Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 499
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hoffmann, Joachim 2017. Lern- und Gedächtnispsychologie.

    Augusto, Luis M. 2016. Lost in dissociation: The main paradigms in unconscious cognition. Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 42, p. 293.

    Batterink, Laura J. Cheng, Larry Y. and Paller, Ken A. 2016. Neural Measures Reveal Implicit Learning during Language Processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, p. 1.

    Colagiuri, Ben and Livesey, E. J. 2016. Contextual cuing as a form of nonconscious learning: Theoretical and empirical analysis in large and very large samples. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,

    Jurchiş, Răzvan and Opre, Adrian 2016. Unconscious Learning of Cognitive Structures with Emotional Components: Implications for Cognitive Behavior Psychotherapies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 230.

    Mertens, Gaëtan and De Houwer, Jan 2016. Potentiation of the startle reflex is in line with contingency reversal instructions rather than the conditioning history. Biological Psychology, Vol. 113, p. 91.

    Newell, Ben R. and Shaw, Brad 2016. Priming Risky Choice: Do Risk Preferences Need Inferences?. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, p. n/a.

    Silva, Susana Folia, Vasiliki Hagoort, Peter and Petersson, Karl Magnus 2016. The P600 in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning. Cognitive Science, p. n/a.

    Batterink, Laura J. Reber, Paul J. Neville, Helen J. and Paller, Ken A. 2015. Implicit and explicit contributions to statistical learning. Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 83, p. 62.

    Beesley, Tom Pearson, Daniel and Le Pelley, Mike 2015. Implicit learning of gaze-contingent events. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 22, Issue. 3, p. 800.

    Bell, Philippa K. 2015. Explicit and Implicit Learning: Exploring Their Simultaneity and Immediate Effectiveness. Applied Linguistics, p. amv028.

    Chen, Hsiang-Chun and Lee, Yuh-shiow 2015. The eye movement measure of memory and its relationship with explicit measures. Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 33, p. 354.

    Davies, Martin 2015. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.

    Ellis, Rod 2015. Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages.

    Goujon, Annabelle Didierjean, André and Thorpe, Simon 2015. Investigating implicit statistical learning mechanisms through contextual cueing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 19, Issue. 9, p. 524.

    Jamieson, Randall K. Vokey, John R. and Mewhort, D. J. K. 2015. Implicit learning is order dependent. Psychological Research,

    Leow, Ronald P. 2015. Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages.

    Leow, Ronald P. 2015. The roles of attention and (un)awareness in SLA: Conceptual replication of N. C. Ellis & Sagarra (2010a) and Leung & Williams (2012). Language Teaching, Vol. 48, Issue. 01, p. 117.

    Llewellyn, Sue and Hobson, J. Allan 2015. Not only…but also: REM sleep creates and NREM Stage 2 instantiates landmark junctions in cortical memory networks. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Vol. 122, p. 69.

    Luck, Camilla C. and Lipp, Ottmar V. 2015. A potential pathway to the relapse of fear? Conditioned negative stimulus evaluation (but not physiological responding) resists instructed extinction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 66, p. 18.


Characteristics of dissociable human learning systems

  • David R. Shanks (a1) and Mark F. St. John (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2010

A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have been proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, (1) between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and (2) between learning that involves the encoding of instances (or fragments) versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning derived from subliminal learning, conditioning, artificial grammar learning, instrumental learning, and reaction times in sequence learning. We conclude that unconscious learning has not been satisfactorily established in any of these areas. The assumption that learning in some of these tasks (e.g., artificial grammar learning) is predominantly based on rule abstraction is questionable. When subjects cannot report the “implicitly learned” rules that govern stimulus selection, this is often because their knowledge consists of instances or fragments of the training stimuli rather than rules. In contrast to the distinction between conscious and unconscious learning, the distinction between instance and rule learning is a sound and meaningful way of taxonomizing human learning. We discuss various computational models of these two forms of learning.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. K. Adams (1957) Laboratory studies of behavior without awareness. Psychological Bulletin 54: 383405. [aDRS]

D. W. Aha , D. Kibler & M. K. Albert (1991) Instance-based learning algorithms. Machine Learning 6: 3766. [RLC]

S. W. Allen & L. R. Brooks (1991) Specializing the operation of an explicit rule. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 319. [aDRS, RLC]

P. E. Baer & M. J. Fuhrer (1982) Cognitive factors in the concurrent differential conditioning of eyelid and skin conductance responses. Memory and Cognition 10: 135–40. [aDRS]

F. Baeyens , P. Eelen , G. Crombez & O. Van den Bergh (1992) Human evaluative conditioning: Acquisition trials, presentation schedule, evaluative style and contingency awareness. Behavioitr Research and Therapy 30: 133–42. [aDRS, FB]

F. Baeyens , P. Eelen & O. Van den Bergh (1990a) Contingency awareness in evaluative conditioning: A case for unaware affective-evaluative learning. Cognition and Emotion 4: 318. [aDRS, FB]

F. Baeyens , P. Eelen , O. Van den Bergh & G. Crombez (1990b) Flavor-flavor and color-flavor conditioning in humans. Learning and Motivation 21: 434–55. [FB]

L. E. Barton , A. R. Brulle & A. C. Repp (1986) Maintenance of therapeutic change by momentary DRO. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 19: 277–82. [GO]

M. Beeman (1993) Semantic processing in the right hemisphere may contribute to drawing inferences from discourse. Brain and Language 44: 80120. [CJM]

R. P. Bentall , C. F. Lowe & A. Beasty (1985) The role of verbal behavior in human learning: II. Developmental differences. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 43: 165–81. [GO]

D. C. Berry & D. E. Broadbent (1990) The role of instruction and verbalization in improving performance on complex search tasks. Behavior and Information Technology 9: 175–90. [aDRS]

R. F. Bornstein , D. R. Leone & D. J. Galley (1987) The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: Influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53: 1070–79. [RFB]

D. E. Broadbent , P. Fitzgerald & M. H. P. Broadbent (1986) Implicit and explicit knowledge in the control of complex systems. British Journal of Psychology 77: 3350. [aDRS]

L. R. Brooks & J. R. Vokey (1991) Abstract analogies and abstracted grammars: Comments on Reber (1989) and Mathews et al. (1989). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 316–23. [aDRS, HN, ASR]

C. Burgess & G. Simpson (1988) Hemispheric processing of ambiguous words. Brain and Language 33: 86104. [CJM]

T. J. Carew , R. D. Hawkins & E. R. Kandel (1983) Differential classical conditioning of a defense withdrawal reflex in Aplysia californica. Science 219: 397400. [ASR]

R. A. Carlson (1992) Starting with consciousness. American Journal of Psychology 105: 598604. [RAC]

A. C. Catania , B. A. Matthews & E. Shimoff (1982) Instructed versus shaped human verbal behavior: Interactions with nonverbal responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 38: 233–48. [ACC]

A. C. Catania , E. Shimoff & B. A. Matthews (1989) An experimental analysis of rule-governed behavior. In: Rule-governed behavior: Cognition, contingencies, and instructional control, ed. S. C. Hayes . Plenum. [aDRS, FS]

S. Channon , I. Daum & J. A. Gray (1993) Operant conditioning after temporal lobe lesions in man: Conditional and simple discrimination learning. Cortex 29: 315–24. [rDRS]

N. Charness , W. Milberg & M. P. Alexander (1988) Teaching an amnesic a complex cognitive skill. Brain and Cognition 8: 253–72. [rDRS]

J. Cheesman & P. M. Merikle (1984) Priming with and without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 36: 387–95. [ZD]

J. Cheesman & P. M. Merikle (1986) Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology 40: 343–67. [MAS]

C. Chiarello (1988) Semantic priming in the intact brain: Separate roles for the right and left hemispheres? In: Right hemisphere contributions to lexical semantics, ed. C. Chiarello . Springer-Verlag. [CJM]

A. Cleeremans & J. L. McClelland (1991) Learning the structure of event sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 235–53. [aDRS, AC]

I. Daum , S. Channon , C. E. Polkey & J. A. Gray (1991) Classical conditioning after temporal lobe lesions in man: Impairment in conditional discrimination. Behavioral Neurosdence 105: 396408. [rDRS]

G. C. L. Davey (1984) Is evaluative conditioning a qualitatively distinct form of classical conditioning? Behavior Research and Therapy 32: 291–99. [rDRS]

M. E. Dawson & A. M. Schell (1985) Information processing and human autonomic classical conditioning. In: Advances in psychophysiology, ed. P. K. Ackles , J. R. Jennings & M. C. H. Coles . JAI Press. [aDRS]

Z. Dienes (1992) Connectionist and memory-array models of artificial grammar learning. Cognitive Science 16: 4180. [aDRS, RAP]

D. E. Dulany (1961) Hypotheses and habits in verbal “operant conditioning.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 63: 251–63. [arDRS, RAC, FS]

D. E. Dulany , R. A. Carlson & G. I. Dewey (1984) A case of syntactical learning and judgment: How conscious and how abstract? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113: 541–55. [aDRS, RAC]

D. E. Dulany , (1985) On consciousness in syntactic learning and judgment: A reply to Reber, Allen, and Regan. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 2532. [aDRS, RAC]

E. Eich (1984) Memory for unattended events: Remembering with and without awareness. Memory and Cognition 12: 105–11. [aDRS]

J. L. Elman (1990) Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science 14: 179212. [rDRS, AC]

J. L. Elman (1993) Learning and development in neural networks; The importance of starting small. Cognition 48: 7199. [rDRS]

K. A. Ericsson & H. A. Simon (1980) Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review 87: 215–51. [aDRS]

C. W. Eriksen (1960) Discrimination and learning without awareness: A methodological survey and evaluation. Psychological Review 67: 279300. [aDRS]

M. J. Farah , R. C. O'Reilly & S. P. Vecera (1993) Dissociated overt and covert recognition as an emergent property of a lesioned neural network. Psychological Review 100: 571–88. [rDRS]

M. M. Ghoneim , R. I. Block & D. C. Fowles (1992) No evidence of classical conditioning of electrodermal responses during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 76: 682–88. [aDRS]

J. J. Gibson (1971) The information available in pictures. Leonardo 4: 2735. [RAC]

M. A. Gluck & G. H. Bower (1988) From conditioning to category learning: An adaptive network model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117: 227–47. [aDRS]

M. A. Gluck & C. E. Myers (1993) Hippocampal mediation of stimulus representation: A computational theory. Hippocampus 3: 491516. [ZK]

M. A. Goodale (1993) Visual pathways supporting perception and action in the primate cerebral cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 3: 578–85. [LRS]

A. M. Granda & J. T. Hammack (1961) Operant behavior during sleep. Science 133: 1485–86. [GO]

R. E. A. Green & D. R. Shanks (1993) On the existence of independent explicit and implicit learning systems: An examination of some evidence. Memory and Cognition 21: 304–17. [aDRS]

J. Greenspoon (1955) The reinforcing effect of two spoken sounds on the frequency of two responses. American Journal of Psychology 68: 409–16. [aDRS]

A. G. Greenwald (1992) Unconscious cognition reclaimed. American Psychologist 47: 766–79. [aDRS]

A. G. Greenwald , E. R. Spangenberg , A. R. Pratkanis & J. Eskenazi (1991) Double blind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Psychological Science 2: 119–22. [aDRS]

W. W. Grings , A. M. Schell & C. A. Carey (1973) Verbal control of an autonomic response in a cue reversal situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99: 215–21. [aDRS, ASR]

M. M. Haith & M. E. McCarty (1990) Stability of visual expectation at 3.0 months of age. Developmental Psychology 26: 6874. [ASR]

R. D. Hawkins , E. R. Kandel & S. A. Siegelbaum (1993) Learning to modulate transmitter release: Themes and variations in synaptic plasticity. Annual Review of Neurosdence 16: 625–65. [LRS]

R. F. Hefferline , B. Keenan & R. A. Harford (1959) Escape and avoidance conditioning in human subjects without their observation of the response. Science 130: 1338–39. [FS]

W. Hirst & B. T. Volpe (1984) Encoding of spatial relations with amnesia. Ncuropsychologia 22: 631–34. [rDRS]

K. J. Holyoak & B. A. Spellman (1993) Thinking. Annual Review of Psychology 44: 265315. [KJH]

D. V. Howard & J. H. Howard (1989) Age differences in learning serial patterns: Direct versus indirect measures. Psychology and Aging 4: 3564. [aDRS, CAS]

M. L. Howe , F. M. Rabinowitz & M. J. Crant (1993) On measuring (in)dependence of cognitive processes. Psychological Review 100: 737–47. [NB, MLH]

M. S. Humphreys , J. D. Bain & R. Pike (1989) Different ways to cue a coherent memory system: A theory for episodic, semantic, and procedural tasks. Psychological Review 96: 208–33. [aDRS]

L. L. Jacoby & M. Dallas (1981) On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Ceneral 110: 306–40. [CAS]

W. James (1890) The principles of psychology. Holt. [JL]

M. Jelicic , B. Bonke , C. Wolters & R. H. Phaf (1992) Implicit memory for words presented during anaesthesia. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 4: 7180. [aDRS]

J. S. Johnson & E. L. Newport (1989) Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology 21: 6099. [JL]

P. E. Johnson (1983) What kind of expert should a system be? The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8: 7797. [GO]

D. G. Kemler Nelson (1984) The effect of intention on what concepts are acquired. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 734–59. [aDRS]

J. F. Kihlstrom , D. L. Schacter , R. C. Cork , C. A. Hurt & S. E. Behr (1990) Implicit and explicit memory following surgical anesthesia. Psychological Science 1: 303–6. [aDRS]

E. Kimmel (1967) Judgments of UCS intensity and diminution of the UCR in classical CSR conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73: 532–43. [HDK]

H. D. Kimmel & M. Bevill (1985) Habitation and dishabituation of the human orienting reflex under instruction-induced stress. Physiological Psychology 13: 9294. [HDK]

B. J. Knowlton , S. J. Ramus & L. R. Squire (1992) Intact artificial grammar learning in amnesia: Dissociation of classification learning and explicit memory for instances. Psychological Science 3: 172–79. [aDRS, KJH, ASR, CAS, DBW]

B. J. Knowlton & L. R. Squire (1993) The learning of categories: Parallel brain systems for item memory and category knowledge. Science 262: 1747–49.

L. Krasner (1958) Studies of the conditioning of verbal behavior. Psychological Bulletin 55: 148–70. [aDRS, SSR]

J. A. Krosnick , A. I. Betz , L. J. Jussim & A. R. Lynn (1992) Subliminal conditioning of attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18: 152–62. [FB]

J. K. Kruschke (1992) ALCOVE: An exemplar-based connectionist model of category learning. Psychological Review 99: 2244. [aDRS]

W. R. Kunst-Wilson & R. B. Zajonc (1980) Affective discriminations of stimuli that cannot be recognized. Science 207: 557–58. [arDRS, RFB]

H. Lachnit & H. D. Kimmel (1993) Positive and negative patterning in human classical skin conductance response conditioning. Animal Learning and Behavior 21: 314–26. [rDRS, HDK]

P. Lewicki , T. Hill & E. Bizot (1988) Acquisition of procedural knowledge about a pattern of stimuli that cannot be articulated. Cognitive Psychology 20: 2437. [aDRS, CAS]

P. Lewicki , T. Hill & M. Czyzewska (1992) Nonconscious acquisition of information. American Psychologist 47: 796801. [CAS]

E. F. Loftus & M. R. Klinger (1992) Is the unconscious smart or dumb? American Psychologist 47: 761–65. [aDRS]

G. D. Logan (1988) Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review 95: 492528. [MAS]

P. F. Lovibond (1992) Tonic and phasic electrodermal measures of human aversive conditioning with long duration stimuli. Psychophysiology 29: 621–32. [aDRS]

C. F. Lowe , A. Beasty & R. P. Bentall (1983) The role of verbal behavior in human learning: Infant performance on fixed-interval schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 39: 157–64. [GO]

F. C. Mace & D. Knight (1986) Functional analysis and treatment of severe pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 19: 411–16. [GO]

R. S. W. Masters (1992) Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology 83: 343–58. [CAS]

R. Mathews (1990) Abstractiveness of implicit grammar knowledge. Comments on Perruchet and Pacteau's analysis of synthetic grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119: 412–16. [DCB]

B. A. Matthews , E. Shimoff , A. C. Catania & T. Sagvolden (1977) Uninstructed human responding: Sensitivity to ratio and interval contingencies. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 27: 453–67. [FS]

M. D. Mauk & R. F. Thompson (1987) Retention of classically conditioned eyelid responses following acute decerebration. Brain Research 403: 8995. [LRS]

J. L. McClelland & D. E. Rumelhart (1981) An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review 88: 375407. [aDRS]

D. L. Medin & M. M. Schaffer (1978) Context theory of classification learning. Psychological Review 85: 207–38. [aDRS]

M. Mishkin (1982) A memory system in the monkey. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 298: 8592. [ASR]

N. Moerman , B. Bonke & J. Oosting (1993) Awareness and recall during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 79: 454–64. [JA]

R. Munglani , J. Andrade , D. J. Sapsford , A. D. Baddeley & J. G. Jones (1993) A measure of consciousness and memory during isoflurane administration: The coherent frequency. British Journal of Anaesthesia 71(5): 633–41. [JA]

H. Nagata (1989a) Effect of repetition on grammaticality judgments under objective and subjective self-awareness conditions. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 18: 255–69. [HN]

H. Nagata (1989b) Judgments of sentence grammaticality with differentiation and enrichment strategies. Perceptual and Motor Skills 68: 463–69. [HN]

H. Nagata (1989c) Judgments of sentence grammaticality and field-dependency of subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills 69: 739–47. [HN]

H. Nagata (1992) Anchoring effects in judging grammaticality of sentences. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 159–64. [HN]

T. Natsoulas (1992) Is consciousness what psychologists actually examine? American Journal of Psychology 105: 363–84. [RAC]

U. Neisscr (1991) Two perceptually given aspects of the self and their development. Developmental Review 11: 197209. [RAC]

E. L. Newport (1990) Maturational constraints on language learning. Cognitive Science 14: 1128. [JL]

P. M. Niedenthal (1990) Implicit perception of affective information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 26: 505–27. [FB]

H. E. Nishett & T. D. Wilson (1977) Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84: 231–59. [HST]

M. J. Nissen & P. Bullemer (1987) Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology 19: 132. [aDRS, KJH, DBVV]

M. J. Nissen , D. S. Knopman & D. L. Schacter . (1987) Neurochemical dissociation of memory systems. Neurology 37: 789–94. [aDRS]

M. J. Nissen , D. Willingham & M. Hartman (1989) Explicit and implicit remembering: When is learning preserved in amnesia? Neuropsychologia 27: 341–52. [CAS]

R. J. Norman , J. S. Buchwald & J. R. Villablanca (1977) Classical conditioning with auditory discrimination of the eyeblink reflex in decerebrate cats. Science 196: 551–53. [LRS]

R. M. Nosofsky (1986) Attention, similarity, and the identification categorization relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115: 3957. [aDRS]

R. M. Nosofsky , T. J. Palmeri & S. C. McKinley (1994) Rule-plus-exception model of classification learning. Psychological Review 101: 5379. [RLG]

M. G. Packard & N. M. White (1991) Dissociation of hippocampus and caudate nucleus memory systems by post-training intracerebral injection of dopamine agonists. Behavioral Neuroscience 105: 295306. [MCP]

J. Parkhouse (1960) Awareness during surgery. Postgraduate Medical Journal 36: 674–77. [JA]

P. Perruchet , J. Gallego & I. Savy (1990) A critical reappraisal of the evidence for unconscious abstraction of deterministic rules in complex experimental situations. Cognitive Psychology 22: 493516. [aDRS]

P. Perruchet & C. Pacteau (1990) Synthetic grammar learning: Implicit rule abstraction or explicit fragmentary knowledge? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119: 264–75. [aDRS, DCB]

P. Perruchet & C. Pacteau (1991) The implicit acquisition of abstract knowledge about artificial grammar: Some methodological and conceptual issues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 112–16. [PP]

S. Pinker (1991) Rules of language. Science 253: 530–35. [RLC, rDRS]

K. Plunkett & V. Marchman (1991) U-shaped learning and frequency effects in a multi-layer perceptron: Implications for child language acquisition. Cognition 38: 43102. [rDRS]

M. I. Posner S. W. fie Keele (1970) Retention of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83: 304–8. [aDRS]

S. Rakover (1993) Empirical criteria for task susceptibility to introspective awareness and awareness effects. Philosophical Psychology 6: 451–67. [SSR]

A. S. Reber (1989b) More thoughts on the unconscious: Reply to Brody and to Lewicki and Hill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118: 24244. [HN]

A. S. Reber (1990) On the primacy of the implicit: Comment on Perruchet and Pacteau. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119: 340–42. [DCB][

A. S. Reber (1992a) The cognitive unconscious: An evolutionary perspective. Consciousness and Cognition 1: 93133. [CAS]

A. S. Reber (1992b) An evolutionary context for the cognitive unconscious. Philosophical Psychology 5: 3351. [KJH]

A. S. Reber & R. Allen (1978) Analogic and abstraction strategies in synthetic grammar learning: A functionalist interpretation. Cognition 6: 189221. [aDRS, HN, ASR]

A. S. Reber , R. Allen & S. Regan (1985) Syntactical learning and judgment, still unconscious and still abstract: Comment on Dulany, Carlson, and Dewey. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 1724. [aDRS, RAC]

A. S. Reber & S. Lewis (1977) Implicit learning: An analysis of the form and structure of a body of tacit knowledge. Cognition 5: 333–61. [aDRS, ASR]

G. Regehr & L. R. Brooks (1993) Perceptual manifestations of an analytic structure: The priority of holistic individuation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122: 92114. [aDRS]

E. M. Reingold & P. M. Merikle (1988) Using direct and indirect measures to study perception without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 44: 563–75. [aDRS, RFB, PMM]

A. Richardson-Klavehn & R. A. Bjork (1988) Measures of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 39: 475543. [aDRS]

H. L. Roediger (1990) Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. American Psychologist 45: 1043–56. [aDRS]

E. H. Rosch (1975) Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology 104: 192233. [aDRS]

C. Rovee-Collier (1990) The “memory system” of prelinguistic infants. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 608: 517–42. [ASR, HST]

C. Rovee-Collier , P. C. Griesler & L. A. Earley (1985) Contextual determinants of retrieval in three-month-old infants. Learning and Motivation 16: 139–57. [HST]

J. W. Rudy & R. J. Sutherland (1992) Configural and elemental associations and the memory coherence problem. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 4: 208–16. [rDRS]

I. F. Russell (1986) Comparison of wakefulness with two anaesthetic regimens. British Journal of Anaesthesia 58: 965–68. [JA]

I. F. Russell (1989) Conscious awareness during general anaesthesia: Relevance of autonomic signs and isolated arm movements to depth of anaesthesia. In: Balliere's Clinical Anaesthesiology: Depth of Anaesthesia, ed. J. G. Jones . Balliere. [JA]

R. C. Saunders & L. Weiskrantz (1989) The effects of fornix transection and combined fornix transection, mammillary body lesions and hippocampal ablations on object-pair association memory in the rhesus monkey. Behavioral Brain Research 35: 8594. [LRS1]

D. L. Schacter (1990) Perceptual representation systems and implicit memory: Toward a resolution of the multiple memory systems debate. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 608: 543–71. [CJM]

D. L. Schacter (1992) Priming and multiple memory systems: Perceptual mechanisms of implicit memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 4: 244–56. [CJM]

D. L. Schacter , C. Y. Chiu & K. N. Ochsner (1993) Implicit memory: A selective review. Annual Review of Neuroscience 16: 159–82. [LRS]

D. L. Schacter , J. L. Harbluk & D. R. McLachlan (1984) Retrieval without recollection: An experimental analysis of source amnesia. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 593611. [rDRS]

W. Schneider & R. M. Shiffrin (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review 84: 166. [JL]

C. A. Seger (1994) Implicit learning. Psychological Bulletin 115: 163–96. [CAS]

M. S. Seidenberg & J. L. McClelland (1989) A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review 96: 523–68. [rDRS]

D. Servan-Schreiber , A. Cleeremans & J. L. McClelland (1991) Graded state machines: The representation of temporal contingencies in simple recurrent networks. Machine Learning 7: 161–93. [AC]

D. R. Shanks (1993) Human instrumental learning: A critical review of data and theory. British Journal of Psychology 84: 319–54. [aDRS]

D. R. Shanks & A. Dickinson (1990) Contingency awareness in evaluative conditioning: A comment on Baeyens, Eelen & van den Bergh. Cognition and Emotion 4: 1930. [aDRS]

D. R. Shanks & A. Dickinson (1991) Instrumental judgment and performance under variations in actionoutcome contingency and contiguity. Memory and Cognition 19: 353–60. [aDRS, FS]

R. M. Shiffrin & W. Schneider (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84:127–90. [JL]

C. P. Shimp , S. L. Sabulsky & L. J. Childers (1989) Preference for starting and finishing behavior patterns. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 52:341–52. [ACC]

H. Shin & R. M. Nosofsky (1992) Similarity scaling studies of “dot pattern” classification and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:278304. [aDRS]

J. R. Simon & J. L. Craft (1989) The effect of prediction accuracy on choice reaction time. Memory and Cognition 17:503–8. [aDRS]

B. F. Skinner (1945) The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review 52:270–77. [ACC, HST]

D. Slobin (1978) A case study of early language awareness. In: The child's conception of language, ed. A. Sinclair , R. Jarvella & W. Levelt Springer-Verlag. [JL]

E. E. Smith (1989) Concepts and induction. In: Foundations of cognitive science, ed. M. I. Posner . MIT Press. [PP]

J. D. Smith & D. G. Kemler Nelson (1984) Overall similarity in adults' classification: The child in all of us. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113:137–59. [aDRS]

J. D. Smith & J. H. Shapiro (1989) The occurrence of holistic categorization. Journal of Memory and Language 28:386–99. [aDRS, RLG]

C. D. Spielberger & L. D. DeNike (1966) Descriptive behaviorism versus cognitive hypothesis in verbal operant conditioning. Psychological Review 73:306–26. [SSR]

L. R. Squire (1992) Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychological Review 99:195231. [aDRS, ASR, CAS]

F. Svartdal (1989) Shaping of rule-governed behaviour. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 30:304–14. [aDRS, FS]

F. Svartdal (1991) Operant modulation of low-level attributes of rule-governed behavior by nonverbal contingencies. Learning and Motivation 22:406–20. [aDRS, FS]

F. Svartdal (1992) Sensitivity to nonverbal operant contingencies: Do limited processing resources affect operant conditioning in humans? Learning and Motivation 23:383405. [rDRS, ACC, FS]

E. Tulving & D. L. Schacter (1990) Priming and human memory systems. Science 247:301–5. [CJM, LRS]

R. R. Vallacher & D. M. Wegner (1987) What do people think they're doing: Action identification and human behavior. Psychological Review 94:315. [RAC]

T. B. Ward & J. Scott (1987) Analytic and holistic modes of learning familyresemblance concepts. Memory and Cognition 15:4254. [aDRS]

P. C. Wason (1968) Reasoning about a rule. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 20:273–81. [aDRS]

L. Weiskrantz & E. K. Warrington (1979) Conditioning in amnesic patients. Ncuropsychologia 17:187–94. [aDRS, DBW]

B. W. A. Whittlesea & M. D. Dorken (1993) Incidentally, things in general are particularly determined: An episodic-processing account of implicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122:227–48. [aDRS, AC, HN, ASR]

J. R. Wolpaw & J. S. Carp (1990) Memory traces in spinal cord. Trends in Neurosciences 13:137–42. [GO]

J. M. Wood , R. R. Bootzin , J. F. Kihlstrom & D. L. Schaeter (1992) Implicit and explicit memory for verbal information presented during sleep. Psychological Science 3:236–39. [aDRS]

R. B. Zajonc (1968) Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph 9:127. [RFB]

S. Zola-Morgan & L. R. Squire (1986) Memory impairment in monkeys following lesions of the hippocampus. Behavioral Neuroscience 100:155–60. [ASR]

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *