Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 610
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Rook, Laurens 2017. Exploring the Benefits of Creativity in Education, Media, and the Arts.

    Alda, Mercedes and Ferruz, Luis 2016. Pension Fund Herding and the Influence of Management Style. Journal of Behavioral Finance, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 144.

    Biro, Dora Sasaki, Takao and Portugal, Steven J. 2016. Bringing a Time–Depth Perspective to Collective Animal Behaviour. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 31, Issue. 7, p. 550.

    Bjorklund, David F. and Beers, Courtney 2016. Evolutionary Perspectives on Child Development and Education.

    Cash, Luke 2016. Wittgenstein and the Animal Origins of Linguistic Communication. Philosophical Investigations,

    Dapelo, Marcela Marin Bodas, Sergio Morris, Robin and Tchanturia, Kate 2016. Deliberately generated and imitated facial expressions of emotions in people with eating disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 191, p. 1.

    Ferguson, Brock and Lew-Williams, Casey 2016. Communicative signals support abstract rule learning by 7-month-old infants. Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, p. 25434.

    Gampe, Anja Prinz, Wolfgang and Daum, Moritz M. 2016. Measuring action understanding: Relations between goal prediction and imitation. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, Vol. 34, Issue. 1, p. 53.

    Hewlett, Barry S. and Roulette, Casey J. 2016. Teaching in hunter–gatherer infancy. Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 150403.

    Kavanagh, Liam C. and Winkielman, Piotr 2016. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    Krauss, Baruch S Calligaris, Lorenzo Green, Steven M and Barbi, Egidio 2016. Current concepts in management of pain in children in the emergency department. The Lancet, Vol. 387, Issue. 10013, p. 83.

    Legare, Cristine H. and Harris, Paul L. 2016. The Ontogeny of Cultural Learning. Child Development, Vol. 87, Issue. 3, p. 633.

    MacLean, Evan L. 2016. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue. 23, p. 6348.

    Malavasi, Rachele and Huber, Ludwig 2016. Evidence of heterospecific referential communication from domestic horses (Equus caballus) to humans. Animal Cognition, Vol. 19, Issue. 5, p. 899.

    Martin, Dorothea U. Perry, Conrad and Kaufman, Jordy H. 2016. An Eye on Animacy and Intention. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    McVeigh, Ryan 2016. Basic-Level Categories, Mirror Neurons, and Joint-Attention Schemes: Three Points of Intersection Between G.H. Mead and Cognitive Science. Symbolic Interaction, Vol. 39, Issue. 1, p. 45.

    Murza, Kimberly A. Schwartz, Jamie B. Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L. and Nye, Chad 2016. Joint attention interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, Vol. 51, Issue. 3, p. 236.

    NEGAYAMA, KOICHI 2016. Development of embodied relationship between human mother and child. Japanese Journal of Animal Psychology, Vol. 66, Issue. 1, p. 47.

    O’Brien, Michael J. Boulanger, Matthew T. Buchanan, Briggs Bentley, R. Alexander Lyman, R. Lee Lipo, Carl P. Madsen, Mark E. and Eren, Metin I. 2016. Design Space and Cultural Transmission: Case Studies from Paleoindian Eastern North America. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 692.

    Olsson, Andreas Undeger, Irem and Yi, Jonathan 2016. Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character.


Cultural learning

  • Michael Tomasello (a1), Ann Cale Kruger (a2) and Hilary Horn Ratner (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2010

This target article presents a theory of human cultural learning. Cultural learning is identified with those instances of social learning in which intersubjectivity or perspective-taking plays a vital role, both in the original learning process and in the resulting cognitive product. Cultural learning manifests itself in three forms during human ontogeny: imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning – in that order. Evidence is provided that this progression arises from the developmental ordering of the underlying social-cognitive concepts and processes involved. Imitative learning relies on a concept of intentional agent and involves simple perspective-taking. Instructed learning relies on a concept of mental agent and involves alternating/coordinated perspective-taking (intersubjectivity). Collaborative learning relies on a concept of reflective agent and involves integrated perspective-taking (reflective intersubjectivity). A comparison of normal children, autistic children and wild and enculturated chimpanzees provides further evidence for these correlations between social cognition and cultural learning. Cultural learning is a uniquely human form of social learning that allows for a fidelity of transmission of behaviors and information among conspecifics not possible in other forms of social learning, thereby providing the psychological basis for cultural evolution.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

E. Abravonal & H. Gingold (1985) Learning via observation during the second year of life. Developmental Psychology 21:614–23. [aMT]

R. Aisner & J. Terkel (1992) Ontogeny of pine cone opening behavior in the black rat, Rattus rattus. Animal Behaviour 44:327–36. [MDH]

G. J. Ames & F. B. Murray (1982) When two wrongs make a right: Promoting cognitive change by social conflict. Developmental Psychology 18:894–97. [aMT]

M. Azmitia (1988) Peer interaction and problem-solving: When are two heads better than one? Child Development 59:8796. [aMT]

R. Bakeman & L. Adamson (1982) Coordinating attention to people and objects in mother-infant and peer-infant interactions. Child Development 55:1278–89. [aMT]

D. A. Baldwin (1991) Infants' contribution to the achievement of joint reference. Child Development 62:875–90. [ASL]

K. A. Bard (1992a) Intentional behavior and intentional communication in young free-ranging orangutans. Child Development 63:1186–97. [KAB]

K. Bard & J. Vauclair (1984) The communicative context of object manipulation in ape and human adult-infant pairs, Journal of Human Evolution 13:181–90. [aMT]

S. Baron-Cohen (1988) Social and pragmatic deficits in autism: Cognitive or affective? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 18:379401. [aMT, SB-C]

S. Baron-Cohen (1989) Perceptual role-taking and protodoclarative pointing in autism. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 7:113–27. [SB-C]

S. Baron-Cohen , A. Leslie & U. Frith (1985) Does the autistic child have a theory of mind? Cognition 21:3746. [aMT]

N. Besnier (1991) Literacy and the notion of person on Nukulaelae Atoll. American Anthropologist 93:570–87. [BS]

C. Boesch (1991) Teaching in wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 41(3):530–32. [arMT, CB, MDH, BJK]

C. Boesch & H. Boesch (1989) Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Tai National Park. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 78:547–73. [aMT, KAB]

C. Boesch & H. Boesch (1990) Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 54:8699. [CB]

J. Boucher (1976) Is autism primarily a language disorder? British Journal of Disorders of Communication 11:135–43. [aMT]

S. Braten (1988) Dialogic mind: The infant and the adult in protoconversation. In: Nature, cognition and system, 1 ed. M. Carvallo . Kluwer Academic. [SB, CT]

C. A. Brownell & M. S. Carriger (1990) Changes in cooperation and selfother differentiation during the second year. Child Development 61:1164–74. [aMT]

J. S. Bruner (1972) The uses of immaturity. American Psychologist 27:122. [DRO]

D. Bullock (1987) Socializing the theory of intellectual development. In: Meaning and the growth of understanding, ed. M. Chapman & R. Dixon . Springer-Verlag. [aMT]

R. Burling (1993) Primate calls, human language and nonverbal communication. Current Anthropology 34:2553. [BJK]

G. Butterworth & E. Cochran (1980) Towards a mechanism of joint visual attention in human infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development 3:253–72. [JBa]

R. W. Byrne & J. M. E. Byrne (1991) Hand preferences in the skilled gathering tasks of mountain gorillas (Gorilla g. beringei). Cortex 27:521–46. [RWB]

T. M. Caro (1980) Effects of the mother, object play and adult experience on predation in cats. Behavioral Neural Biology 29:2951. [aMT]

T. M. Caro & M. D. Hanser (1992) Is there evidence of teaching in nonhuman animals? Quarterly Review of Biology 67:151–74. [aMT, MDH]

C. Cartmill (1990) Human uniqueness and theoretical content in paleoanthropology. International Journal of Primatology 11(3): 173–92. [BJK]

M. Chandler , A. S. Fritz & S. Hala (1989) Small-scale deceit: Deception as a marker of two-, three-, and four-year-olds' early theories of mind. Child Development 60:1263–77. [aMT]

M. Charlop , L. Schreibman & A. Tryon (1983) Learning through observation: The effects of peer modeling on acquisition and generalization in autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 11:355–66. [aMT]

W. Damon (1984) Peer education: The untapped potential. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 5:331–43. [aMT]

G. Dawson & A. Adams (1984) Imitation and social responsiveness in autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 12:209–26. [aMT]

J. DeLoache , S. Sugarman & A. Brown (1985) The development of error correction strategies in young children's manipulative play. Child Development 56:928–39. [aMT]

R. J. Dimant & D. J. Bearison (1991) Development of formal reasons during successive peer interactions. Developmental Psychology 27:277–84. [aMT]

W. Doise & G. Mugny (1979) Individual and collective conflicts of centrations in cognitive development. European Journal of Psychology 9:105–8. [aMT, BS]

L. Drummond (1980) The cultural continuum: A theory of intersystems. Man 15:352–74. [RLH]

J. Dunn (1988) The beginnings of social understanding. Harvard University Press. [JBr]

C. Eckerman , C. Davis & S. Didow (1989) Toddlers' emerging ways of achieving social coordinations with a peer. Child Development 60:440–53. [aMT]

C. Eckerman & M. Stein (1982) The toddler's emerging interactive skills. In: Peer relationships and social skills in childhood, ed. K. H. Rubin & H. S. Ross . Springer-Verlag. [aMT]

A. Fernald (1989) Intonation and communicative interest in mother's speech to infants: Is the melody the message? Child Development 60:14971510. [CT]

E. A. Forman (1989) The role of peer interaction in the social construction of mathematical knowledge. International Journal of Educational Research 13:5570. [EAF]

R. S. Fouts , A. D. Hirsch & D. H. Fouts (1982) Cultural transmission of a human language in a chimpanzee mother-infant relationship. In: Child nurturance, vol. 3: Studies of development in nonhuman primates, ed. H. E. Fitzgerald , J. A. Mullins & P. Gage . Plenum. [KAB]

B. G. Galef (1992) The question of animal culture. Human Nature 3:157–78. [aMT, PM]

B. G. Galef , L. A. Manzig & R. M. Field (1986) Imitation learning in budgerigars: Dawson and Foss (1965) revisited. Behavioural Processes 13:191202. [rMT, CMH]

G. G. Gallup Jr., (1985) Do minds exist in species other than our own? Neurosciences and Biobehavioral Review 9:631–41. [RWM]

M. Gauvain & B. Rogoff (1989) Collaborative problem solving and children's planning skills. Developmental Psychology 25:139–51. [aMT]

K. R. Gibson (1990) New perspectives on instinets and intelligence: Brain size and the emergence of hierarchical mental constructional skills. In: “Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes, ed. S. T. Parker & K. R. Gibson . Cambridge University Press. [BJK]

A. Goldman (1989) Interpretation psychologized. Mind and Language 4:161–85. [AIG]

A. Goldman (1992a) In defense of the simulation theory. Mind and Language 7:104–19. [AIG]

A. Goldman (1992b) Empathy, mind, and morals. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66(3). [AIG]

J. C. Gómez (1990) The emergence of intentional communication as a problem-solving strategy in the gorilla. In: “Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative developmental perspectives, ed. S. T. Parker & K. R. Gibson . Cambridge University Press. [JCG]

J. Goodall (1968) The behavior of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream area. Animal Behavior Monographs 1:161311. [KAB]

S. Goodman (1984) The integration of verbal and motor behavior in preschool children. Child Development 52:280–89. [aMT]

A. Gopnik & H. Wellman (1992) Why the child's theory of mind really is a theory. Mind and Language 7 (1&2):145–72. [AG]

R. Gordon (1986) Folk psychology as simulation. Mind and Language 1(2):158–71. [aMT]

P. P. Goudena (1987) The social nature of private speech of preschoolers during problem solving. International Journal of Behavioral Development 10:187206. [aMT]

S. J. Gould (1982) Changes in developmental timing as a mechanism of macroevolution. In: Evolution and development, ed. J. Bonner . Springer-Verlag. [aMT]

J. Hammes & T. Langdell (1981) Precursors of symbol formation and childhood autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 11:331–46. [aMT]

A. Hannah & W. McGrew (1987) Chimpanzees using stones to crack open oil palm nuts in Liberia. Primates 28:3146. [aMT]

K. Hayes & C. Hayes (1952) Imitation in a home-raised chimpanzee. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 45:450–59. [aMT]

M. Heber (1981) Instruction versus conversation as opportunities for learning. In: Communications in development, ed. W. P. Robinson . Academic. [aMT]

P. Hobson (1984) Early childhood autism and the question of egocentrism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 14:85104. [aMT]

P. Hobson (1987) On acquiring knowledge about people and the capacity for pretense: Response to Leslie (1987). Psychological Review 97:114–21. [aMT]

T. Ingold (1991) Becoming persons: Consiousness and sociality in human evolution. Cultural Dynamics 4(3):355–78. [TI]

U. Jones , & M. Prior (1985) Motor imitation abilities and neurological signs in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 15:3749. [aMT]

A. Karmiloff-Smith (1986) From meta-process to conscious access: Evidence from children's metalinguistic and repair data. Cognition 23:95147. [aMT]

S. Kawamura (1950) The process of subeultural propagation among Japanese macaques. Primates 2:4360. [aMT, JBr]

B. J. King (1991b) Social information transfer in monkeys, apes, and hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 34:97115. [BJK]

W. Kohler (1927) The mentality of apes. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [aMT]

S. Kontos (1983) Adult-child interaction and the origins of metacognition. Journal of Educational Research 77:4354. [aMT]

A. C. Kruger & M. Tomasello (1986) Transactive discussions with peers and adults. Developmental Psychology 22:681–85. [aMT]

H. Kummcer , & J. Goodall (1985) Conditions of innovative behavior in primates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 308:203–14. [aMT]

J. Lave (1990) The culture of acquisition and the practice of understanding. In: Cultural psychology: Essays in comparative human development, ed. J. W. Stigler , R. A. Shweder & C. Herdt . Cambridge University Press. [TI]

J. Lave (1991) Situating learning in communities of practice. In: Perspectives on socially shared cognition, ed. L. B. Resnick , J. M. Levine & S. D. Teasley . American Psychological Association. [EAF]

A. Leslie (1987) Pretense and representation: The origins of “theory of mind.” Psychological Review 94:412–26. [aMT]

M. Lewis , M. W. Sullivan , C. Stanger & M. Weiss (1989) Self-development and self-conscious emotions. Child Development 60:146–56. [JBa, RWM]

C. Lord (1984) The development of peer relations in children with autism. In: Advances in applied developmental psychology, ed. F. Morrison , C. Lord & D. Keating . Academic. [aMT]

C. O. Lovejoy (1981) The origin of man. Science 211:341–50. [JC]

K. Loveland (1991) Social affordances and interaction II: Autism and the affordances of the human environment. Ecological Psychology 3:99120. [aMT, SB-C]

K. Loveland & S. Landry (1986) Joint attention in autism and developmental language delay. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 16:335–49. [aMT, SB-C]

K. Loveland , R. McEvoy , B. Tunali & M. Kelley (1990) Narrative story telling in autism and Down syndrome. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 8:923. [aMT]

O. Ludwig (1988) Der Schulfausatz: Seine Geschichte in Dcutschland. De Gruyter. [BS]

R. McCall , R. Parke & R. Kavanaugh (1977) Imitation of live and televised models by children one to three years of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 42(173). [aMT]

W. C. McGrew & C. Tutin (1978) Evidence for a social custom in wild chimpanzees? Man 13:234–51. [aMT]

A. N. Meltzoff (1988a) Infant imitation and memory: Nine-month-olds in immediate and deferred tests. Child Development 59:217–25. [aMT]

A. N. Meltzoff (1988b) Infant imitation after a one week delay: Long term memory for novel acts and multiple stimuli. Developmental Psychology 24:470–76. [aMT]

A. N. Meltzoff & M. K. Moore (1977) Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198:7578. [KAB, AG]

A. N. Meltzoff & M. K. Moore (1983) Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures. Child Development 54:702–9. [AG]

A. N. Meltzoff & M. K. Moore (1989) Imitation in newborn infants: Exploring the range of gestures imitated and the underlying mechanisms. Developmental Psychology 25:954–62. [aMT, CMH]

A. N. Meltzoff & M. K. Moore (1992) Early imitation within a functional framework: The importance of person identity, movement, and development. Infant Behavior and Development 15:479505. [AG]

E. M. Menzel (1971) Communication about the environment in a group of young chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 15:220–32. [aMT]

G. A. Miller , E. Galanter & K. H. Pribram (1960) Plans and the structure of behavior. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [RWB]

P. Mirenda , A. Donnellan & D. Yoder (1983) Gaze behavior: A new look at an old problem. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 13:397409. [SB-C]

R. W. Mitchell (1990) A theroy of play. In: Interpretation and explanation in the study of animal behavior: Comparative perspectives, ed. M. Bekoff & D. Jamieson . Westview. [RWM]

R. W. Mitchell (1992) Developing concepts in infancy: Animals, self-perception, and two theories of mirror-self-recognition. Psychological Inquiry 3:127–30. [RWM]

R. W. Mitchell (1993a) Mental models of mirror-self-recognition: Two theories. New Ideas in Psychology 11 (in press). [RWM]

B. R. Moore (1993) Avian movement imitation and a new form of mimiery: Tracing the evolution of a complex form of learning. Behaviour 122:231–63. [AW]

G. Mugny & W. Doise (1978) Sociocognitive conflict and the structure of individual and collective performances. European Journal of Social Psychology 8:181–92. [aMT]

P. Mundy , M. Sigman & C. Kasari (1990) A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 20:115–28. [aMT]

L. Murray (1991) Intersubjectivity, object relations theory, and empirical evidences from mother-infant interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal 12:219–32. [SB]

L. Murray (1992) The impact of postnatal depression on infant development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 33(3):543–61. [CT]

U. Neisser (1988) Five kinds of self-knowledge. Philosophical Psychology 1:3559. [SB]

A. Ninio (1985) The meaning of children's first words: Evidence from the input. Journal of Pragmatics 9:527–46. [aMT]

R. E. Nisbett & T. D. Wilson (1977) Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports as mental processes. Psychological Review 84:231–59. [RWB]

T. Nishida (1980) The leaf-clipping display: A newly discovered expressive gesture in wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 9:117–28. [aMT]

T. Nishida , R. Wrangham , J. Goodall & S. Uehara (1983) Local differences in plant feeding habits of chimpanzees between the Mahale Mountains and the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 12:467–80. [aMT]

K. P. Oakley (1981) The emergence of higher thought 3.0 to 0.2 MA B.P. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 292:205–11. [BMV]

D. Oden , R. Thompson & D. Premack (1990) Infant chimpanzees spontaneously perceive both concrete and abstract same/different relations. Child Development 61:621–31. [aMT]

F. Patterson (1978) The gestures of a gorilla: Language acquisition in another pongid. Brain and Language 5:7297. [JCG]

M. Perlmutter , S. D. Behrend , F. Kuo & A. Muller (1989) Social influences on children's problem solving. Developmental Psychology 25:744–54. [aMT]

E. Phelps & W. Damon (1989) Problem solving with equals: Peer collaboration as a context for learning mathematics and spatial concepts. Journal of Educational Psychology 81:639–46. [aMT]

D. Povinelli & S. deBlois (1992) Young children's (Homo sapiens) understanding of knowledge formation in themselves and others. Journal of Comparative Psychology 106:228–38. [AIG]

D. Povinelli , K. Nelson & S. Boysen (1990) Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology 104:203–10. [aMT]

H. Ratner (1984) Memory demands and the development of young children's memory. Child Development 55:2173–91. [aMT]

E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh , K. McDonald , R. Sevcik , W. Hopkins & E. Rupert (1986) Spontaneous symbol acquisition and communicative use by pygmy champanzee (Pan paniscus). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115:211–35. [aMT]

E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh , J. L. Pate , J. Lawson , S. T. Smith & S. Rosenbaum (1983) Can a chimpanzee make a statement? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112:457–92. [JCG]

M. Scaife & J. Bruner (1975) The capacity for joint visual attention in the human infant. Nature 253:265. [SB-C]

E. Schopler & G. Mesibov , eds. (1986) Social behavior in autism. Plenum. [aMT]

T. Schwartz (1981) The acquisition of culture. Ethos 9(1):417. [TI]

S. Scribner & M. Cole (1981) The psychology of literacy. Harvard University Press. [BMV]

J. Seeley-Brown , A. Collins & P. Duguid (1988) Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher 18:3242. [JBr]

M. Shatz , H. Wellman & S. Silber (1983) The acquisition of mental verbs: A systematic investigation of the first reference to mental state. Cognition 14:301–21. [aMT]

R. A. Shweder (1990) Cultural psychology – what is it? In: Cultural psychology: Essays on comparative human development, ed. J. W. Stigler , R. A. Shweder & G. Herdt . Cambridge University Press. [aMT, EAF, RLH]

M. Sigman , P. Mundy , J. Ungerer & T. Sherman (1986) Social interactions of autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children, and their caregivers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 27:647–56. [SB-C]

M. Sigman & J. Ungerer (1984) Cognitive and language skills in autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children. Developmental Psychology 20:293302. [aMT]

B. Sodinn , C. Taylor , P. L. Harris & J. Perner (1991) Early deception and the child's theory of mind: False trails and genuine markers. Child Development 62:468–83. [aMT]

K. W. Spence (1937) Experimental studies of learning and higher mental processes in infra-human primates. Psychological Bulletin 34:806–50. [RWB]

C. M. Super & S. Harkness (1986) The developmental niche: A conceptualization at the interface of child and culture. International Journal of Behavioral Development 9:545–69. [RLH]

M. Tomasello (1988) The role of joint attentional processes in early language development. Language Sciences 10:6988. [aMT]

M. Tomasello (1990) Cultural transmission in the tool use and communicatory signaling of chimpanzees? In: Language and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative developmental perspectives, ed. S. Parker & K. Gibson . Cambridge University Press. [aMT]

M. Tomasello (1992b) The social bases of language acquisition. Social Development 1:6787. [aMT]

M. Tomasello , M. Davis-Dasilva , L. Camak & K. Bard (1987) Observational learning of tool use by young chimpanzees. Human Evolution 2:175–83. [aMT]

M. Tomasello & J. Farrar (1986) Joint attention and early language. Child Development 57:1454–63. [aMT]

M. Tomasello , B. George , A. Kruger , J. Farrar & E. Evans (1985) The development of gestural communication in young chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 14:175–86. [aMT]

M. Tomasello , D. Gust & T. Frost (1989) A longitudinal investigation of gestural communication in young chimpanzees. Primates 30:3550. [aMT]

M. Tomasello & J. Todd (1983) Joint attention and lexical acquisition style. First Language 4:197212. [aMT]

J. Tooby & L. Cosmides (1989) Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, Part I. Ethology and Sociobiology 10:2949. [aMT]

C. Trevarthen (1983) Interpersonal abilities of infants as generators for transmission of language and culture. In: The behaviour of human infants, ed. A. Oliverio & M. Zapella . Plenum. [CT]

C. Trevarthen (1987) Sharing makes sense: Intersubjectivity and the making of an infant's meaning. In: Language topics: Essays in honour of Michael Halliday, ed. R. Steele & T. Threadgold . John Benjamins. [CT]

I. Č. Užgiris (1991) The social context of infant imitation. In: Social influences and socialization in infancy, ed. M. Lewis & S. Feinman . Plenum. [ICU]

I. Č. Užgiris & J. C. Kruper (1992) The links between imitation and social referencing. In: Social referencing and the social construction of reality in infancy, ed. S. Feinman . Plenum. [aMT]

H. H. C. van Rijt-Plooij & F. X. Plooij (1987) Growing independence, conflict and learning in mother-infant relations in free-ranging chimpanzees. Behaviour 101:186. [KAB]

B. M. Velichkovsky (1990) The vertical dimension of mental functioning. Psychological Research 52:282–89. [BMV]

E. Visalberghi & D. Fragaszy (1990) Dos monkeys ape? In: Language and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative developmental perspectives, ed. S. Parker & K. Gibson . Cambridge University Press. [AMT]

L. S. Vygotsky (1962) Thought and language. MIT Press. (Original work published in 1934.) [AC, BMV]

A. Whiten & R. Ham (1992) On the nature and evolution of imitation in the animal kingdom: Reappraisal of a century of research. In: Advances in the study of behavior, ed. P. Slater , J. Rosenblatt & C. Beer . Academic. [aMT, AW]

B. B. Whiting (1980) Culture and social behavior: A model for the development of social behavior. Ethos 8:95116. [BR]

B. B. Whiting & J. W. M. Whiting (1975) Children of six cultures: A psycho-cultural analysis. Harvard University Press. [RLH]

D. Wood & D. Middleton (1975) A study of assisted problem-solving. British Journal of Psychology 66:181–91. [aMT]

G. Woodruff & D. Premack (1979) Intentional communication in the chimpanzee: The development of deception. Cognition 7:333–62. [aMT]

S. Wulff (1985) The symbolic and object play of children with autism: A review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 15:139–48. [aMT]

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *