cartwright, M. & Bloedel, J. R. (1991) Selective involvement of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in the conditioned nictitating membrane reflex of the rabbit. Brain Research 556:317–20. [arJRB]
Bracke-Tolkmitt, R., Linden, A., Canavan, A. G. M., Rockstroh, B., Scholz, E., Wessel, K. & Diener, H.-C. (1989) The cerebellum contributes to mental skills. Behavioral Neuroscience 103:442–46. [aJRB, MH]
Brain, W. R. (1941) Visual disorientation with special reference to lesions to the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain 64:244–72. [DPC]
Braitenberg, V. (1983) The cerebellum revisited. Journal of Theoretical Neurobiology 2:237–41. [VB]
Braitenberg, V. (1987) The cerebellum and the physics of movement: Some speculations. In: Cerebellum and neuronal plasticity, ed. Glickstein, M., Yeo, C. & Stein, J.. Plenum. [VB]
Braitenberg, V. & Onesto, N. (1962) The cerebellar cortex as a timing organ. Discussion of an hypothesis. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Medical Cybernetics, Naples, Italy. [VB]
Braitenberg, V. & Preisel, H. (1992) The cerebellum and the physics of movement, in preparation. [VB]
Brand, S., Dahl, A. L. & Mugnaini, E. (1976) The length of parallel fibers in the cat cerebellar cortex. An experimental light and electron microscopic study. Experimental Brain Research 26:3958. [aJRB]
Bras, H., Cavallari, P. & Jankowska, E. (1988) Demonstration of initial axon collaterals of cells of origin of the ventral spinocerebellar tract in the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 273:584–92. [aDAM]
Bras, H., Cavallari, P., Jankowska, E. & Kubin, L. (1989a) Morphology of midlumbar interneurones relaying information from group II muscle afferents in the cat spinal cord. Journal of Comparative Neurology 290:115. [aDAM]
Bras, H., Cavallari, P., Jankowska, E. & McCrea, D. (1989b) Comparison of the effects of monoamines on transmission in spinal pathways from group I and II muscle spindle afferents. Experimental Brain Research 76:2737. [aDAM]
Bridgeman, B. (1980) Temporal response characteristics of cells in monkey striate cortex measured with metacontrast masking and brightness discrimination. Brain Research 196:347–64. [BB]
Bridgeman, B. (1982) Multiplexing in single cells of the alert monkey's visual cortex during brightness discrimination. Neuropsychologia 20:3342. [BB]
Bridgeman, B. & Artim, J. (1983) Information flow through single cells of cat striate cortex. Neuroscience Abstracts 9:619. [BB]
Brink, E. (1988) Segmental organization of the upper cervical cord. In: Control of head movement, ed. Peterson, B. W. & Richmond, F. J. R.. Oxford University Press. [GEL]
Brink, E., Jankowska, E., McCrea, D. A. & Skoog, B. (1983) Inhibitory interactions between interneurones in reflex pathways from group la and group Ib afferents in the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 343:361–73. [aDAM, DBul]
Brink, E. & Mackel, R. (1987) Sensorimotor performance of the hand during peripheral nerve regeneration. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 77:249–66. [aSCG]
Brochu, G., Maler, L. & Hawkes, R. (1990) Zebrin II: A polypeptide antigen expressed selectively by Purkinje cells reveals compartments in rat and fish cerebellum. Journal of Comparative Neurology 291:538–52. [NHB]
Brodal, P. (1978) Principles of organisation of the monkey corticopontine projection. Brain 64:244–72. [aJFS]
Brody, B. A. & Pribram, K. H. (1978) The role of frontal and parietal cortex in cognitive processing: Tests of spatial and sequence functions. Brain 101:607–33. [DSL]
Brooke, J. D. & McIlroy, W. E. (1989) Effect of knee joint angle on a heteronymous Ib reflex in the human lower limb. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 16:5862. [aSCG]
Brooks, R. A. (1991) Elephants don't play chess. In: Designing autonomous agents, ed. Maes, A. P.. MIT Press. [SG]
Brooks, V. B. (1984) Cerebellar functions in motor control. Human Neurobiology 2:251–60. [aJRB]
Brooks, V. B. (1986) The neural basis of motor control. Oxford University Press. [aGEA, AAF]
Brooks, V. B., Kozlovskaya, I. B., Atkin, A., Horvath, F. E. & Uno, M. (1973) Effects of cooling dentate nucleus on tracking-task performance in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 36:974–95. [aJRB]
Brooks, V. B. & Thach, W. T. (1981) Cerebellar control of posture and movement. In: Handbook of physiology, section I: The nervous system, vol. 2: Motor control, ed. Brookhart, J. M. & Mountcastle, V. B.. American Physiology Society. [aJRB]
Brooks, V. B. & Wilson, V. J. (1959) Recurrent inhibition in the cat's spinal cord. Journal of Physiology (London) 146:380–91. [TMH]
Brotchie, P. R. & Andersen, R. A. (1991) Body-centered coordinate system in posterior parietal cortex. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:511.1. [rJFS, RAA, APo]
Brotchie, P., lansek, R. & Horne, M. (1991a) The motor function of the monkey globus pallidus: I. Neuronal discharge and parameters of movement. Brain 114:1667–83. [RI]
Brotchie, P., Iansek, R. & Horne, M. (1991b) The motor function of the monkey globus pallidus: II. Cognitive aspects of movement and phasic neuronal actvity. Brain 114:16851702. [RI]
Brotchie, P., Iansek, R. & Horne, M. (1991c) A neural network model of neural activity in the monkey globus pallidus. Neuroscience Letters 131:3336. [RI]
Brown, J. (1977) Mind, brain, and consciousness. Academic Press. [JMF]
Brown, K., Lee, J. & Ring, P. A. (1954) The sensation of passive movement at the metatarso-phalangeal joint of the great toe in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 126:448–58. [aJRB]
Brown, T. G. (1914) On the nature of the fundamental activity of the nervous centres; together with an analysis of the conditioning of rhythmic activity in progression, and a theory of the evolution of function in the nervous system. Journal of Physiology 48:1846. [aDAM]
Brown, T. H., Kairiss, E. W. & Keenan, C. L. (1990) Hebbian synapses: Biophysical mechanisms and algorithms. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:475511, [aGEA]
Bruce, C. J. & Goldberg, M. E. (1985) Primate frontal eye field. I. Single neurons discharging before saccades. Journal of Neurophysiology 53:603–35. [APo]
Brüwer, M. & Cruse, H. (1990) A network model for the control of the movement of a redundant manipulator. Biological Cybernetics 62:549–55. [aGEA]
Brüwer, M. & Dean, J. (1992) Control of human arm movements in two dimensions: A comparison of movements with 2 and 3 mobile joints. Proceedings of the 20th Gottingen Neurobiology Conference. Thieme Verlag, in press. [JDe]
Buford, J. A. & Smith, J. L. (1990) Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking. 2. Hindlimb muscle synergies. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:756–66. [GMc]
Buford, J. A., Zernicke, R. F. & Smith, J. L. (1990) Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking. 1. Posture and kinematics. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:745–55. [GMc]
Bullock, D. & Contreras-Vidal, J. L. (1991) How spinal neural networks reduce discrepancies between motor intention and motor realization. CAS/CNS Technical Report 91–023. In: Variability and motor control, ed. Newell, K. & Corcos, D.. Human Kinetics. [DBul]
Bullock, D., Contreras-Vidal, J. L. & Grossberg, S. (1992) Equilibria and dynamics of a neural network model for opponent muscle control. CAS/CNS Technical Report 92-017. In: Neural networks in robotics, ed. Goldberg, K. & Bekey, G.. Kluwer Academic. [DBul]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1988a) Neural dynamics of planned arm movements: Emergent variants and speed-accuracy properties during trajectory formation. In: Neural network and natural intelligence, ed. Grossberg, S.. MIT Press. [AAF]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1988b) Neuromuscular realization of planned trajectories. Neural Networks 1(suppl. 1);329. [DBul]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1989) VITE & FLETE: Neural modules for trajectory formation and postural control. In: Volitional action, ed. Hershberger, W. A.. North-Holland/Elsevier. [DBul, TMH, DSL]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1990) Spinal network computations enable independent control of muscle length and joint compliance. In: Advanced neural computers, ed. Eckmiller, R.. North-Holland. [DBul]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1991) Adaptive neural networks for control of movement trajectories invariant under speed and force rescaling. Human Movement Science 10:353. [DBul, DSL, GJvIS]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (in press) Emergence of tri-phasic muscle activation from the nonlinear interactions of central and spinal neural network circuits. Human Movement Science 11. [DBul]
Bures, J., Buresova, O. & Krivanek, J. (1988) Brain and behavior. Academia. [MEI]
Burgess, P. R. & Clark, F. J. (1969) Characteristics of knee joint receptors in the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 203:317–35. [aSCG]
Burgess, P. R., Wei, J. Y., Clark, F. J. & Simon, J. (1982) Signaling of kinesthetic information by peripheral sensory receptors. Annual Review of Neuroscience 5:171–87. [aSCG]
Burke, D. (1981) The activity of human muscle spindle endings in normal motor behavior. International Review of Physiology 25:91126. [arSCG]
Burke, D., Aniss, A. M. & Gandevia, S. C. (1987) In-parallel and in-series behavior of human muscle spindle endings. Journal of Neurophysiology 58:417–26. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Dickson, H. G. & Skuse, N. F. (1991) Task-dependent changes in the responses to low-threshold cutaneous afferent volleys in the human lower limb. Journal of Physiology (London) 432:445–58. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Gandevia, S. C. & Macefield, G. (1988) Responses to passive movement of receptors in joint, skin and muscle of the human hand. Journal of Physiology (London) 402:347–61. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Gandevia, S. C. & McKeon, B. (1983) The afferent volleys responsible for spinal proprioceptive reflexes in man. Journal of Physiology 339:535–52. [rSCG]
Burke, D., Gandevia, S. C. & McKeon, B. (1984) Monosynaptic and oligosynaptic contributions to human ankle jerk and H-reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology 52:435–48. [rSCG]
Burke, D., Gandevia, S. C., McKeon, B. & Skuse, N. F. (1982) Interactions between cutaneous and muscle afferent projections to cerebral cortex in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 53:349–60. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Gracies, J. M., Mazevet, D., Meunier, S. & Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1992) Convergence of descending and various peripheral inputs onto common propriospinal-like neurones in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 449:655710. [aSCG, DBur]
Burke, D., Hagbarth, K.-E. & Löfstedt, L. (1978a) Muscle spindle activity in man during shortening and lengthening contractions. Journal of Physiology (London) 277:131–42. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Hagbarth, K.-E. & Löfstedt, L. (1978b) Muscle spindle responses in man to changes in load during accurate position maintenance. Journal of Physiology (London) 276:159–64. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Hagbarth, K.-E., Löfstedt, L. & Wallin, B. G. (1976a) The responses of human muscle spindle endings to vibration of noncontracting muscles. Journal of Physiology (London) 261:673–93. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Hagbarth, K.-E., Löfstedt, L. & Wallin, B. G. (1976b) The responses of human muscle spindle endings to vibration during isometric contraction. Journal of Physiology (London) 261:695711. [aSCG]
Burke, D., Hagbarth, K.-E. & Skuse, N. F. (1979) Voluntary activation of spindle endings in human muscles temporarily paralysed by nerve pressure. Journal of Physiology (London) 287:329–36. [aSCG]
Burke, D., McKeon, B. & Skuse, N. F. (1981) Dependence of the Achilles tendon reflex on the excitability of spinal reflex pathways. Annals of Neurology 10:551–56. [rSCG]
Burke, D. McKeon, B., Skuse, N. F. & Westerman, R. A. (1980) Anticipation and fusimotor activity in preparation for a voluntary contraction. Journal of Physiology (London) 306:337–48. [aSCG]
Burton, J. E. & Onoda, N. (1977) Interpositus neurons discharge in relation to a voluntary movement. Brain Research 121:167–72. [aJRB]
Bushnell, M. C., Goldberg, M. E. & Robinson, D. L. (1981) Behavioral enhancement of visual responses in monkey cerebral cortex. I. Modulation in posterior parietal cortex related to selective visual attention. Journal of Neurophysiology 46:755–72. [aJFS]
Bussel, B., Morin, C. & Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1978) Mechanism of monosynaptic reflex reinforcement during Jendrassik Manoeuvre in man. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 41:4044. [rSCG]
Buys, E. R., Lemon, R. N., Mantel, G. W. B. & Muir, R. B. (1986) Selective facilitation of different hand muscles by single corticospinal neurones in the conscious monkey. Journal of Physiology (London) 381:529–49. [aGEA, aEEF, cSCG]
Cafarelli, D. (1988) Force sensation in fresh and fatigued human skeletal muscle. Exercise and Sports Science Review 16:139–68. [aSCG]
Calancie, B. M. & Stein, R. B. (1988) Microneurography for the recording and selective stimulation of afferents: An assessment. Muscle and Nerve 11:638–44. [aSCG]
Cameron, W. E., Binder, M. D., Botterman, B. R., Reinking, R. M. & Stuart, D. G. (1980) Motor unit-muscle spindle interactions in active muscles of decerebrate cats. Neuroscience Letters 19:5560. [aSCG]
Caminiti, R., Johnson, P. B. & Urbano, A. (1990) Making arm movements within different parts of space: Dynamic aspects in the primate motor cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 10:2039–58. [aEB]
Cannon, S. C. & Robinson, D. A. (1985) An improved neural network model for the neural integrator of the oculomotor system: More realistic neuron behavior. Biological Cybernetics 53:93108. [MF]
Canny, J. F. (1987) The complexity of robot motion planning. Doctoral Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT Press. [CIC]
Capaday, C. & Stein, R. B. (1986) Amplitude modulation of the soleus H-reflex in the human during walking and standing. Journal of Neuroscience 6:1308–13. [arSCG, TRN]
Capaday, C. & Stein, R. B. (1987) Difference in the amplitude of the human soleus H reflex during walking and running. Journal of Physiology (London) 392:513–22. [arSCG]
Cappa, S., Sterzi, R., Villar, G. & Bisiach, E. (1987) Remission of hemineglect and anosognosia during vestibular stimulation. Neuropsychologia 25:774–80. [aJFS]
Carlson-Kuhta, P. & Smith, J. L. (1990) Scratch responses in normal cats: Hindlimb kinematics and muscle synergies. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:1653–67. [CAP]
Carpenter, M. B., Nakano, K. & Kim, R. (1976) Nigrothalamic projections in the monkey demonstrated by autoradiographic technics. Journal of Comparative Neurology 165:401–16. [aGEA]
Carr, J. N., Louca, D. & Grobstein, P. (1991) Directed movement in the frog: Explorations using back propagation networks. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:1578. [PG]
Carter, R. R., Crago, P. E. & Keith, M. W. (1990) Stiffness regulation by reflex action in the normal human hand. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:105–18. [TRN]
Cavada, C. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1989a) Posterior parietal cortex in rhesus monkey. I. Parcellation of areas based on distinctive limbic and sensory corticocortical connections. Journal of Comparative Neurology 287:393421. [aJFS, WAM]
Cavada, C. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1989b) Posterior parietal cortex in rhesus monkey. II. Evidence for segregated corticocortical networks linking sensory and limbic areas with frontal lobe. Journal of Comparative Neurology 287:422–45. [aJFS, MSG]
Cavada, C. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1991) Topographical segregation of corticostriatal projections from posterior parietal subdivisions in the macaque monkey. Neuroscience 42:683–96. [MSG]
Cavallari, P., Edgley, S. A. & Jankowska, E. (1987) Post-synaptic actions of midlumbar interneurones on motoneurones of hind-limb muscles in the cat. Journal of Physiology 389:675–89. [aDAM]
Cavallari, P., Fournier, E., Katz, R., Malmgren, K., Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. & Shindo, M. (1985) Cutaneous facilitation of transmission in Ib reflex pathways in the human upper limb. Experimental Brain Research 60:197–99. [aSCG]
Cavallari, P., Fournier, E., Katz, R., Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. & Shindo, M. (1984) Changes in reciprocal la inhibition from wrist extensors to wrist flexors during voluntary movement in man. Experimental Brain Research 56:574–76. [aSCG]
Cavanagh, P. R., Simoneau, G. G. & Ulbrecht, J. S. (1992) Ulceration, unsteadiness, and uncertainty: The biomechanical consequences of Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Biomechanics, in press. [PRC]
Cavanagh, P. R. & Ulbrecht, J. S. (1991) Biomechanics of the diabetic foot: A quantitative approach to the assessment of neuropathy, deformity, and plantar pressure. In: Disorders of the foot & ankle, 2nd ed., ed. M. H. Jahss & W. B. Saunders. [PRC]
Chambers, W. W. & Sprague, J. M. (1951) Differential effects of cerebellar anterior lobe cortex and fastigial nuclei on postural tonus in the cat. Science 114:324–25. [aJRB, RFT]
Chambers, W. W. & Sprague, J. M. (1955) Functional localization in the cerebellum. II. Somatotopic organization in cortex and nuclei. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 74:653–80. [aJRB, RFT]
Chandler, C., Hewit, J. & Miller, S. (1982) Computers, brains and the control of movement. Trends in Neuroscience 5:376. [aGEA]
Chang, H. T., Wilson, C. J. & Kitai, S. T. (1981) Single neostriatal efferent axons in the globus pallidus: A light and electron microscopic study (abstract). Science 213:915–18. [aGEA]
Chang, H. T., Wilson, C. J. & Kitai, S. T. (1982) A golgi study of rat neostriatal neurons: Light microscopic analysis. Journal of Comparative Neurology 208:107–26. [aGEA]
Chan-Palay, V. (1973) A light microscopic study of the cytology and organization of neurons in the simple mammalian nucleus lateralis: Columns and swirls. Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 141:125250. [aJRB]
Chan-Palay, V. (1977) Cerebellar dentate nucleus: Organization, cytology and transmitters. Springer-Verlag. [aJRB]
Chapman, C. E., Spidalieri, G. & LaMarre, Y. (1986) Activity of dentate neurons during arm movements triggered by visual, auditory, and somesthetic stimuli in the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 55:203–26. [aJRB]
Chapula, L. M. (1991) Visual function of the pulvinar. In: The neural basis of visual function, ed. Leventhal, A. G.. CRC Press. [DPC]
Charpentier, A. (1891) Analyse experimentale de quelques elements de la sensation de poids. Archives de Physiologie Normale et Pathologique 3:122–35. [AMG]
Chelazzi, L., Ghirardi, M., Rossi, F., Strata, P. & Tempia, F. (1990) Spontaneous saccades and gaze-holding ability in the Pigmented Rat. II. Effects of localized cerebellar lesions. European Journal of Neuroscience 2:1085–94. [aJRB]
Chen, D.-F., Hyland, B., Maier, V., Palmeri, A. & Wiesendanger, M. (1991) Comparison of neural activity in the supplementary motor cortex and in the primary motor cortex in monkeys performing a choice-reaction task. Somatosensory and Motor Research 8:2744. [aGEA, aEEF]
Cheney, P. D. & Fetz, E. E. (1980) Functional classes of primate corticomotoneuronal cells and their relation to active force. Journal of Neurophysiology 44:773–91. [aEB, aEEF]
Cheney, P. D., Fetz, E. E. & Mewes, K. (1991) Neural mechanisms underlying corticospinal and rubrospinal control of limb movements. Progress in Brain Research 87:213–52. [rEEF]
Cheney, P. D., Fetz, E. E. & Palmer, S. S. (1985) Patterns of facilitation and suppression of antagonist forelimb muscles from motor cortex sites in the awake monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 53:805–20. [aEEF]
Cheney, P. D., Mewes, K. & Fetz, E. E. (1988) Encoding of motor parameters by corticomotoneuronal (CM) and rubromotoneuronal (RM) cells identified by spike-triggered averaging in the awake monkey. Behavioral Brain Research 28:181–91. [aEEF, AL]
Cherubini, E., Herrling, P. L., Lanfumey, L. & Stanzione, P. (1988) Excitatory amino acids in synaptic excitation of rat striatal neurones in vitro. Journal of Physiology (London) 400:677–90. [aGEA]
Chomsky, N. (1986) Knowledge of language: Its nature, origin and uses. Praeger. [JER]
Claparé de, E. (1901) Experiences sur la vitesse du soulevement des poids de volumes differents. Archives de Psychologie de la Suisse Romande 1:6994. [AMG]
Clare, M. H. & Landau, W. M. (1964) Fusimotor function, part V. Reflex reinforcement under fusimotor block in normal subjects. Archives of Neurology 10:123–27. [rSCG]
Clark, F. J. (1975) Information signaled by sensory fibers in medial articular nerve. Journal of Neurophysiology 38:1464–72. [aSCG]
Clark, F. J. & Burgess, P. R. (1975) Slowly adapting receptors in cat knee joint: Can they signal joint angle? Journal of Neurophysiology 38:1448–63. [aSCG]
Clark, F. J., Burgess, R. C. & Chapin, J. W. (1986) Proprioception with the proximal interphalangeal joint of the index finger. Evidence for a movement sense without a static-position sense. Brain 109:11951208. [aSCG]
Clark, F. J., Burgess, R. C., Chapin, J. W. & Lipscomb, W. T. (1985) Role of intramuscular receptors in the awareness of limb position. Journal of Neurophysiology 54:1529–40. [aSCG]
Clark, F. J., Grigg, P. & Chapin, J. W. (1989) The contribution of articular receptors to proprioception with the fingers in humans. Journal of Neurophysiology 61:186–93. [aSCG]
Clark, F. J., Horch, K. W., Bach, S. M. & Larson, G. F. (1979) Contributions of cutaneous and joint receptors to static knee-position sense in man. Journal of Neurophysiology 42:877–88. [aSCG]
Clark, R. E., Zhang, A. A. & Lavond, D. G. (1992) Reversible lesions of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus during acquisition and retention of a classically conditioned behavior. Behavioral Neuroscience, in press. [rJRB, RFT]
Clarke, T. L. & Ronayne, T. (1991) Categorical approach to machine learning. Proceedings of the 1991 IEEE conference of systems, man and cybernetics. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [TLC]
Cleland, C. & Rymer, W. (1990) Neural mechanisms underlying the clasp knife reflex in the cat. I. Characteristics of the reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:1303–18. [aDAM]
Coburn, K. L., Ashford, J. W. & Fuster, J. M. (1990) Visual response latencies in temporal lobe structures as a function of stimulus information load. Behavioral Neuroscience 104:6273. [JMF]
Cogan, D. G. (1953) Ophthalmic manifestations of bilateral non-occipital cerebral lesions. British Journal of Ophthalmology 49:281–97. [JWG]
Cohen, L. A. (1961) Role of eye and neck proprioceptive mechanisms in body orientation and motor coordination. Journal of Neurophysiology 24:111. [DPC]
Colby, C. L. & Duhamel, J.-R. (1991) Heterogeneity of extrastriate visual areas and multiple parietal areas in the macaque monkey. Neuropsychologia 29:497515. [CLC]
Colby, C. L., Duhamel, J.-R. & Goldberg, M. E. (1992) The analysis of visual space by the lateral intraparietal area of the monkey: The role of extraretinal signals. Progress in Brain Research, in press. [CLC]
Cole, J. D. (1986) Observations on the sense of effort in a man without large myelinated cutaneous and proprioceptive sensory fibres below the neck. Journal of Physiology (London) 382:80P. [aSCG, PRC]
Cole, J. D., Katifi, H. A. & Sedgwick, E. M. (1986) Observations on a man without large myelinated fibre sensory input from below the neck. Journal of Physiology (London) 376:47P. [aSCG, PRC]
Cole, K. J. & Abbs, J. H. (1987) Kinematic and electromyographic responses to perturbation of a rapid grasp. Journal of Neurophysiology 57:14981510. [aSCG]
Colebatch, J. G. & McCloskey, D. I. (1987) Maintenance of constant arm position or force: Reflex and volitional components in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 386:247–61. [aSCG]
Colgate, J. E. (1988) The control of dynamically interacting systems. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering. MIT Press. [aEB]
Colgate, J. E. & Hogan, N. (1988) Robust control of dynamically interacting systems. International Journal of Control 48:6588. [aEB]
Connolly, C. I., Burns, J. B. & Weiss, R. (1990) Path planning using Laplace's equation. In: Proceedings of the 1990 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 3. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society Press. [CIC]
Conway, B. A., Hultborn, H. & Kiehn, O. (1987) Proprioceptive input resets central locomotor rhythm in the spinal cat. Experimental Brain Research 68:643–56. [VD]
Cook, D. & Kesner, R. P. (1988) Caudate nucleus and memory for egocentric localization. Behavioral Neural Biology 49:332–43. [DI]
Cooke, J. D. (1980) The role of stretch reflexes during active movements. Brain Research 181:493–97. [aSCG]
Cooke, K. L. & Grossman, Z. (1982) Discrete delay, distributed delay and stability switches. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 86:592627. [AB]
Cools, A. R., Jaspers, R., Schwarz, M., Sontag, K. H., Vrijmoed-deVries, M. & van den Bercken, J. (1984) Basal ganglia and switching motor programs. In: The basal ganglia. Structure and function, ed. McKenzie, J. S., Kemm, R. E. & Wilcock, L. N.. Plenum. [aGEA]
Corbetta, M., Miezin, F. M., Shulman, G. L. & Petersen, S. E. (1991) Selective attention modulates extrastriate visual regions in humans during visual feature discrimination and recognition. In: Exploring brain functional anatomy with positron tomography, ed. Chadwick, D. J. & Whelan, J.. Wiley. [RE]
Cordo, P. J. (1987) Mechanisms controlling accurate changes in elbow torque in humans. Journal of Neuroscience 7(2):432–42. [PJC]
Cordo, P. J. (1990) Kinesthetic control of a multijoint movement sequence. Journal of Neurophysiology 63:161–72. [aSCG]
Cordo, P. J. & Flanders, M. (1989) The sensory basis of target acquisition. Trends in Neuroscience 12:110–17. [PJC]
Corin, M. S. & Bender, M. B. (1972) Mislocalization in visual space. Archives of Neurology 27:252–62. [DPC]
Coulter, J. D. & Jones, E. G. (1977) Differential distribution of corticospinal projections from individual cytoarchitectonic fields in the monkey. Brain Research 129:335–40. [aEEF]
Courville, J. & Diakiw, N. (1976) Cerebellar cortico-nuclear projection in the cat. The vermis of the anterior and posterior lobes. Brain Research 110:120. [aJRB]
Crago, P. E., Houk, J. C. & Hasan, Z. (1976) Regulatory actions of the human stretch reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology 39:925–35. [SVA]
Crago, P. E., Houk, J. C. & Rymer, W. Z. (1982) Sampling of total muscle force by tendon organs. Journal of Neurophysiology 47:1069–83. [aSCG]
Crammond, D. J. & Kalaska, J. F. (1989) Neuronal activity in primate parietal cortex area 5 varies with intended movement direction during an instructed-delay period. Experimental Brain Research 76:458–62. [JFK, PM]
Craske, B. (1977) Perception of impossible limb positions induced by tendon vibration. Science 196:7173. [aSCG]
Crenna, P. & Frigo, C. (1987) Excitability of the soleus H-reflex arc during walking and stepping in man. Experimental Brain Research 66:4960. [aSCG]
Crepel, F. & Jaillard, D. (1991) Pairing of pre- and postsynaptic activities in cerebellar Purkinje cells induces long-term changes in synaptic efficacy in vitro. Journal of Physiology 432:123–41. [rJRB, cJFS]
Crick, F. (1984) Function of the thalamic reticular complex. The searchlight hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 81:4586–90. [aJFS]
Crick, F. (1989) The recent excitement about neural networks. Nature 337:129–32. [RE]
Critchley, M. (1953) The parietal lobes. Hafher. [aJFS]
Crone, C., Hultborn, H., Jespersen, B. & Nielsen, J. (1987) Reciprocal la inhibition between ankle flexors and extensors in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 389:163–85. [aSCG]
Crone, C., Hultborn, H., Kiehn, O., Mazieres, L. & Wigström, H. (1988) Maintained changes in motoneuronal excitability by short-lasting synaptic inputs in the decerebrate cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 405:321–43. [aDAM, AGF]
Crone, C. & Nielsen, J. (1989) Spinal mechanisms in man contributing to reciprocal inhibition during voluntary dorsiflexion of the foot. Journal of Physiology (London) 416:255–72. [aSCG]
Cross, M. J. & McCloskey, D. I. (1973) Position sense following surgical removal of joints in man. Brain Research 55:443–45. [aSCG]
Cruse, H. (1985) Which parameters control the leg movements of a walking insect? I. Velocity control during the stance phase. Journal of Experimental Biology 116:343–55. [JDe]
Cruse, H. (1986) Constraints for joint angle control of the human arm. Biological Cybernetics 54:125–32. [JDe]
Cruse, H. & Graham, D. (1985) Models for the analysis of walking in arthropods. In: Coordination of motor behaviour. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 24, ed. Bush, B. M. H. & Clarac, F.. Cambridge University Press. [JDe]
Cruse, H., Wischmeyer, E., Bruwer, M., Brockfeld, P. & Dress, A. (1990) On the cost functions for the control of the human arm movement. Biological Cybernetics 62:519–28. [JDe]
Crutcher, M. D. & Alexander, G. E. (1990) Movement-related neuronal activity selectively coding either direction or muscle pattern in three motor areas of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:151–63. [aGEA, aEEF, JMF]
Crutcher, M. D. & DeLong, M. R. (1984a) Single cell studies of the primate putamen I. Functional organization. Experimental Brain Research 53:233–43. [aGEA, CIC, MSG]
Crutcher, M. D. & DeLong, M. R. (1984b) Single cell studies of the primate putamen II. Relations to direction of movement and pattern of muscular activity. Experimental Brain Research 53:244–58. [aGEA, CIC]
Cullheim, S. & Kellerth, J.-O. (1978) A morphological study of the axons and recurrent axon collaterals of cat alpha-motoneurones supplying different hindlimb muscles. Journal of Physiology (London) 281:285–99. [TMH]
Cummins, R. & Schwarz, G. (1991) Connectionism, computation, and cognition. In: Connectionism and the philosophy of mind, ed. Horgan, T. & Tienson, J.. Kluwer. [GS]
Currie, S. N. & Stein, P. S. G. (1990) Cutaneous stimulation evokes longlasting excitation of spinal interneurons in the turtle. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:1134–48. [CAP]
Dahhaoui, M., Caston, J., Auvray, N. & Reber, A. (1990) Role of the cerebellum in an avoidance conditioning task in the rat. Physiology & Behavior 47:1175–80. [rJRB]
Darpa Neural Network Study (1988) AFCEA International Press. [HB]
Darton, K., Lippold, O. C. J., Shahani, M. & Shahani, U. (1985) Longlatency spinal reflexes in humans. Journal of Neurophysiology 53:1604–18. [JDu]
Davey, N. J. & Ellaway, P. H. (1989) Facilitation of individual γ-motoneurones by the discharge of single slowly adapting type 1 mechanoreceptors in cats. Journal of Physiology (London) 411:97114. [aSCG]
Davidoff, R. & Hackman, J. (1984) Spinal inhibition. In: Handbook of the spinal cord, ed. Davidoff, R. A.. Marcel Dekker. [aDAM]
Davies, J. G. M., Kirkwood, P. A. & Sears, T. A. (1985) The detection of monosynaptic connexions from inspiratory bulbospinal neurones to inspiratory motoneurones in the cat. Journal of Physiology 368:3362. [rEEF, PAK]
Davis, C. M. & Roberts, W. (1976) Lifting movements in the size-weight illusion. Perception and Psychophysics 20:3336. [HER]
Dawson, M. R. W. (1991) The how and why of what went where in apparent motion: Modeling solutions to the motion correspondence problem. Psychological Review 98:569603. [MRWD]
Day, B. L. & Marsden, C. D. (1982) Accurate repositioning of the human thumb against unpredictable dynamic loads is dependent upon peripheral feedback. Journal of Physiology (London) 327:393407. [aEB, aSCG, AGF, MH]
Day, B. L., Marsden, C. D., Obeso, J. A., Rothwell, J. C. (1984) Reciprocal inhibition between the muscles of the human forearm. Journal of Physiology (London) 349:519–34. [aSCG]
Dean, J. (1984) Control of leg protraction in the stick insect: A targeted movement showing compensation for externally applied forces. Journal of Comparative Physiology 155:771–81. [JDe]
Dean, J. (1990) Coding proprioceptive information to control movement to a target: Simulation with a simple neural network. Biological Cybernetics 63:115–20. [JDe]
Dean, J. (1991a) A model of leg coordination in the stick insect, Carausius morosus. II. Simulation of normal step patterns. Biological Cybernetics 64:403–11. [JDe]
Dean, J. (1991b) Effect of load on leg movement and step coordination of the stick insect Carausius morosus. Journal of Experimental Biology 159:449–71. [JDe]
Dean, J. & Brüwer, M. (1992) Control of human arm movements in two dimensions: Paths and joint control in avoiding simple linear obstacles. Proceedings of the 20th Gottingen Neurobiology Conference. Thieme Verlag, in press. [JDe]
Dean, J. & Cruse, H. (1986) Evidence for the control of velocity as well as position in leg protraction and retraction by the stick insect. In: Generation and modulation of action patterns, ed. Heuer, H. & Fromm, C.. Experimental Brain Research Series 15. Springer-Verlag. [JDe]
Decety, J. & Ingvar, D. H. (1990) Brain structures participating in mental simulation of motor behavior. A neuropsychological interpretation. Acta Psychologica 73:1334. [PM]
Deliagina, T. G. & Feldman, A. G. (1981) Activity of Renshaw cells during fictive scratch reflex in cat. Experimental Brain Research 42:108115. [CAP]
Deliagina, T. G., Feldman, A. G., Gelfand, I. M. & Orlovsky, G. N. (1975) On the role of central program and afferent inflow in the control of scratching movement in the cat. Brain Research 100:297313. [MBB, AP]
Deliagina, T. G. & Orlovsky, G. N. (1980) Activity of la inhibitory interneurons during fictive scratch reflex in the cat. Brain Research 193:439–47. [CAP]
Deliagina, T., Orlovsky, G., Pavlova, G. & Popova, L. (1981) Activity of propriospinal neurons of ventral horn of upper lumbar segments during fictive scratch reflex. Nejrofiziologija 13:647–48. [aDAM]
DeLong, M. R., Crutcher, M. D. & Georgopoulos, A. P. (1985) Primate globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus: Functional organization. Journal of Neurophysiology 53:530–43. [aGEA]
DeLuca, C. J. (1985) Control properties of motor units. Journal of Experimental Biology 115:125–36. [DBul]
Delwaide, P. J. & Gonce, M. (1988) Pathophysiology of Parkinson's signs. In: Parkinson's disease and movement disorders, ed. Jankovic, J. & Tolosa, E.. Urban & Schwarzenberg. [JJS]
Delwaide, P. J., Sabatino, M., Pepin, J. L. & La Grutta, V. (1988) Reinforcement of reciprocal inhibition by contralateral movements in man. Experimental Neurology 99:1016. [aSCG]
Denes, G., Caviezel, F. & Semenza, C. (1982) Difficulty in reaching objects and body parts: A sensorymotor disconnexion syndrome. Cortex 18:165–73. [MAG]
Deniau, J. M. & Chevalier, G. (1985) Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions. II. The striato-nigral influence on thalamocortical cells of the ventromedial thalamic nucleus. Brain Research 334:227–33. [aGEA]
Denning, P. J. & Tichy, W. F. (1990) Highly parallel computation. Science 250:1217–22. [aGEA]
Denny-Brown, D. (1962) The basal ganglia and their relation to disorders of movement. Oxford University Press. [GMa]
Denny-Brown, D. & Chambers, R. A. (1958) The parietal lobes and behavior. Research Publications for the Association of Research in Mental Disease 36:35117. [aJFS]
Desimone, R. & Ungerleider, L. G. (1989) Neural mechanisms of visual processing in monkeys. In: Handbook of neuropsychology, vol. 2, ed. Boiler, F. & Grafman, J.. Elsevier. [RE]
Devanandan, M.S., Ghosh, S. & John, K. T. (1983) A quantitative study of muscle spindles and tendon organs in some intrinsic muscles of the hand in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Anatomical Record 207:263–66. [aSCG]
Devaney, R. L. (1986) An introduction to chaotic dynamical systems. Cummings. [DSB]
DeVito, J. L. & Anderson, M. E. (1982) An autoradiographic study of efferent connections of the globus pallidus. Experimental Brain Research 46:107–17. [aGEA]
DeVito, J. L., Anderson, M. E. & Walsh, K. E. (1980) A horseradish peroxidase study of afferent connections of the globus pallidus in Macaca mulatta. Experimental Brain Research 38:6573. [aGEA]
Dichgans, J. & Diener, H. C. (1985) Clinical evidence for functional compartmentalization of the cerebellum. In: Cerebellar functions, ed. Bloedel, J. R., Dichgans, J. D. & Precht, W.. Springer. [aJRB]
Diener, H. C., Dichgans, J., Bacher, M. & Gompf, B. (1984) Quantification of postural sway in normals and patients with cerebellar diseases. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 57:134–42. [aJRB]
Dietrichs, E. & Walberg, F. (1979) The cerebellar corticonuclear and nucleocortical projections in the cat studied with anterograde and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. I. The paramedian lobule. Anatomy and Embryology 158:1339. [aJRB]
Dietrichs, E. & Walberg, F. (1980) The cerebellar corticonuclear and nucleocortical projections in the cat as studied with anterograde and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. II. Lobulus simplex, Crus I and Crus II. Anatomy and Embryology 161:83103. [aJRB]
Dietz, V. (1992) Human neuronal control of automatic functional movements: Interaction between central programs and afferent input. Physiological Reviews 72:3369. [VD]
Dietz, V., Berger, W. & Quintem, J. (1987) Task-dependent gating of somatosensory transmission in two different motor tasks in man: Falling and writing. Neuroscience Letters 75:288–92. [VD]
Dietz, V., Faist, M. & Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1990) Amplitude modulation of the quadriceps H-reflex in the human during the early stance phase of gait. Experimental Brain Research 79:221–24. [aDAM]
Dietz, V., Gollhofer, A., Kleiber, M. & Trippel, M. (1992) Regulation of bipedal stance: Dependency on “load” receptors. Experimental Brain Research 89:229–31. [VD]
Dietz, V., Horstmann, G. A. & Berger, W. (1989a) Interlimb co-ordination of leg muscle activation during perturbation of stance in humans. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:680–93. [VD]
Dietz, V., Horstmann, G. A., Trippel, M. & Gollhofer, A. (1989b) Human postural reflexes and gravity—an underwater simulation. Neuroscience Letters 106:350–55. [VD]
Dietz, V., Trippel, M. & Berger, W. (1991a) Reflex activity and muscle tone during elbow movements in patients with spastic paresis. Annals of Neurology 30:767–79. [VD]
Dietz, V., Trippel, M., Discher, M. & Horstmann, G. A. (1991b) Compensation of human stance perturbations: Selection of the appropriate electromyographic pattern. Neuroscience Letters 126:7174. [VD]
Dimitrov, B., Hallett, M. & Sanes, J. N. (1989) Differential influence of posture and intentional movement on human somatosensory evoked potentials evoked by different stimuli. Brain Research 496:211–18. [aSCG]
Dinse, H. R., Krueger, K. & Best, J. (1990) A temporal structure of cortical information processing. Concepts in Neuroscience 1:199238. [IT]
Disterhoft, J. F., Quinn, K. J., Weiss, C. & Shipley, M. T. (1985) Accessory abducens nucleus and conditioned eye retraction nictitating membrane extension in rabbit. Journal of Neuroscience 5:941–50. [RFT]
Divac, I., Lavail, J. H., Rakic, P. & Winston, K. R. (1977) Heterogeneous afferents to the inferior parietal lobule of the rhesus monkey revealed by the retrograde transport method. Brain Research 123:197207. [aJFS]
Dodwell, P. C. (1983) The Lie transformation group model of visual perception. Perception & Psychophysics 34:116. [TLC]
Donoghue, J. P., Suner, S. & Sanes, J. N. (1990) Dynamic organization of primary motor cortex output to target muscles in adult rats. II. Rapid reorganization following motor nerve lesions. Experimental Brain Research 79:492503. [aGEA]
Dore, L., Jacobson, C. D. & Hawkes, R. (1990) Organization and postnatal development of zebrin II antigenic compartmentation in the cerebellar vermis of the grey opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Journal of Comparative Neurology 291:431–49. [aJRB]
Dow, R. S. & Moruzzi, G. (1958) The physiology and pathology of the cerebellum. University of Minnesota Press. [rJRB]
Drew, T., Dubuc, R. & Rossignol, S. (1986) Discharge patterns of reticulospinal and other reticular neurons in chronic, unrestrained cats walking on a treadmill. Journal of Neurophysiology 55:375401. [rDAM]
Driver, J. & Halligan, P. (1991) Can visual neglect operate in object-centered coordinates? Cognitive Neuropsychology 8:475–96. [rJFS]
Duenas, S. & Rudomin, P. (1988) Excitability changes of ankle extensor group la and Ib fibers during fictive locomotion in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 70:1525. [aDAM]
Dugas, C., Picard, N. & Smith, A. M. (1989) Changes in simple and complex spike activity in Purkinje cells induced by slip of an object held between the thumb and forefinger. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15:613. [JMB]
Duhamel, J.-R., Colby, C. L. & Goldberg, M. E. (1991) Congruent representations of visual and somatosensory space in single neurons of monkey ventral intra-parietal cortex (area VIP). In: Brain and space, ed. Paillard, J.. Oxford University Press. [JFK]
Duhamel, J.-R., Colby, C. L. & Goldberg, M. E. (1992) The updating of the representation of visual space in parietal cortex by intended eye movements. Science 255:9092. [CLC, RE, JWG]
Dum, R. P. & Strick, P. L. (1991) Premotor areas: Nodal points for parallel efferent systems involved in the central control of movement. In: Motor control: Concepts and issues, ed. Humphrey, D. R. & H.-J., Freund. Wiley. [aGEA]
Duncan, J. (1977) Response selection rules in spatial choice reaction tasks. In: Attention and performance, ed. Dornic, S.. Erlbaum. [RWP]
Durlach, N. I., Delhorne, L. A., Wong, A., Ko, W. Y., Rabinowitz, W. M. & Hollenbach, J. (1989) Manual discrimination and identification of length by the finger-span method. Perception & Phychophysics 46:2938. [FC]
Duysens, J. & Pearson, K. G. (1980) Inhibition of flexor burst generation by loading extensor muscles in walking cat. Brain Research 187:321–32. [VD, APr]
Duysens, J. & Stein, R. B. (1978) Reflexes induced by nerve stimulation in walking cats with implanted cuff electrodes. Experimental Brain Research 32:213–24. [JDu]
Duysens, J., Tax, A. A. M., Doelen, B. van der, Trippel, M. & Dietz, V. (1991) Selective activation of human soleus or gastrocnemius in reflex responses during walking and running. Experimental Brain Research 87:193204. [JDu]
Duysens, J., Trippel, M., Horstmann, G. A. & Dietz, V. (1990) Gating and reversal of reflexes in ankle muscles during human walking. Experimental Brain Research 82:351–35. [JDu]
Dyck, P. J. & Brown, M. J. (1987) Diabetic polyneuropathy. In: Diabetic neuropathy, ed. Dyck, P. J., Thomas, P. K., Asbury, A. K., Winegrad, A. I. & Porte, D.. Saunders. [PRC]
Dyck, P. J., Karnes, J. & O'Brien, P. C. (1987a) Diagnosis, staging, and classification of diabetic neuropathy and association with other complications. In: Diabetic neuropathy, ed. Dyck, P. J., Thomas, P. K., Asbury, A. K., Winegrad, A. I. & Porte, D.. Saunders. [PRC]
Dyck, P. J., Karnes, J., O'Brien, P. C. & Zimmerman, I. R. (1987b) Detection thresholds of cutaneous sensation in humans. In: Peripheral neuropathy, ed. Dyck, P. J., Thomas, P. K., Lambert, E. H. & Bunge, R.. Saunders. [PRC]
Ebner, T. J. & Bloedel, J. R. (1984) Climbing fiber action on the responsiveness of Purkinje cells to parallel fiber inputs. Brain Research 309:182–86. [arJRB]
Ebner, T. J., Yu, Q.-X. & Bloedel, J. R. (1983) Increase in Purkinje cell gain associated with naturally activated climbing fiber inputs. Journal of Neurophysiology 50:205–19. [arJRB]
Eccles, J. C. (1969) The dynamic loop hypothesis of movement control. In: Information processing in the nervous system, ed. Leibovic, K. N.. Springer-Verlag. [cJFS]
Eccles, J. C. (1977) An instruction-selection theory of learning in the cerebellar cortex. Brain Research 127:327–52. [RFT]
Eccles, J. C. (1982) The initiation of voluntary movements by the supplementary motor area. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 231:423–41. [aGEA]
Eccles, J. C., Eccles, R. M. & Lundberg, A. (1957) Synaptic actions on motoneurones caused by impulses in Golgi tendon organ afferents. Journal of Physiology (London) 138:227–52. [DBul]
Eccles, J. C., Fatt, P. & Koketsu, K. (1954) Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a pathway from motor-axon collaterals to motoneurones. Journal of Physiology (London) 126:524–62. [aDAM, DBul]
Eccles, J. C., Ito, M. & Szentagothai, J. (1967) The cerebellum as a neuronal machine. Springer-Verlag. [aJRB, RFT]
Eccles, J. C., Llinas, R. & Sasaki, K. (1966) The excitatory synaptic action of climbing fibres on the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Journal of Physiology 182:268–96. [cJFS]
Eccles, R. M. & Lundberg, A. (1958) Integrative pattern of Ia synaptic actions on motoneurons of hip and knee muscles. Journal of Physiology (London) 144:271–98. [DBul]
Eccles, R. M. & Lundberg, A. (1959) Synaptic action in motoneurones by afferents which may evoke the flexion reflex. Archives Italiennes de Biologie 97:199221. [aDAM]
Edelman, G. M. & Mountcastle, V. B. (1978) The mindful brain: Cortical organization and the group-selective theory of higher brain function. MIT Press. [aJRB]
Edgley, S. & Jankowska, E. (1987) An interneuronal relay for group I and II muscle afferents in the middle lumbar segments of the cat spinal cord. Journal of Physiology 389:647–74. [aDAM]
Edgley, S. A., Jankowska, E. & Schefchyk, (1988) Evidence that mid-lumbar neurones in reflex pathways from group II afferents are involved in locomotion in the cat. Journal of Physiology 403:5771. [aDAM, AL]
Edgley, S. & Wallace, N. (1989) A short-latency crossed pathway from cutaneous afferents to rat hindlimb motoneurones. Journal of Physiology 411:469–80. [aDAM]
Edin, B. B. & Abbs, J. H. (1991) Finger movement responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the dorsal skin of the human hand. Journal of Neurophysiology 65:657–70. [aSCG]
Edin, B. B. & Vallbo, Å. B. (1990a) Dynamic response of human muscle spindle afferents to stretch. Journal of Neurophysiology 63:12971306. [aSCG]
Edin, B. B. & Vallbo, Å. B. (1990b) Classification of human muscle stretch receptor afferents: A Bayesian approach. Journal of Neurophysiology 63:1314–22. [aSCG]
Edin, B. B. & Vallbo, Å. B. (1990c) Muscle afferent responses to isometric contractions and relaxations in humans. Journal of Neurophysiology 63:1307–12. [aSCG]
Edin, B. E., Westling, G. & Johansson, R. S. (1992) Independent control of human finger tip forces at individual digits during precision lifting. Journal of Physiology, in press. [AMG]
Edwards, R. T. H., Wiles, C. M. & Mills, K. R. (1984) Quantitation of muscle contraction and strength. In: Peripheral neuropathy, ed. Dyck, P. J., Thomas, P. K., Lambert, E. H. & Bunge, R.. Saunders. [PRC]
Eich, J. (1982) A composite holographic associative recall model. Psychological Review 89:627–61. [BB]
Eklund, G. (1972) Position sense and state of contraction: The effects of vibration. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 35:606–11. [aSCG]
Eldred, E., Granit, R. & Merton, P. A. (1953) Supraspinal control of the muscle spindles and its significance. Journal of Physiology (London) 122:498523. [rEB]
Eliasson, A. C., Gordon, A. M. & Forssberg, H. (1991) Basic coordination of manipulative forces in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 33:661–70. [AMG]
Ellaway, P. H. (1968) Antidromic inhibition of fusimotor neurons. Journal of Physiology (London) 198:3940. [DBul]
Ellaway, P. H. & Murphy, P. R. (1980) A quantitative comparison of recurrent inhibition of alpha- and gamma-motoneurones in the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 315:4358. [DBul]
Elman, J. (1990) Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science 14:179211. [JER]
Elner, A. M., Gurfinkel, V. S., Lipshits, M. I., Mamasakhlisov, G. H. & Popov, K. E. (1976) Facilitation of stretch reflex by additional support during quiet stance. Agressologie 17:1520. [VD]
Emonet-Dénand, F., Hunt, C. C. & Laporte, Y. (1985) Effects of stretch on dynamic fusimotor after-effects in cat muscle spindle. Journal of Physiology (London) 360:201–21. [JP]
Engberg, I. (1964) Reflexes to foot muscles in the cat. Ada Physiologica Scandinavica 62:Suppl. 235. [aDAM]
Engberg, I., Lundberg, A. & Ryall, R. W. (1968) Reticulospinal inhibition of interneurones. Journal of Physiology 194:225–36. [aDAM]
Engen, T. (1971) Psychophysics. In: Experimental psychology, ed. Kling, J. W. & Riggs, L. A.. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [HER]
Evans, A. L., Harrison, L. M. & Stephens, J. A. (1989) Task-dependent changes in cutaneous reflexes recorded from various muscles controlling finger movement in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 418:112. [aSCG]
Evarts, E. V. (1968) Relation of pyramidal tract activity to force exerted during voluntary movement. Journal of Neurophysiology 31:1427. [aEEF, MEI]
Evarts, E. V. (1981) Role of motor cortex in voluntary movement In: Handbook of physiology, vol. 2. American Physiological Society, Waverly Press. [aEEF, MEI]
Evarts, E. V., Fromm, C., Kroller, J. & Jennings, V. A. (1983) Motor cortex control of finely graded forces. Journal of Neurophysiology 49:11991215. [aEB]
Ewert, J.-P. & Gebauer, L. (1973) Grossenkonstanzphanomene im Beutefangverhalten der Erdkröte. Bufo bufo L. Journal of Comparative Physiology 85:303–15. [DI]
Farah, M. (1990) Visual agnosia. MIT Press. [MAG]
Feigenbaum, J. D. & Rolls, E. T. (1991) Allocentric and egocentric spatial information processing in the hippocampal formation of the behaving primate. Psychobiology 19:2140. [WAM]
Feldman, A. G. (1966a) Functional tuning of the nervous system during control of movement or maintenance of a steady posture II. Controllable parameters of the muscle. Biofizika 11:498508 [English translation 565–78]. [GCA, AGF, GLG, MLL, JBJS]
Feldman, A. G. (1966b) Functional tuning of the nervous system during control of movement or maintenance of a steady posture. III. Mechanographic analysis of the execution by man of the simplest motor task. Biophysics 11:766–75. [aEB, SRG]
Feldman, A. G. (1976) Control of postural length and force of a muscle: Advantages of the central co-activation of alpha and gamma static motoneurons. Biophysics 21:187–89. [AGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1979) Central and reflex mechanisms in the control of movement [in Russian]. Nauka. [SVA, AAF, AGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1980a) Superposition of motor programs. I. Rhythmic forearm movements in man. Neuroscience 5:8190. [PRB]
Feldman, A. G. (1980b) Superposition of motor programs. II. Rapid forearm movements in man. Neuroscience 5:8190. [SVA]
Feldman, A. G. (1986) Once more for the equilibrium point hypothesis (Ι. model). Journal of Motor Behavior 18:1754. [aEB, GCA, AAF, AGF, SRG, MLL, NL, DJO, GJvIS, RBS]
Feldman, A. G., Adamovich, S. V., Ostry, D. J. & Flanagan, J. R. (1990) The origin of electromyograms - Explanations based on the point hypothesis. In: Multiple muscle systems: Biomechanics and movement organization, ed. Winters, J. & Woo, S. L.-Y.. Springer-Verlag. [SVA, AGF, GLG, SRG, NL, DJO, JBJS]
Feldman, J. A. & Ballard, D. H. (1982) Connectionist models and their properties. Cognitive Science 6:205–54. [aGEA]
Feldman, A. G. & Latash, M. L. (1982) Interaction of afferent and efferent signals underlying joint position sense: Empirical and theoretical approaches. Journal of Motor Behavior 14:174–93. [AGF]
Feldman, A. G. & Orlovsky, G. N. (1972) The influence of different descending systems on the tonic stretch reflex in the cat. Experimental Neurology 37:481–94. [AGF, MLL]
Felleman, D. J. & Van Essen, D. C. (1991) Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex 1:147. [GS]
Ferrell, W. R. (1980) The adequacy of stretch receptors in the cat knee joint for signalling joint angle throughout a full range of movement. Journal of Physiology (London) 299:8599. [aSCG]
Ferrell, W. R. (1987) The effect of acute joint distension on mechanoreceptor discharge in the knee of the cat. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 72:493–99. [aSCG]
Ferrell, W. R., Baxendale, R. H. Carnachan, C. & Hart, I. K. (1985) The influence of joint afferent discharge on locomotion, proprioception and activity in conscious cats. Brain Research 347:4148. [aSCG]
Ferrell, W. R., Gandevia, S. C. & McCIoskey, D. I. (1987) The role of joint receptors in human kinaesthesia when intramuscular receptors cannot contribute. Journal of Physiology (London) 386:6371. [aSCG]
Ferrell, W. R. & Smith, A. (1988) Position sense at the proximal interphalangeal joint of the human index finger. Journal of Physiology (London) 399:4961. [aSCG]
Ferrell, W. R. & Smith, A. (1989) The effect of loading on position sense at the proximal interphalangeal joint of the human index finger. Journal of Physiology (London) 418:145–61. [aSCG]
Ferrington, D. G., Nail, D. S. & Rowe, M. (1977) Human tactile detection thresholds: Modification by inputs from specific tactile receptor classes. Journal of Physiology 272:415–33. [aSCG]
Fetz, E. E. (1981) Neuronal activity associated with conditioned limb movements. In: Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, vol. 2: Motor coordination, ed. Towe, A. L. & Luschei, E. S.. Plenum Press. [arEEF]
Fetz, E. E. (1992) Dynamic neural network models of sensorimotor behavior. In: The neurobiology of neural networks, ed. Gardner, D.. MIT Press, in press. [rEEF]
Fetz, E. E. & Cheney, P. D. (1980) Postspike facilitation of forelimb muscle activity by primate corticomotoneuronal cells. Journal of Neurophysiology 44:751–72. [aGEA, aEEF, cSCG, AL]
Fetz, E. E., Cheney, P. D., Mewes, K. & Palmer, S. (1989) Control of forelimb muscle activity by populations of corticomotoneuronal and rubromotoneuronal cells. In: Peripheral control of posture and locomotion, ed. Allum, J. A. H. & Hulliger, M.. Elsevier [aGEA, aEEF]
Fetz, E. E., Cheney, P. D., Mewes, K. & Palmer, S. (1990) Control of forelimb muscle activity by populations of corticomotoneuronal and rubromotoneuronal cells. Progress in Brain Research 80:437–49. [rEEF]
Fetz, E. E. & Finocchio, D. V. (1972) Operant conditioning of isolated activity in specific muscles and precentral cells. Brain Research 40:1923. [MEI]
Fetz, E. E. & Finocchio, D. V. (1975) Correlations between activity of motor cortex cells and arm muscles during operantly conditioned response patterns. Experimental Brain Research 23:217–40. [aEEF, MEI]
Fetz, E. E., Finocchio, D. V., Baker, M. A. & Soso, M. J. (1980) Sensory and motor responses of precentral cortex cells during comparable passive and active joint movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 43:1070–89. [aEEF]
Fetz, E. E. & Shupe, L. E. (1990) Neural network models of the primate motor system. In: Advanced neural computers, ed. Eckmiller, R.. Elsevier/North-Holland. [aEEF]
Fetz, E. E., Shupe, L. E. & Murthy, V. N. (1990) Neural networks controlling wrist movements. Proceedings of the 1990 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks 2:675–79. [aGEA, aEEF]
Fetz, E. E., Toyama, K. & Smith, W. (1991) Synaptic interactions between cortical neurons. In: Cerebral cortex, vol. 9: Altered cortical states, ed. Peters, A. & Jones, E. G.. Plenum Press. [rEEF]
Fischer, B. & Rogal, L. (1986) Eye-hand-coordination in man: A reaction time study. Biological Cybernetics 55:253–61. [VD]
Flament, D., Fortier, P. A. & Fetz, E. E. (1992) Response patterns and postspike effects of peripheral afferents in dorsal root ganglia of behaving monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 67:875–89. [arEEF]
Flament, D. & Hore, J. (1986) Movement and electromyographic disorders associated with cerebellar dysmetria. Journal of Neurophysiology 55:1221–33. [aJRB]
Flanagan, J. R., Feldman, A. G. & Ostry, D. J. (1992) Equilibrium trajectories underlying rapid target-directed arm movements. In: Tutorials in motor behavior. II, ed. Stelmach, G. E. & Requin, J.. North-Holland. [DJO]
Flanagan, J. R., Ostry, D. J. & Feldman, A. G. (1990) Control of human jaw and multi-joint arm movements. In: Cerebral control of speech and limb movements, ed. Hammond, G. E.. Elsevier Science. [arEB, DJO]
Flanders, M. & Soechting, J. F. (1990) Parcellation of sensorimotor transformations for arm movements. Journal of Neuroscience 10:2420–27. [MF]
Flanders, M., Tillery, S. I. H. & Soechting, J. F. (1992) Early stages in a sensorimotor transformation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15(2):309–20. [MF, PG]
Flash, T. (1987) The control of hand equilibrium trajectories in multi-joint arm movements. Biological Cybernetics 57:257–74. [aEB, SVA, JDe, AAF, GEL, NL]
Flash, T. & Henis, E. (1991) Arm trajectory modifications during reaching towards visual targets. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 3:220230. [rEB]
Flash, T. & Hogan, N. (1985) The coordination of arm movements: An experimentally confirmed mathematical model. Journal of Neuroscience 5:16881703. [aGEA, JDe, SRG]
Fleshman, J. W., Munson, J. B. & Sypert, G. W. (1981) Homonymous projection of individual group Ia fibers to physiologically characterized medial gastrocnemius motoneurons in the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 46:1339–48. [TRN]
Fleshman, J., Rudomin, P. & Burke, R. (1988) Supraspinal control of a shortlatency cutaneous pathway to hindlimb motoneurons. Experimental Brain Research 69:449–59. [aDAM]
Fodor, J. (1983) The modularity of mind. MIT Press. [GS]
Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., de Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Gentilucci, M., Luppino, G., Matelli, M., Pedotti, A. & Rizzolatti, G. (submitted) Space coding by premotor cortex. [MSG]
Forget, R. & Lamarre, Y. (1987) Rapid elbow flexion in the absence of proprioceptive and cutaneous feedback. Human Neurobiology 6:2737. [aSCG, PRC]
Forssberg, H. (1985) Ontogeny of human locomotor control I. Infant stepping, supported locomotion and transition to independent locomotion. Experimental Brain Research 57:480–93. [VD]
Fortier, P. A., Kalaska, J. F. & Smith, A. M. (1989) Cerebellar neuronal activity related to whole-arm reaching movements in the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:198211. [aJRB, aEEF]
Fournier, E., Katz, R. & Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1983) Descending control of reflex pathways in the production of voluntary isolated movements in man. Brain Research 288:357–77. [aSCG]
Fox, C. A., Andrade, A. N., Hillman, D. E. & Schwyn, R. C. (1971) The spiny neurons in the primate striatum. A golgi and electron microscopic study. Journal für Hirnforschung 13:181201. [aGEA]
Fox, G. C. (1988) Solving problems with concurrent processors. Prentice Hall. [aJFS]
Francois, C., Percheron, G., Yelnick, J. & Heyner, S. (1984) A golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. I. Inconstant processes of large neurons, other neuronal types, and afferent axons. Journal of Comparative Neurology 227:182–99. [aGEA]
Freeman, W. J. (1987) Simulation of chaotic EEG patterns with a dynamic model of the olfactory system. Biological Cybernetics 56:139–50. [IT]
Freeman, W. J. (1990) Nonlinear neural dynamics in olfaction as a model for cognition. In: Chaos in brain function, ed. Basar, E.. Springer-Verlag. [TLC]
Freeman, W. J. & van Dijk, B. W. (1987) Spatial patterns of visual cortical fast EEG during conditioned reflex in a rhesus monkey. Brain Research 422:267–76. [aJFS]
Frolov, A. A., Biryukova, E. V. & Roschin, V. Y. (1992) Neural model of multijoint movement learning and control. In: Proceedings of 1992 RNNS/IEEE Symposium on Neuroinformatics and Neurocomputers, Rostov-on-Don, in press. [AAF]
Frolov, A. G. (1983) The effect of instrumentalization of inborn reaction on its transformation into contrary directed escape response in dogs and the problem of reinforcement. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 43:114. [MEI]
Fromm, C. & Evarts, E. V. (1981) Relation of size and activity of motor cortex pyramidal tract neurons during skilled movements in the monkey. Journal of Neuroscience 1:453–60. [aSCG]
Fu, T., Hultborn, H., Larsson, R. & Lundberg, A. (1978) Reciprocal inhibition during the tonic stretch reflex in the decerebrate cat. Journal of Physiology 284:345369. [rDAM]
Fujita, M. (1982) Adaptive filter model of the cerebellum. Biological Cybernetics 45:195206. [aJRB, AAF]
Fukami, Y. & Wilkinson, R. S. (1977) Responses of isolated Golgi tendon organs of the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 265:673–89. [aSCG]
Fukson, O. I., Berkinblit, M. B. & Feldman, A. G. (1980) The spinal frog takes into account the scheme of its body during the wiping reflex. Science 209:1261–63. [aEB, SG]
Fukushima, K., Perlmutter, S. I., Baker, J. F. & Peterson, B. W. (1990) Spatial properties of second-order vestibulo-ocular relay neurons in the alert cat. Experimental Brain Research 81:462–78. [aDAR, CLC]
Fung, S. J., Pompeiano, O. & Barnes, C. C. (1988) Coerulospinal influence on recurrent inhibition of spinal motonuclei innervating antagonistic hindleg muscles of the cat. Pflugers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology 412(4):346–53. [FBH]
Fuster, J. M. (1985) The prefrontal cortex and temporal integration. In: The cerebral cortex, vol. 4, ed. Peters, A. & Jones, E. G.. [aEEF]
Fuster, J. M. (1989) The prefrontal cortex, 2nd ed. Raven Press. [JMF]
Gaffan, D. & Harrison, S. (1989) Place memory and scene memory effects of fomix transection in the monkey. Experimental Brain Research 74:202–12. [aJFS]
Galleti, C. & Battaglini, P. P. (1989) Gaze-dependent visual neurons in area {V}3a of monkey prestriate cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 9:1112–25. [APo]
Gandevia, S. C. (1982) The perception of motor commands or effort during muscular paralysis. Brain 105:151–59. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. (1985) Illusory movements produced by electrical stimulation of lowthreshold muscle afferents from the hand. Brain 108:965–81. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. (1987) Roles for perceived voluntary motor commands in motor control. Trends in Neurosciences 10:8185. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & Burke, D. (1985) Effect of training on voluntary activation of human fusimotor neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 54:1422–29. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & Burke, D. (1988) Projection to the cerebral cortex from proximal and distal muscles in the human upper limb. Brain 111:389403. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C., Burke, D. & McKeon, B. (1984) The projection of muscle afferents from the hand to cerebral cortex in man. Brain 107:113. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C., Burke, D. & McKeon, B. (1986a) Coupling between human muscle spindle endings and motor units assessed using spike-triggered averaging. Neuroscience Letters 71:181–86. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C., Hall, L. A., McCloskey, D. I. & Potter, E. K. (1983) Proprioceptive sensation at the terminal joint of the middle finger. Journal of Physiology (London) 335:507–17. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & Kilbreath, S. (1990) Accuracy of weight estimation for weights lifted by proximal and distal muscles of the human upper limb. Journal of Physiology (London) 423:299310. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & Macefield, G. (1989) Projection of low-threshold afferents from human intercostal muscles to the cerebral cortex. Respiration Physiology 77:203–14. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C., Macefield, G., Burke, D. & McKenzie, D. K. (1990) Voluntary activation of human motor axons in the absence of muscle afferent feedback: The control of the deafferented hand. Brain 113:1563–81. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & Mahutte, C. K. (1982) Theoretical requirements for the interpretation of signals of intramuscular tension. Journal of Theoretical Biology 97:141–53. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & McCloskey, D. I. (1976) Joint sense, muscle sense, and their combination as position sense measured at the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger. Journal of Physiology (London) 260:387407. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & McCloskey, D. I. (1977a) Sensations of heaviness. Brain 100:345–54. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & McCloskey, D. I. (1977b) Effects of related sensory inputs on motor performances in man studied through changes in perceived heaviness. Journal of Physiology (London) 272:653–72. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & McCloskey, D. I. (1978) Interpretation of perceived motor commands by reference to afferent signals. Journal of Physiology (London) 283:493–99. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C., McCloskey, D. I. & Burke, D. (1992) Kinaesthetic signals and muscle contraction. Trends in Neurosciences 15:6265. [rSCG]
Gandevia, S. C., Miller, S., Aniss, A. M. and Burke, D. (1986b) Reflex influences on muscle spindle activity in relaxed human leg muscles. Journal of Neurophysiology 56:159–70. [aSCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & Rothwell, J. C. (1987) Knowledge of motor commands and the recruitment of human motoneurons. Brain 110:1117–30. [aSCG, MLL]
Garcia-Rill, E. (1986) The basal ganglia and the locomotor regions. Brain Research Reviews 11:4763. [GMa]
Garner, W. R. (1962) Uncertainty and structure as psychological concepts. Wiley. [FJC]
Garner, W. R. & McGill, W. J. (1956) The relation between information and variance analysis. Psychometrika 21:219–28. [FJC]
Gasser, H. S. & Hill, A. V. (1924) The dynamics of muscular contraction. Proceedings of The Royal Society B96:398s–437. [ZH]
Gauthier, G. M. & Mussa-Ivaldi, F. (1988) Oculo-manual tracking of visual targets in monkeys: Role of the arm afferent information in the control of arm and eye movements. Experimental Brain Research 73:138–54. [aJRB]
Gauthier, G. M., Vercher, J.-L., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. & Marchetti, E. (1988) Oculo-manual tracking of visual targets: Control learning, coordination control and coordination model. Experimental Brain Research 73:127–37. [aJRB]
Gelfand, I. M., Gurfinkel, V. S., Kots, Y. M., Tsetlin, M. L. & Shik, M. L. (1963) Synchronization of motor units and associated model concepts. Biofizika 8:475–86. [TMH]
Gellman, R., Gibson, A. R. & Houk, J. C. (1985) Inferior olivary neurons in the awake cat: Detection of contact and passive body movement. Journal of Neurophysiology 54:4060. [aJRB]
Gentilucci, M., Fogassi, L. Luppino, G., Matelli, M., Camarda, R. & Rizzolatti, G. (1988) Functional organization of inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey. I. Somatotopy and the control of proximal movements. Experimental Brain Research 71:475–90. [JFK]
Gentilucci, M., Scandolara, C., Pigarev, I. & Rizzolatti, G. (1983) Visual responses in the postarcuate cortex (area 6) of the monkey that are independent of eye position. Experimental Brain Research 50:464–68. [MSG]
Georgopoulos, A. P. (1991) Higher order motor control. Annual Review of Neuroscience 14:361–77. [aEB, MF, RBS]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Caminiti, R., Kalaska, J. F. & Massey, J. T. (1983) Spatial coding of movement: A hypothesis concerning the coding of movement direction by motor cortical populations. Experimental Brain Research (suppl.) 7:327–36. [aEB, WAM]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Crutcher, M. D. & Schwartz, A. B. (1989) Cognitive spatial motor processes. III. Motor cortical prediction of movement direction during an instructed delay period. Experimental Brain Research 75:183–94. [aGEA]
Georgopoulos, A. P. & Grillner, S. (1989) Visuomotor coordination in reaching and locomotion. Science 245:1209–10. [JFK]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Kalaska, J. F., Caminiti, R. & Massey, J. T. (1982) On the relations between the direction of two-dimensional arm movements and cell discharge in primate motor cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 2:1527–37. [aEB, MH, DSL, PM]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Kalaska, J. F., Crutcher, M. D., Caminiti, R. & Massey, J. T. (1984) The representation of movement direction in the motor cortex: Single cell and population studies. In: Dynamic aspects of neocortical function, ed. Edelman, G. E., Gall, W. E. & Cowan, W. M. Wiley. [aEEF, BB]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Kettner, R. E. & Schwartz, A. B. (1988) Primate motor cortex and free arm movements to visual targets in three-dimensional space. II. Coding of the direction by a neuronal population. Journal of Neuroscience 8:2928–37. [aSCG]
Georgopoulos, A. P. & Massey, J. T. (1988) Cognitive spatial-motor processes. Experimental Brain Research 69:315–26. [FJC]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Schwartz, A. B. & Kettner, R. E. (1986) Neuronal population coding of movement direction. Science 233:13571440. [aJRB, PR]
Gevins, A. S., Bressler, S. L., Morgan, N. H., Cutillo, B. A., White, R. M., Greer, D. S. & Illes, J. (1989a) Event-related covariances during a bimanual visuomotor task. I. Methods and analysis of stimulus-and response-locked data. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 74:5875. [JMF]
Gevins, A. S., Cutillo, B. A., Bressler, S. L., Morgan, N. H., White, R. M., Illes, J. & Greer, D. S. (1989b) Event-related covariances during a bimanual visuomotor task. II. Preparation and feedback. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 74:147–60. [JMF]
Ghez, C. & Gordon, J. (1987) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses. I. Role of opposing muscles. Experimental Brain Research 67:225–40. [MLL]
Ghez, C., Gordon, J., Ghilardi, M. F., Christakos, C. M. & Cooper, S. E. (1990) Roles of proprioceptive input in the programming of armtrajectories. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia in Quantitative Biology, vol. 55, in press. [aSCG]
Ghez, C. & Martin, J. H. (1982) The control of rapid limb movement in the cat 3. agonist-antagonist coupling. Experimental Brain Research 45:115–25. [NL]
Gibson, A. R., Houk, J. C. & Kohlerman, N. J. (1985) Relation between red nucleus discharge and movement parameters in trained macaque monkeys. Journal of Physiology (London) 358:551–70. [aEEF]
Gibson, A. R., Robinson, F. R., Alam, J. & Houk, J. C. (1987) Somatotopic alignment between climbing fiber input and nuclear output of the cat intermediate cerebellum. Journal of Comparative Neurology 260:362–77. [aJRB]
Gielen, C. C. A. M. & Houk, J. C. (1984) Nonlinear viscosity of human wrist. Journal of Neurophysiology 52:553–69. [GCA]
Gielen, C. C. A. M. & Houk, J. C. (1986) Simple changes in reflex threshold cannot explain all aspects of rapid voluntary movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:605–07. [JBJS]
Gielen, C. C. A. M., Ramaekers, L. & Van Zuylen, E. J. (1988) Long-latency stretch reflexes as coordinated functional responses in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 407:275–92. [aSCG, ZH, JBJS]
Gielen, C. C. A. M. & Van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1992) The constrained control offeree and position by multilink manipulators. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, in press. [GJvIS]
Gielen, C. C. A. M. & Van Zuylen, E. J. (1986) Coordination of arm muscles during flexion and supination: Application of the tensor analysis approach. Neuroscience 17:527–39. [aGEA]
Gielen, C. C. A. M., van den Heuvel, P. J. M. & van Gisbergen, J. A. M. (1984) Coordination of fast eye and arm movements in a tracking task. Experimental Brain Research 56:154–61. [VD]
Gilbert, P. F. C. (1974) A theory of memory that explains the function and structure of the cerebellum. Brain Research 70:118. [PFCG]
Gilbert, P. F. C. (1975) How the cerebellum could memorize movements. Nature 254:688–89. [PFCG]
Gilbert, P. F. C. & Thach, W. T. (1977) Purkinje cell activity during motor learning. Brain Research 128:309–28. [arJRB, PFCG]
Gilhodes, J. C., Roll, J. P. & Tardy-Gervet, M. F. (1986) Perceptual and motor effects of agonist-antagonist muscle vibration in man. Experimental Brain Research 61:395402. [aSCG]
Gilman, S., Bloedel, J. R. & Lechtenberg, R. (1981) Disorders of the cerebellum. Davis. [aJRB]
Giszter, S. (1992) Force fields and muscle use strategies that underlie reflex behaviors in the spinal frog. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, submitted. [rEB]
Giszter, S. F., Bizzi, E. & Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. (1991a) Motor organization in the frog spinal cord. In: Analysis and modelling of neural systems, ed. Eeckman, F. H. & Deno, C. D.. Kluwer. [rEB, SG]
Giszter, S. F., Bizzi, E. & Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. (1991b) Movement primitives in the frog spinal cord. In: Analysis and modelling of neural systems 2, ed. Eeckman, F. H. & Deno, C. D.. Kluwer Press, in press. [arEB]
Giszter, S. F., Bizzi, E. & Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. (1992a) Movement primitives in the frog spinal cord. In: Analysis and modelling of neural systems II, ed. Eeckman, F. H.. Kluwer, in press. [SG]
Giszter, S. F., McIntyre, J. & Bizzi, E. (1989) Kinematic strategies and sensorimotor transformations in the wiping movements of frogs. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:750–67. [aEB, SG]
Giszter, S. F., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Bizzi, E. (1991c) Equilibrium point mechanisms in the spinal frog. In: Visual structures and integrated functions, ed. Arbib, M. A. & Ewert, J. P.. Plenum. [SG]
Giszter, S. F., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Bizzi, E. (1992b) The organization of limb motor space in the spinal cord. Experimental Brain Research Series 22, in press. [arEB, SG]
Giszter, S. F., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Bizzi, E. (1992c) Convergent force fields organized in the frog spinal cord. Journal of Neuroscience, submitted. [rEB]
Glickstein, M. (1990) Brain pathways in the visual guidance of movement. In: Brain circuits and functions of the mind, ed. Trevarthen, C.. Cambridge University Press. [aJFS]
Glickstein, M., Cohen, J. L., Dixon, B., Gibson, A., Hollins, M., LaBossiere, E. & Robinson, F. (1980) Corticopontine visual projections in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 90:209–29. [aJFS]
Gnadt, J. W. & Andersen, R. A. (1988) Memory related motor planning activity in posterior parietal cortex of macaque. Experimental Brain Research 70:216–20. [aJFS, CLC, JWG, JFK]
Gnadt, J. W. & Mays, L. E. (1989) Posterior parietal cortex, the oculomotor near response and spatial coding in 3-D space. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15:786. [JWG]
Gnadt, J. W. & Mays, L. E. (1991) Depth-tuning in area LIP by disparity and accommodative cues. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:1113s. [JWG]
Godschalk, M., Lemon, R. N., Kuypers, H. G. J. M. & Van der Steen, J. (1985) The involvement of monkey premotor cortex neurons in preparation of visually cued arm movements. Behavioral Brain Research 18:143–57. [aEEF]
Godwin-Austen, R. B. (1965) A case of visual disorientation. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 28:453–48. [JWG]
Goldberg, D. E. (1989) Genetic algorithms. Addison-Wesley. [IK]
Goldberg, G. (1985) Supplementary motor area structure and function: Review and hypotheses. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:567616. [aGEA]
Goldberg, M. E. & Bruce, C. (1985) Cerebral cortical activity associated with the orientation of visual attention in the Rhesus monkey. Vision Research 25:471–81. [JFK]
Goldberg, M. E. & Bruce, C. (1990) Primate frontal eye field. III. Maintenance of a spatially accurate saccade signal. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:489508. [aJFS, APo, PQ]
Goldberg, M. E. & Colby, C. L. (1989) The neurophysiology of spatial vision. In: Handbook of neuropsychology, vol. 2, ed. Boller, F. & Grafman, J.. Elsevier. [aJFS]
Goldberg, M. E., Colby, C. L. & Duhamel, J.-R. (1990) Representation of visuomotor space in the parietal lobe of the monkey. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 55:729–39. [CLC, DPC]
Goldman-Rakic, P. (1988) Topography of cognition: Parallel distributed networks in primate association cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 11:137–56. [aJFS, DPC, BS]
Goldscheider, A. (1889) Cited by Sherrington(1900). [aSCG]
Goldstein, H. (1950) Classical mechanics. Addison-Wesley. [rEB]
Gollhofer, A., Horstmann, G. A., Berger, W. & Dietz, V. (1989) Compensation of translational and rotational perturbations in human posture: Stabilization of the centre of gravity. Neuroscience Letters 105:7378. [VD]
Gonshor, A. & Jones, M. (1976) Extreme vestibulo-ocular adaptation induced by prolonged optical reversal of vision. Journal of Physiology 256:381414. [ADK]
Goodale, M. A. & Milner, A. D. (1992) Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neuroscience 15:2025. [MAG]
Goodale, M. A., Milner, A. D., Jakobson, L. S. & Carey, D. P. (1991) A neurological dissociation between perceiving objects and grasping them. Nature 349:154–56. [rSCG, DPC, MAG]
Goodale, M. A., Pelisson, D. & Prablanc, C. (1986) Large adjustments in visually guided reaching do not depend on vision of the hand or perception of target displacement. Nature 320:748–50. [DPC]
Goodman, S. G. & Andersen, R. A. (1989) Microstimulation of a neuralnetwork mdodel for visually guided saccades. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1:317–26. [RAA]
Goodman, S. G. & Andersen, R. A. (1990) Algorithm programmed by a neural network model for coordinate transformation. Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks 2:381–86. [RAA]
Goodwin, G. M., McCloskey, D. I. & Matthews, P. B. C. (1972) The contribution of muscle afferent to kinaesthesia shown by vibration induced illusions of movement and by the effects of paralysing joint afferents. Brain 95:705–48. [aSCG]
Gordon, A. M., Forssberg, H., Johansson, R. S. & Westling, G. (1991a) Visual size cues in the programming of manipulative forces during precision grip. Experimental Brain Research 83:477–82. [AMG]
Gordon, A. M., Forssberg, H., Johansson, R. S. & Westling, G. (1991b) The integration of haptically acquired size information in the programming of precision grip. Experimental Brain Research 83:483–88. [VD, AMG]
Gordon, A. M., Huxley, A. F. & Julian, F. J. (1966) The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology (London) 184:170–92. [aEB]
Gordon, J. & Ghez, C. (1987a) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses. II. Pulse height control. Experimental Brain Research 67:241–52. [aSCG]
Gordon, J. & Ghez, C. (1987b) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses. III. Compensatory adjustments for initial errors. Experimental Brain Research 67:253–69. [aSCG, PJC]
Gorenstein, C., Bundman, M. C., Bruce, J. L. & Rotter, A. (1987) Neuronal localization of pseudocholinesterase in the rat cerebellum: Sagittal bands of Purkinje cells in the nodulus and uvula. Brain Research 418:6875. [NHB]
Gormezano, I., Kehoe, E. J. & Marshall, B. S. (1983) Twenty years of classical conditioning research with the rabbit. In: Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology, ed. Sprague, J. & Epstein, A. N.. Academic Press. [rJRB]
Gossard, J., Cabelguen, J. & Rossignol, S. (1989) Intra axonal recordings of cutaneous primary afferents during fictive locomotion in the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:1177–88. [aDAM]
Gossard, J., Cabelguen, J. & Rossignol, S. (1990) Phase dependent modulation of primary afferent depolarization in single cutaneous primary afferents evoked by peripheral stimulation during fictive locomotion in the cat. Brain Research 537:1423. [aDAM]
Gossard, J., Cabelguen, J. & Rossignol, S. (1991) An intracellular study of muscle primary afferents during fictive locomotion in the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 65:914–26. [aDAM]
Gottlieb, G. L. & Agarwal, G. C. (1978) Dependence of human ankle compliance on joint angle. Journal of Biomechanics 11:177–81. [GCA]
Gottlieb, G. L. & Agarwal, G. C. (1988) Compliance of single joints: Elastic and plastic characteristics. Journal of Neurophysiology 59:937–51. [GCA, MLL]
Gottlieb, G. L., Corcos, D. M. & Agarwal, G. C. (1989) Strategies for the control of voluntary movements with one mechanical degree of freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12(2): 189s–210. [SVA, GLG, ZH]
Gottlieb, G. L., Latash, M. L., Corcos, D. M., Liubinskas, T. J. & Agarwal, G. C. (1992) Organizing principles for single joint movements: V. Agonist-antagonist interactions. Journal of Neurophysiology 67(6). [GLG]
Gracies, J. M., Meunier, S., Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. & Simonetta, M. (1991) Pattern of propriospinal-like excitation to different species of human upper limb motoneurones. Journal of Physiology 434:151–67. [DBur]
Granit, R. (1955) Receptors and sensory perception. Yale University Press [rEB]
Granit, R. (1970) The basis of motor control. Academic Press. [aEB, GCA]
Granit, R. & Phillips, C. G. (1956) Excitatory and inhibitory processes acting upon individual Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in cats. Journal of Physiology 133:520–47. [cJFS]
Granit, R. & Rutledge, L. T. (1960) Surplus excitation in reflex action of motoneurons as measured by recurrent inhibition. Journal of Physiology (London) 154:288307. [TMH]
Graveland, G. A. & Difiglia, M. (1985)