Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Behaviorism's new cognitive representations: Paradigm regained

  • Arthur C. Danto (a1)
Copyright
References
Hide All
Anderson, J. R. (1976) Language, memory and thought. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [RL]
Anderson, J. R. (1978) Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery. Psychological Review 85:249–77. [AWL, tarHLR, WRU]
Anderson, J. R. & Bower, G. H. (1973) Human associative memory. Washington, D.C.: Winston. [RL, CPS, HST]
Beals, R., Krantz, D. H. & Tversky, A. (1968) Foundations of multidimensional scaling. Psychological Review 75:127–42. [taHLR]
Beatty, W. W. & Shavalia, D. A. (1980) Rat spatial memory: Resistance to retroactive interference at long retention intervals. Animal Learning and Behavior 8:550–52. [taHLR]
Bell, R. C. & Hunter, J. E. (1981) Periodic majority receding and reverberatory memory, Journal of Theoretical Biology 88:323–32. [rHLR]
Berkeley, G. (1709) Essay towards a new theory of vision. In: The works of George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, ed. Luce, A. A. & Jessup, T. E.. London: Nelson. 19481957. [ACD]
Bever, T. G., Straub, R. O., Terrace, H. S. & Townsend, D. J. (1980) The comparative study of serially integrated behavior in humans and animals. In: The nature of thought: Essays in honor of D. O. Hebb, ed. Jusczyk, P. & Klein, R., pp. 5193. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, [taHLR]
Bitgood, S. C., Segrave, K. & Jenkins, H. M. (1976) Verbal feedback and the feature-positive effect in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 21:249–55. [taHLR]
Blough, D. S. (1959) Delayed matching in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 2:151–60. [RE, taHLR]
Blough, D. S. (1975) Steady state data and a quantitative model of operant generalization and discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes, 1:321. [taHLR]
Bobrow, D. G. (1975) Dimensions of representation. In: Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science, ed. Bobrow, D. G. & Collins, A.. New York: Academic Press. [taHLR]
Bobrow, D. G. & Collins, A., eds. (1975) Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science. New York: Academic Press. [EMS]
Bolles, R. C. (1972). Reinforcement, expectancy, and learning. Psychological Review 79: 394409. [PJS]
Bolles, R. C. (1975) Learning, motivation, and cognition. In: Handbook of learning and cognitive processes, ed. Estes, W. K., pp. 249–80. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR]
Branch, M. N. (1977) On the role of “memory” in the analysis of behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 28:171–79. [CPS]
Brewer, W. F. (1981). Review of G. Bower, ed., The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory. Contemporary Psychology, 26:761–62. [EMS]
Bruner, J. S. (1969) Modalities of memory. In: The pathology of memory, ed. Talland, G. A. & Waugh, N. C., pp. 253–59. New York: Academic Press. [JCM]
Capaldi, E. J. (1966) Partial reinforcement: A hypothesis of sequential effects. Psychological Review 73:459–77. [EJC]
Capaldi, E. J., Blitzer, R. D. & Molina, P. (1979) Serial anticipation pattern learning in two-element and three-element series. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 14:22–4. [WAR]
Capaldi, E. J. & Molina, P. (1979) Element discriminability as a determinant of serial pattern learning. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:318–22. [EJC, WAR]
Capaldi, E. J., Nawrocki, T. M. & Verry, D. R. (in press) Difficult serial anticipation pattern learning in rats: Rule encoding vs. memory. Animal Learning and Behavior. [EJC]
Capaldi, E. J. & Verry, D. R. (1981) Serial anticipation learning in rats: Memory for multiple hedonic events and their order. Animal Learning and Behavior 9:441–53. [EJC]
Capaldi, E. J., Verry, D. R. & Davidson, T. L. (1980a) Memory, serial anticipation pattern learning and transfer in rats. Animal Learning and Behavior 8:575–85. [EJC, tarHLR, WAR]
Capaldi, E. J., Verry, D. R. & Davidson, T. L. (1980b) Why rule encoding by animals in serial learning remains to be established. Animal Learning and Behavior 8:691–92. [WAR]
Carew, T. J., Walters, E. T. & Kandel, E. R. (1981) Associative learning in Aplysia: Cellular correlates supporting a conditioned fear hypothesis. Science 211:501–4. [PJS]
Carter, D. E. (1971) Acquisition of a conditional discrimination: A comparison of matching-to-sample and symbolic matching. Ph.D. thesis. New York: Columbia University. [taHLR]
Carter, D. E. & Eckerman, D. A. (1975) Symbolic matching by pigeons: Rate of learning complex discriminations predicted from simple discriminations. Science 187:662–64. [taHLR]
Carter, D. E. & Werner, T. J. (1978) Complex learning and information processing by pigeons: A critical analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 29:565601. [taHLR]
Catania, A. C. (1979) Learning. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [ACC]
Charnov, E. L. (1976a) Optimal foraging: The marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology 9:129–36. [taHLR]
Charnov, E. L. (1976b) Optimal foraging: Attack strategy of a mantid. American Naturalist 110:141–51. [taHLR]
Claparède, E. (1911) Recognition et moiite. Archives de Psychologie 11:7990. [JCM]
Cohen, L. R., Looney, T. A., Brady, J. H. & Acuella, A. F. (1976) Differential sample response schedules in the acquisition of conditional discriminations by pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 26:301–14. [taHLR]
Cohen, R. S., Feyerabend, P. K. & Wartofsky, M. W. (1976) Boston studies in the philosophy of science, vol. 39: Essays in memory of Imre Lakatos. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. [rHLR]
Collingwood, R. C. (1978) An autobiography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [CPS]
Conrad, R. (1964) Acoustic confusions in immediate memory. British Journal of Psychology 55:7884. [taHLR, WAR]
Cooper, L. A. (1975) Mental rotation of random two-dimensional shapes. Cognitive Psychology 7:2043. [taHLR]
Cooper, L. A. & Shepard, R. N. (1973) Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. In: Visual information processing, ed. Chase, W. G.. New York: Academic Press. [taHLR]
Cowey, A. & Dewson, J. H. (1972) Effects of unilateral ablation of superior temporal cortex on auditory sequence discrimination in Macaca mulatta. Neuropsychologia 10:279–89. [MW]
Cumming, W. W. & Berryman, R. R. (1965) Stimulus generalization. In: Stimulus generalization, ed. Mostofsky, D. I.. Stanford: Stanford University Press. [taHLR]
Cumming, W. W., Berryman, R. & Cohen, L. R. (1965) Acquisition and transfer of zero-delay matching. Psychological Reports 17:435–45. [taHLR]
Dale, R. H. I. & Staddon, J. E. R. (1981) A theory of spatial memory. Unpublished manuscript. [JERS]
D'Amato, M. R. (1973) Delayed matching and short-term memory in monkeys. The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory 7:227–69. [taHLR]
D'Amato, M. R. & Cox, J. K. (1976) Delay of consequences and short-term memory in monkeys. In: Processes in animal memory, ed. Medin, D. L., Roberts, W. A. & Davis, R. T., pp. 4978. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR]
D'Amato, M. R. & Worsham, R. W. (1972) Delayed matching in the capuchin monkey with brief sample durations. Learning and Motivation 3:304–12. taHLR]
Davis, M. (1958). Computability and unsolvability. New York: McGraw-Hill. [RJN]
Dennett, D. C. (1978) Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Montgomery, Vt.: Bradford. [JERS]
Devine, J. D., Burke, M. W. & Rohack, J. J. (1979) Stimulus similarity and order as factors in visual short-term memory in nonhuman primates. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 5:335–54. [taHLR]
Eccles, J. C. (1981) The modular operation of the cerebral neocortex considered as the material basis of mental events. Neuroscience 6:1839–56. [JCM]
Epstein, R. (1981) On pigeons and people: A preliminary look at the Columban Simulation Project. Behavior Analyst 4:4355. [RE]
Epstein, R. & Skinner, B. F. (1981) The spontaneous use of memoranda by pigeons. Behavior Analysis Letters 1:241–46. [RE]
Estes, W. K. (1972) An associative basis for coding and organization in memory. In: Coding processes in human memory, ed. Melton, A. W. & Martin, E., pp. 161–90. Washington, D.C.: V.H. Winston & Sons. [taHLR]
Estes, W. K. ed. (1975) Handbook of learning and cognitive processes: Conditioning and behavior theory, Vol. 2. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PJS]
Estes, W. K. (1976) Structural aspects of associative models for memory. In: The structure of human memory, ed. Cofer, C. N., pp. 3153. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. [taHLR]
Feldman, C. F. & Toulmin, E. S. (1975) Theoretical problems in structural psychology. In: Nebraska symposium on motivation, ed. Arnold, W. S., pp. 409–75. Lincoln: Nebraska University Press. [RL]
Flaherty, C. F. & Largen, J. (1975) Within subjects positive and negative contrast effects in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 88:653–64. [taHLR]
Fodor, J. A. (1965) Could meaning be an rm? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 4:7381. [JCM]
Fodor, J. A. (1975) The language of thought. New York: Crowell.[JERS]
Fodor, J. A. (1980) Methodological solipsism considered as a research strategy in cognitive psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:6372. [WWR]
Freud, S. (1895/1966) Project for a scientific psychology. In: The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 1 (1886–1899), ed. Strachey, J., pp. 295387. London: Hogarth Press. [JCM]
Gaffan, D. (1977) Response coding in recall of colours by monkeys. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 29:597605. [WAR]
Gallistel, C. R. (1980) The organization of action: A new synthesis. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR, PJS]
Gardner, H. (1975) The shattered mind. New York: Knopf. [JCM]
Garner, W. R., Hake, H. W. & Eriksen, C. W. (1956) Operationism and the concept of perception. Psychological Review 63:149–59. [RL]
Gibson, J. J. (1977) The theory of affordances. In: Perceiving, acting and knowing: Towards an ecological psychology, ed. Shaw, R. & Bransford, J., pp. 6782. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PJS]
Gormezano, I. (1972) Investigations of defense and reward conditioning in the rabbit. In: Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research, ed. Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F., pp. 151–81. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. [PJS]
Gormezano, I. & Kehoe, J. E. (1975) Classical conditioning: Some methodological-conceptual issues. In: Handbook of learning and cognitive processes, Vol. 2. Basic learning and conditioning processes, ed. Estes, W. K., pp. 143–79. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PJS]
Gould, S. J. (1978) Morton's ranking of races by cranial capacity. Science 200:503–9. [PJS]
Gould, S. J. (1981) Quaggas, coiled oysters, and flimsy facts. Natural History 90:16. [PJS]
Gray, J. A. (1982) The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. New York: Oxford University Press. [rHLR]
Green, D. M. (1976) An introduction to hearing. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [rHLR]
Griffin, D. R. (1976) The question of animal awareness: Evolutionary continuity of mental experience. New York: Rockefeller University Press. [GPS, PJS]
Grether, W. F. (1938) Pseudo-conditioning without paired stimulation encountered in attempted backward conditioning. Journal of Comparative Psychology 25:91–6. [PJS]
Grossberg, S. (1975) A neural model of attention, reinforcement and discrimination learning. In: International Review of Neurobiology, Vol. 18, ed. Pfeitfer, C. C., pp. 263327. New York: Academic Press. [PJS]
Grossberg, S. (1980) How does a brain build a cognitive code? Psychological Review 87:151. [PJS]
Haggbloom, S. J. (1980) Reward sequence and reinforcement level as determinants of S-behavior in differential conditioning. Animal Learning and Behavior 8:424–28. [EJC]
Halgren, C. R. (1974) Latent inhibition in rats: Associative or nonassociative? Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 86:74–8. [taHLR]
Hanson, N. R. (1969) Perception and discovery: An introduction to scientific inquiry. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper. [CPS]
Harnad, S. (1982) Neoconstructivism: A unifying theme for the cognitive sciences. In Language, brain and mind, ed. Simon, T. & Sholes, R.. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [rHLR]
Harzem, P. and Miles, T. R. (1978) Conceptual issues in operant psychology. Chichester: Wiley. [CPS]
Hayes-Roth, F. (1979) Distinguishing theories of representation: A critique of Anderson's “Arguments concerning mental imagery.” Psychological Review 86:376–82. [taHLR]
Hearst, E. (1978) Stimulus relationships and feature selection in learning and behavior. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. H., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K., pp. 5188. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR]
Hearst, E. & Jenkins, H. M. (1974). Sign-tracking: The stimulus-reinforcer relation and directed action. Austin, Texas: Psychonomic Society. [taHLR, PJS]
Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level theory. New York; Harper & Row, [MW]
Herman, L. M. & Gordon, J. A. (1974) Auditory delayed matching in the bottlenose dolphin. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21:1926. [taHLR]
Hebb, D. O. (1955) Drives and the C.N.S. (Conceptual Nervous System). Psychological Review 62:243–54. [MW]
Herrnstein, R. J., Loveland, D. H. & Cable, C. (1976) Natural concepts in pigeons, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 2:285302. [taHLR, TRZ]
Hilgard, E. R. & Marquis, D. G. (1940) Conditioning and learning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. [PJS]
Hitzing, E. W. & Safar, T. (1970) Auto-shaping: The conditions necessary for its development and maintenance. Psychological Record, 20:347–51. [PJS]
Holton, G. (1975) On the role of themata in scientific thought. Science 188:328–34. [RL]
Honig, W. K. (1978) Studies of working memory in the pigeon. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. H., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K., pp. 211–48. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR]
Honig, W. K. (1982) Working memory and the temporal map. In: Information processing animals: Memory mechanisms, ed. Speak, N. E. & Miller, R. R.. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR]
Honig, W. K. & Wasserman, E. A. (1981) Performance of pigeons on delayed simple and conditional discriminations under equivalent training procedures. Learning and Motivation 12:149–70. [taHLR]
Horridge, G. A. (1962) Learning of leg position by the ventral nerve cord in headless insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society Bulletin 157:3352. [JJ]
Hull, C. L. (1937) Mind, mechanism, and adaptive behavior. Psychological Review 44:132. [PJS]
Hull, C. L. (1943) Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton. [AWL, taHLR, TRZ]
Hulse, S. H. (1978) Cognitive structure and serial pattern learning by animals. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K., pp. 311–40. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR, HST]
Hulse, S. H. (1980) The case of the missing rule: Memory for reward vs. formal structure in serial-pattern learning by rats. Animal Learning and Behavior 8:689–90. [EJC, WAR]
Hulse, S. H. & Campbell, C. E. (1975) “Thinking ahead” in rat discrimination learning. Animal Learning and Behavior 3:305–11. [taHLR]
Hulse, S. H. & Dorsky, N. P. (1977) Structural complexity as a determinant of serial pattern learning. Learning and Motivation 8:488506. [EJC, taHLR]
Hulse, S. H. & Dorsky, N. P. (1979) Serial pattern learning by rats: Transfer of a formally defined stimulus relationship and the significance of nonreinforcement. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:211–20. [taHLR, WAR]
Hulse, S. H., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K. (1978) Cognitive processes in animal behavior. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [SHH, rHLR]
Hunter, W. S. (1913) The delayed reaction in animals and children. Behavior Monographs 2:186. [ACD, taHLR, HST]
Hunter, W. S. (1920) The temporal maze and kinaesthetic sensory processes in the white rat. Psychobiology 2:117. [taHLR]
James, W. (1890) The principles of psychology. New York: H. Holt. [rHLR]
Jarrard, L. E. & Moise, S. L. (1971) Short-term memory in the monkey. In: Cognitive processes of nonhuman primates, ed. Jarrard, L. E., pp. 124. New York: Academic Press. [taHLR]
Jaynes, J. (1976) The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. [JJ]
Johnston, T. D. (1981) Contrasting approaches to a theory of learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:125–39. [rHLR]
Kamin, L. J. (1968) Attention-like processes in classical conditioning. In: Miami symposium on the prediction of behavior: Aversive stimulation, ed. Jones, M. R.. Miami: University of Miami Press. [PJS]
Kamin, L. J. (1969) Predictability, surprise, attention, and conditioning. In: Punishment and aversive behavior, ed. Church, R. and Campbell, B., pp. 279–98. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. [PJS]
Kamin, L. J. (1974) The science and politics of IQ. New York: John Wiley & Sons. [PJS]
Kendler, H. H. (1952) What is learned? A theoretical blind alley. Psychological Review 59:269–77. [EJC]
Kimble, G. A. (1961) Hilgard and Marquis' conditioning and learning, 2nd ed.New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. [rHLR, PJS]
Koch, S. (1976) More verbal behavior from Dr. Skinner. Contemporary Psychology 21:453–57. [RL]
Kolers, P. A. and Perkins, D. N. (1975) Spatial and ordinal components of form and perception literacy. Cognitive Psychology 7:228–67. [RJN]
Konorski, J. (1967) Integrative activity of the brain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [PJS]
Kosslyn, S. M. (1981) The medium and the message in mental imagery: A theory. Psychological Review 88:4666. [taHLR]
Krechevsky, I. (1932) “Hypotheses” in rats. Psychological Review 39:516–32. [taHLR]
Kuhn, T. S. (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions. 2nd ed.Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [MNB, tarHLR, CPS, PJS]
Lachman, R., Lachman, J. L. & Butterfield, E. R. (1979) Cognitive psychology and information processing. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [RL]
Lakatos, I. (1970) Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programs. In: Criticism and the growth of knowledge, ed. Lakatos, I. & Musgrave, A., pp. 91196. London: Cambridge University Press. [rHLR, CPS]
Land, E. (1964) The retinex. American Scientist 52:247–64. [JJ]
Lashley, K. S. (1929) Brain mechanisms and intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [taHLR, PJS]
Lashley, K. S. (1950) In search of the engram. In: Symposium of the Society for Experimental Biology, vol. 4, pp. 454483. New York: Plenum. [PJS]
Lashley, K. S. (1951) The problem of serial order in behavior. In: Cerebral mechanisms in behavior, ed. Jeffress, L. A., pp. 112–45. New York: Wiley. [SHH]
Lawrence, D. H. (1963) The nature of a stimulus: Some relationships between learning and perception. In: Psychology: A study of a science, vol. 5, ed. Koch, S., pp. 179212. New York: McGraw-Hill. [taHLR, HST, TRZ]
Lettvin, J. Y., Maturana, H., McCulloch, W. S. & Pitts, W. H. (1959) What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 47:1940–951. [RJN]
Logue, A. W. (in press a) The origins of behaviorism. In: Points of view in the modern history of psychology, ed. Buxton, C.. New York: Academic Press. [AWL]
Logue, A. W. (in press b) The growth of behaviorism. In: Points of view in the modern history of psychology, ed. Buxton, C.. New York: Academic Press. [AWL]
MacKay, D. M. (1973) Visual stability and voluntary eye movements. In: Central visual information, vol. 7. Handbook of sensory physiology, ed. Jung, R., pp. 307–31. New York: Springer-Verlag. [MW]
Maier, N. R. F. (1929) Reasoning in white rats. Comparative Psychology Monographs 6:193. [MNB, taHLR, EMS]
Maki, W. S. Jr., & Leith, C. R. (1973) Shared attention in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 19:345–49. [taHLR]
Maki, W. S. Jr., Brokofsky, S. & Berg, B. (1979) Spatial memory in rats: Resistance to retroactive interference. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:2530. [taHLR]
Maki, W. S., Gillund, G., Hauge, G. & Siders, W. A. (1977) Matching to sample after extinction of observing responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 3:285–96. [taHLR]
Maki, W. J., Moe, J. C. & Bierley, C. M. (1977) Short-term memory for stimuli, responses and reinforcers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 3:156–77. [EJC]
Marshall, J. C. (1979) Disorders of language and memory. In: Applied problems in memory, ed. Gruneberg, M. & Morris, P., pp. 249–67. London: Academic Press. [JCM]
Marx, M. H. & Hillix, W. A. (1979) Systems and theories in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. [taHLR]
Mason, M. & Wilson, M. (1974) Temporal differentiation and recognition memory for visual stimuli in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103:383–90. [taHLR]
Miller, G. A. (1981) Review of Perspectives in cognitive science, ed. by D. A. Norman, Science 214:57. [HST]
Miller, G. A., Galanter, E. & Pribram, K. H. (1960) Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. [AWL]
Milner, B. (1970) Memory and the medial temporal regions of the brain. In: Biology of memory, ed. Pribram, K. H. & Broadbent, D. E., pp. 2950. New York: Academic Press. [JCM]
Mishkin, M. & Delacour, J. (1975) An analysis of short-term visual memory in the monkey. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 1:326–34. [taHLR]
Moore, E. F. (1956) Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines. In: Automata studies, ed. Shannon, C. E. & McCarthy, J., pp. 129–53. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [rHLR, WRV]
Moore, J. W. (1979) Brain processes and conditioning. In: Mechanisms of learning and motivation: A memorial volume to Jerzy Konorski, ed. Dickinson, A. & Boakes, R. A., pp. 111–42. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PJS]
Murdock, B. B. (1976) Item and order information in short-term serial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 105:191216. [taHLR]
Nadel, L. and MacDonald, L. (1980) Hippocampus: Cognitive map or working memory? Behavioral and Neural Biology 29:405–09. [LN, rHLR]
Neisser, U. (1976) Cognition and reality. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. [HST]
Nelson, R. J. (1975) On machine expectation. Synthese 39:129–39. [RJN]
Nelson, R. J. (1976) On mechanical recognition. Philosophy of Science 43:2452. [RJN]
Newell, A. (1980) Physical symbol systems. Cognitive Science 4:117–33. [EMS]
Newell, A. & Simon, H. A. (1972) Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [RE]
Norman, D. A., Rumelhart, D. E. & the LNR Research Group (1975) Explorations in cognition. San Francisco: Freeman. [RL]
Oatley, K. (1978) Perceptions and representations. New York: Free Press. [taHLR]
O'Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. (1978) The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [JCM, rHLR, MW]
O'Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. (1979) Précis of O'Keefe & Nadel's The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:487–94. [rHLR]
Olton, D. S. (1978) Characteristics of spatial memory. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. H., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K., pp. 341–73. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR, HST]
Olton, D. S. (1979) Mazes, maps and memory. American Psychologist 34:588–96. [HST]
Olton, D. S. & Collison, C. (1979) Intramaze cues and “odor trails” fail to direct choice behavior on an elevated maze. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:221–23. [taHLR]
Olton, D. S., Collison, C. & Werz, W. A. (1977) Spatial memory and radial arm maze performance by rats. Learning and Motivation, 8:289314. [taHLR]
Olton, D. S., Handelmann, G. E. & Walker, J. A. (1981) Spatial memory and food searching strategies. In: Foraging behavior: Ecological, ethological, and psychological approaches, ed. Kamil, A. C. & Sargent, T. D., pp. 333–54. New York: Garland STPM. [taHLR]
Olton, D. S. & Papas, B. C. (1979) Spatial memory and hippocampal function. Neuropsychologia 17:669–82. [rHLR]
Olton, D. S. & Samuelson, R. J. (1976) Remembrance of places past: Spatial memory in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 2:97116. [taHLR]
Paivio, A. (1975) Neomentalism. Canadian Journal of Psychology 29:263–91. [ACC]
Palmer, S. E. (1978) Fundamental aspects of cognitive representation. In: Cognition and categorization, ed. Rosch, E. & Lloyd, B. B., pp. 259303. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. [SHH, RL, taHLR, HST]
Pavlov, I. P. (1927) Conditioned rseflexes, Anrep, G. V., Trans. London: Oxford University Press. [PJS]
Perdeck, A. C. (1958) Two types of orientation in migrating starlings Sturnus vulgaris and chaffinches Fringilla coelebs as revealed by displacement experiments. Ardea 46:137. [taHLR]
Peterson, G. B. & Trapold, M. A. (1980) Effects of altering outcome expectancies on pigeons' delayed conditional discrimination performance. Learning and Motivation 11:267–88. [taHLR]
Popper, K. P. (1962) Conjectures and refutations. New York: Harper and Row. [rHLR]
Pribram, K. H. (1958) Neocortical function in behavior. In: Biological and biochemical bases of behavior, ed. Harlow, H. F. & Woolsey, C. N., pp. 151–72. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. [MW]
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1978) Imagery and Artificial Intelligence. In: Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, vol. 9, Perception and cognition: Issues in the foundations of psychology, ed. Savage, C. W., pp. 2022. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. [RJN]
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1979) Validating computational models: A critique of Anderson's indeterminacy of representation claim. Psychological Review 86:383–94. [taHLR]
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1980) Computation and cognition: Issues in the foundations of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:111–69. [taHLR]
Rachlin, H. (1980) Behaviorism in everyday life. Englewood Cliff's, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [AWL]
Rachlin, H., Battalio, R., Kagel, J. & Green, L. (1981) Mazimization theory in behavioral psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:371417. [AWL]
Radnitzky, G. & Andersson, G. (1978) Boston studies in the philosophy of science, vol. 58: Progress and rationality in science. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. [rHLR]
Rescorla, R. A. (1967) Pavlovian conditioning and its proper control procedures. Psychological Review 74:7180. [PJS]
Rescorla, R. A. & Solomon, R. L. (1967) Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning. Psychological Review 74:151–82. [PJS]
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In: Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research, ed. Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F., pp. 6499. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. [PJS]
Riley, D. A. (1968) Discrimination learning. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. [taHLR]
Riley, D. A., Cook, R. G. & Lamb, M. R. (1981) A classification and analysis of short term retention codes in pigeons. Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory 15. [taHLR]
Riley, D. A. & Roitblat, H. L. (1978) Selective attention and related cognitive processes in pigeons. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. H., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K.. Hillsdale, N.J.; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [rHLR]
Roberts, W. A. (1972) Short-term memory in the pigeon: Effects of repetition and spacing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94:7483. [taHLR]
Roberts, W. A. and Dale, R. H. I. (1981) Remembrance of places lasts: Proactive inhibition and patterns of choice in rat spatial memory. Learning and Motivation 12:261–81. [LN, tarHLR]
Roberts, W. A. & Grant, D. S. (1974) Short term memory in the pigeon with presentation time precisely controlled. Learning and Motivation 5:393408. [tarHLR]
Roberts, W. A. & Grant, D. S. (1976) Studies of short-term memory in the pigeon using the delayed matching to sample proceedure. In: Processes of animal memory, ed. Medin, D. L., Roberts, W. A. & Davis, R. T., pp. 79112. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR]
Roberts, W. A. & Smythe, W. E. (1979) Memory lists for spatial events in the rat. Learning and Motivation 10:313–36. [taHLR]
Roitblat, H. L. (1980) Codes and coding processes in pigeon short-term memory. Animal Learning and Behavior 8:341–51. [tarHLR, WAR, HST, MW, TRZ]
Roitblat, H. L. (1982, in press) Discrete vs. graded processes in pigeon working memory. In: Harvard symposium in the quantitative analysis of behavior, ed. Commons, M. L. & Wagner, A. R.. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. [rHLR]
Roitblat, H. L. & Scopatz, R. M. Sequential effects in delayed matching to sample. Submitted for publication. [rHLR]
Roitblat, H. L., Tham, W. & Golub, L. (1982) Performance of Betta splendens in a radial arm maze. Animal Learning and Behavior 9. [taHLR]
Rorty, R. (1979) Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [CPS]
Rozeboom, W. W. (1979) On behavioral theories of reference. Philosophy of Science 46:175203. [WWR]
Sands, S. F. & Wright, A. A. (1980) Serial probe recognition performance by a Rhesus monkey and a human with 10- and 20-item lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavioral Processes 6:386–96. [taHLR]
Scandrett, J. & Gormezano, I. (1980) Microprocessor control and A/D data acquisition in classical conditioning. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 12:120–25. [PJS]
Sechenov, I. M. (1965) Reflexes of the brain: An attempt to establish the physiological basis of psychical processes. Trans. Belsky, S.. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. [PJS]
Segal, E. M. & Lachman, R. (1972) Complex behavior or higher mental process: Is there a paradigm shift. American Psychologist, 27:4655. [taHLR, EMS]
Shavalia, D. A., Dodge, A. A. & Beatty, W. W. (1981) Time-dependent effects of ECS on spatial memory in rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology 31:261–73. [taHLR]
Sheafor, P. J. (1975) “Pseudoconditioned” jaw movements of the rabbit reflect associations conditioned to contextual background cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 104:245–60. [PJS]
Sheafor, P. J. & Gormezano, I. (1972) Conditioning the rabbit's jaw-movement response: US magnitide effects on URs, CRs, and pseudo-CRs. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 81:449–56. [PJS]
Sheafor, P. J. & Rowland, V. (1974) Dissociation of cortical steady potential shifts from mass action potentials in cats awaiting food rewards. Physiological Psychology 2:471–80. [PJS]
Shimp, C. P. (1976a) Organization in memory and behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 26:113–30. [CPS]
Shimp, C. P. (1976b) Short-term memory in the pigeon: Relative recency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 25:5561. [taHLR, HST]
Shimp, C. P. (1981) How objective is behavioral language? Talk given at a symposium at the 1981 annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles. [CPS]
Shimp, C. P. & Moffitt, M. (1974) Short-term memory in the pigeon: Stimulus-response associations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 22:507–12. [HST]
Simon, H. A. (1978) On the forms of mental representation. In: Perception and cognition issues in the foundations of psychology, ed. Savage, C. Wade, pp. 318Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. [taHLR]
Skinner, B. F. (1945) The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review 52:270–77; 291–4. [RE]
Skinner, B. F. (1950) Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review 57:193216. [HST]
Skinner, B. F. (1953) Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan. [ACC, AWL]
Skinner, B. F. (1957) Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts. [RE]
Skinner, B. F. (1966) An operant analysis of problem-solving. In: Problem solving, ed. Kleinmuntz, B.. New York: Wiley. [ACC]
Skinner, B. F. (1969) Notes. In: Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis, ed. Skinner, B. F., pp. 157–71. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. [ACC]
Skinner, B. F. (1974) About behaviorism. New York: Knopf. [rHLR, HST]
Skinner, B. F. (1977) Why I am not a cognitive psychologist. Behaviorism 5:110. [RE]
Spence, K. W. (1937) The differential response of animals to stimuli differing within a single dimension. Psychological Review 44:430–44. [taHLR]
Starr, A. & Phillips, L. (1970) Verbal and motor memory in the amnestic syndrome. Neuropsychologia 8:7580. [JCM]
Sternberg, S. (1975) Memory scanning: New findings and current controversies. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 27:132. [taHLR]
Stratton, G. M. (1927) Theophrastus and the Greek physiological psychology before Aristotle. New York: Macmillan. [ACC]
Straub, R. O. (1979) Serial learning and representation of a sequence in the pigeon. Ph.D. thesis. New York: Columbia University. [taHLR]
Straub, R. O., Seidenberg, M. S., Bever, T. G. & Terrace, H. S. (1979) Serial learning in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 32:137–48. [taHLR]
Straub, R. O. & Terrace, H. S. (1982) Generalization of serial learning in the pigeon. Animal Learning and Behavior 9:454–68. [AWL, taHLR, HST]
Suzuki, S., Augerinos, G. & Black, A. H. (1980) Stimulus control of spatial behavior on the eight-arm maze in rats. Learning and Motivation 11:118. [tarHLR, WAR]
Terrace, H. S. (1982, in press) Simultaneous chaining: The problem it poses for traditional chaining theory. In: Harvard symposium on the quantitative analysis of behavior, ed. Commons, M. L. & Wagner, A. R.. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. [taHLR, HST]
Terrace, H. S. & Straub, R. O. (1981) Generalization of serial learning in the pigeon. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, N.Y. [AWL]
Teyler, T. J., Baum, W. M. & Patterson, M. M. (1975) Behavioral and biological issues in the learning paradigm. Physiological Psychology 3:6572. [PJS]
Thompson, R. F. (1976) The search for the engram. American Psychologist, 31:209–27. [PJS]
Thompson, R. F. (1980) The search for the engram, II. In: Neural mechanisms in behavior, ed. McFadden, D., pp. 172222. New York: Springer-Verlag. [PJS]
Thompson, C. R. & Church, R. M. (1980) An explanation of the language of a chimpanzee. Science 208:313–14. [SHH]
Thorndike, E. L. (1911) Animal intelligence. New York: Macmillan. [taHLR]
Thorpe, W. H. (1950) A note on detour behavior with Ammophila pubescens Curt. Behaviour 2:257–64. [taHLR]
Tinbergen, N. & Kruyt, W. (1938) Über die Orientierung des Bienenwolfes (Philanthus triangulum Fabr.) I, II. Die Bevorzugung bestimmter Wegmarken, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie 25:292334. [taHLR]
Tolman, E. C. (1932) Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Centory. [taHLR, CPS, PJS, MW, TRZ]
Tolman, E. C. (1948) Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review 55:189208. [taHLR]
Tolman, E. C. (1959) Principles of purposive behavior. In: Psychology: A study of science, ed. Koch, S.. New York: McGraw-Hill. [rHLR, HST]
Tulving, E. (1972) Episodic and semantic memory. In: Organization of memory, ed. Tulving, E. & Donaldson, W., pp. 381403. New York: Academic Press. [JCM]
Uttal, W. R. (1978) The psychobiology of mind. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PJS]
Uttal, W. R. (1981) A taxonomy of visual processes. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates. [WRV]
Varela, F. J. & Maturana, H. R. (1981) Living ways of sense-making. Presented at the International Symposium “Disorder and Order,” Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, September 13–15. [JJ]
Von Uexkull, J. (1957) Stroll through the worlds of animals and man. In: Instinctive behavior, ed. Schiller, C. H., pp. 580London: Methuen; orig. publ. 1934. [taHLR]
Wagner, A. R. (1976) Priming in STM: An information-processing mechanism for self-generated or retrieval-generated depression in performance. In: Habituation, ed. Tighe, T. J. and Leaton, R. N., pp. 95128. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [CPS]
Walker, J. A. & Olton, D. S. (1979) The role of response and reward in spatial memory. Learning and Motivation 10:7384. [taHLR]
Walters, E. T., Carew, T. J. & Kandel, E. R. (1981) Associative learning in Aplysia: Evidence for conditioned fear in an invertebrate. Science 211:504–6. [PJS]
Wasserman, E. A. (1981) Response evocation in autoshaping: Contributions of cognitive and comparative-evolutionary analyses to an understanding of directed action. In: Autoshaping and conditioning theory, ed. Locurto, C. M., Terrace, H. S. & Gibbon, J., pp. 2154. New York: Academic Press. [PJS]
Wasserman, E. A., Nelson, K. R. & Larew, M. B. (1980) Memory for sequences of stimuli and responses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 34:4960. [taHLR]
Watkins, J. (1978) The Popperian approach to scientific knowledge. In: Progress and rationality in science, ed. Radnitzky, G. and Andersson, G.. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. [rHLR]
Watson, J. B. (1913) Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review 20:158–77. [AWL, CPS]
Watson, J. B. (1914) Behavior: An introduction to comparative psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. [EMS]
Watson, J. B. (1916) The place of the conditioned-reflex in psychology. Psychological Review 23:89116. [PJS]
Watson, J. B. (1920) Is thinking merely the action of the language mechanism? British Journal of Psychology 11:86104. [taHLR]
Watson, J. B. (1970) Behaviorism. Reprinted. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. [AWL, PJS, TRZ]
Weimer, W. B. (1973) Psycholinguistics and Plato's paradoxes of the Meno. American Psychologist 28:1533. [ACC]
Weimer, W. B. (1979) Notes on the methodology of scientific research. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [rHLR]
Weimer, W. B. & Palermo, D. S. (1973) Paradigms and normal science in psychology. Science Studies 3:211–14. [taHLR]
Weisman, R. G. & DiFranco, M. P. (1981a) Memory and recognition in delayed sequence discrimination. In: Harvard Symposium in the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, ed. Commons, M. L. & Wagner, A. R.. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. [taHLR]
Weisman, R. G. & DiFranco, M. P. (1981b) Testing models of delayed sequence discrimination in pigeons: Delay intervals and stimulus durations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 7:413–24. [HST]
Weisman, R. G. & Dodd, P. W. D. (1979) The study of association: Methodology and basic phenomena. In: Mechanisms of learning and motivation: A memorial volume to Jerzey Konorksi, ed. Dickinson, A. & Boakes, R. A., pp. 337–63. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taHLR]
Weisman, R. G., Wasserman, E. A., Dodd, P. W. & Larew, M. B. (1980) Representation and retention of two-event sequences in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 6:312–25. [taHLR, HST]
Wickelgren, W. A. (1968) Sparing of short-term memory in an amnesic patient: Implications for strength theory of memory. Neuropsychologia 6:235–44. [MW]
Wilson, M. (1978). Visual system: Pulvinar-extrastriate cortex. In: Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, ed. Masterton, R. B., pp. 208–47. New York: Plenum Press. [MW]
Wilson, M., Kaufman, H. M., Zieler, R. E. & Lieb, J. P. (1972) Visual identification and memory in monkeys with circumscribed inferotemporal lesions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 78:173–83. [MW]
Winograd, E. (1971) Some issues relating animal memory to human memory. In: Animal memory, ed. Honig, W. K. & James, P. H. R.. New York: Academic Press. [taHLR]
Wittgenstein, L. (1968) Philosophical investigations. New York: Macmillan. [CPS]
Worsham, R. W. (1975) Temporal discrimination factors in the delayed matching-to-sample task in monkeys. Animal Learning and Behavior 3:93–7. [taHLR]
Wright, A. A., Santiago, H. C., Urcuioli, P. J. & Sands, S. F. (1982, in press) Monkey and pigeon acquisition of same/different concept using pictorial stimuli. In: Harvard Symposium in the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, ed. Commons, M. L. & Wagner, A. R.. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. [tarHLR]
Young, K. K. (1962) Tests of three hypotheses about the effective stimulus in serial learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63:307–13. [EJC]
Zener, K. (1937) The significance of behavior accompanying conditioned salivary secretion for theories of the conditioned response. American Journal of Psychology 50:384403. [PJS]
Zentall, T. R., Edwards, C. A., Moore, B. S. & Hogan, D. E. (1981) Identity: The basis for both matching and oddity learning in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 7:7086. [taHLR, TRZ]
Zentall, T. R. & Hogan, D. E. (1978) Same/different concept learning in the pigeon: The effect of negative instances and prior adaptation to transfer stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 30:177–86. [taHLR]
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed