Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 41
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Abulof, Uriel 2016. Conscientious politics and Israel’s moral dilemmas. Contemporary Politics, p. 1.

    Aichholzer, Julian and Zandonella, Martina 2016. Psychological bases of support for radical right parties. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 96, p. 185.

    Bakker, Bert N. 2016. Personality Traits, Income, and Economic Ideology. Political Psychology,

    Brandt, Mark J. and Proulx, Travis 2016. Conceptual Creep as a Human (and Scientific) Goal. Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 18.

    Carraro, Luciana Castelli, Luigi and Negri, Paolo 2016. The hand in motion of liberals and conservatives reveals the differential processing of positive and negative information. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 168, p. 78.

    Clifford, Scott and Wendell, Dane G. 2016. How Disgust Influences Health Purity Attitudes. Political Behavior, Vol. 38, Issue. 1, p. 155.

    De Carli, Pietro Tagini, Angela Sarracino, Diego Santona, Alessandra and Parolin, Laura 2016. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,

    Dimdins, Girts Sandgren, Maria and Montgomery, Henry 2016. Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology,

    Friesen, Amanda Smith, Kevin B. and Hibbing, John R. 2016. Physiological Arousal and Self-Reported Valence for Erotica Images Correlate with Sexual Policy Preferences. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, p. edw008.

    Guillory, Jimmeka J. and Geraci, Lisa 2016. The Persistence of Erroneous Information in Memory: The Effect of Valence on the Acceptance of Corrected Information. Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 282.

    Haas, Ingrid J. 2016. Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character.

    Haas, Ingrid J. 2016. The Impact of Uncertainty, Threat, and Political Identity on Support for Political Compromise. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 137.

    Hatemi, Peter K. and McDermott, Rose 2016. Give Me Attitudes. Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 331.

    Ksiazkiewicz, Aleksander Ludeke, Steven and Krueger, Robert 2016. The Role of Cognitive Style in the Link Between Genes and Political Ideology. Political Psychology, p. n/a.

    Mills, Mark Gonzalez, Frank J. Giuseffi, Karl Sievert, Benjamin Smith, Kevin B. Hibbing, John R. and Dodd, Michael D. 2016. Political conservatism predicts asymmetries in emotional scene memory. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 306, p. 84.

    Muehling, Darrel D. Vijayalakshmi, Akshaya and Laczniak, Russell N. 2016. The effects of tolerance of negativity on consumers’ responses to comparative attack advertising. Journal of Marketing Communications, p. 1.

    Schmidt, Adriane Thuß, Sebastian and Meyer, Thomas 2016. Quality in risk reporting on energy issues in German news media. Journal of Risk Research, p. 1.

    Schwabe, Inga Jonker, Wilfried and van den Berg, Stéphanie M. 2016. Genes, Culture and Conservatism-A Psychometric-Genetic Approach. Behavior Genetics, Vol. 46, Issue. 4, p. 516.

    Tullett, Alexa M. Hart, William P. Feinberg, Matthew Fetterman, Zachary J. and Gottlieb, Sara 2016. Is ideology the enemy of inquiry? Examining the link between political orientation and lack of interest in novel data. Journal of Research in Personality, Vol. 63, p. 123.

    Weeden, Jason and Kurzban, Robert 2016. Do People Naturally Cluster into Liberals and Conservatives?. Evolutionary Psychological Science, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 47.


Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology

  • John R. Hibbing (a1), Kevin B. Smith (a2) and John R. Alford (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 27 June 2014

Disputes between those holding differing political views are ubiquitous and deep-seated, and they often follow common, recognizable lines. The supporters of tradition and stability, sometimes referred to as conservatives, do battle with the supporters of innovation and reform, sometimes referred to as liberals. Understanding the correlates of those distinct political orientations is probably a prerequisite for managing political disputes, which are a source of social conflict that can lead to frustration and even bloodshed. A rapidly growing body of empirical evidence documents a multitude of ways in which liberals and conservatives differ from each other in purviews of life with little direct connection to politics, from tastes in art to desire for closure and from disgust sensitivity to the tendency to pursue new information, but the central theme of the differences is a matter of debate. In this article, we argue that one organizing element of the many differences between liberals and conservatives is the nature of their physiological and psychological responses to features of the environment that are negative. Compared with liberals, conservatives tend to register greater physiological responses to such stimuli and also to devote more psychological resources to them. Operating from this point of departure, we suggest approaches for refining understanding of the broad relationship between political views and response to the negative. We conclude with a discussion of normative implications, stressing that identifying differences across ideological groups is not tantamount to declaring one ideology superior to another.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. M. Ackerman , C. C. Nocera & J. A. Bargh (2010) Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions. Science 328(5986):1712–15.

J. R. Alford , C. L. Funk & J. R. Hibbing (2005) Are political orientations genetically transmitted? American Political Science Review 99(2):153–67.

D. M. Amodio , J. T. Jost , S. L. Master & C. M. Yee (2007) Neurocognitive correlates of liberalism and conservatism. Nature Neuroscience 10(10):1246–47. Available at:

C. L. Apicella & D. A. Cesarini (2011) Testosterone response and political donations: Winner loser effects in the 2008 presidential election. In: Man is by nature a political animal: Evolution, biology and politics, ed. P. K. Hatemi & R. McDermott, pp. 261–72. University of Chicago Press.

R. F. Baumeister , E. Bratslavsky , C. Finkenauer & K. D. Vohs (2001) Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology 5(4):323–70.

D. L. Benjamin , D. Cesarini , J. H. M. Matthijs , C. T. Dawes , P. D. Koellinger , P. K. E. Magunsson , C. F. Chabris , D. Conley , D. Laibson , M. Johannesson & P. M. Visscher (2012) The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 109(21):8026–31. Available at:

J. Berger , M. Meredith & S. C. Wheeler (2008) Contextual priming: Where people vote affects how they vote. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105(26):8846–49.

J. Block & J. H. Block (2006) Nursery school personality and political orientation two decades later. Journal of Research in Personality 40:734–49.

G. A. Bonanno & J. T. Jost (2006) Conservative shift among high-exposure survivors of the September 11th terrorist attacks. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28(4):311–23.

T. J. Bouchard Jr. (2009) Authoritarianism, religiousness and conservatism: Is “obedience to authority” the explanation for their clustering, universality and evolution? In: The biological evolution of religious mind and behaviour, ed. E. Voland & W. Schiefenhövel, pp. 165–80. Springer.

T. J. Bouchard & M. McGue (2003) Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. Journal of Neurobiology 54(1):445.

D. M. Buss & H. Greiling (1999) Adaptive individual differences. Journal of Personality 67(2):209–43.

J. T. Cacioppo , R. E. Petty , J. A. Feinstein & W. B. G. Jarvis (1996) Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation. Psychological Bulletin 119:197253.

G. V. Caprara , C. Barbaranelli & P. G. Zimbardo (1999) Personality profiles and political parties. Political Psychology 20(1):175–97.

L. Carraro , L. Castelli & C. Macchiella (2011) The automatic conservative: Ideology-based attentional asymmetries in the processing of valenced information. PLoS ONE 6(11):e26456. Available at:

E. Castano , B. Leidner , A. Bonacossa , J. Nikkah , R. Perrull , B. Spencer & N. Humphrey (2011) Ideology, fear of death, and death anxiety. Political Psychology 32:601–21.

L. Castelli & L. Carraro (2011) Ideology is related to basic cognitive processes involved in attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47:1013–16.

E. Charney (2008) Politics, genetics, and ‘greedy reductionism.’ Perspectives on Politics 6(2):299320.

A. Chirumbolo , A. Areni & G. Sensales (2004) Need for cognitive closure and politics: Voting, political attitudes, and attributional style. International Journal of Psychology 39(4):245–53.

S. Cohen & N. Hamrick (2003) Stable individual differences in physiological response to stressors: Implications for stress-elicited changes in immune related health. Brain, Behavior & Immunity 17(6):407–14.

E. Culotta (2012) Roots of racism. Science 336:825–27.

C. K. W. De Dreu , L. L. Greer , G. A. Van Kleef , S. Salvi & M. J. J. Handgraaf (2011) Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108:1262–66.

M. D. Dodd , A. Balzer , C. M. Jacobs , M. W. Gruszczynski , K. B. Smith & J. R. Hibbing (2012) The political left rolls with the good; the political right confronts the bad. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Biological Sciences 367(1589):640–49.

A. Echebarria-Echabe & E. Fernandez-Guede (2006) Effects of terrorism on attitudes and ideological orientation. European Journal of Social Psychology 36(2):259–65.

C. Federico , A. Golec & J. Dial (2005) The relationship between need for closure and support for military action against Iraq: Moderating effects of national attachment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:621–32.

S. Feldman & K. Stenner (1997) Perceived threat and authoritarianism. Political Psychology 18(4):741–70.

A. J. Figueredo , P. Gladden , G. Vasques , P. S. A. W. Wolf & D. N. Jones (2009) Evolutionary theories of personality. In: Cambridge handbook of personality psychology: Part IV, biological perspectives, ed. P. J. Corr & G. Matthews, pp. 265–74. Cambridge University Press.

E. M. Fodor , D. P. Wick , K. M. Hartsen & R. M. Preve (2008) Right-wing authoritarianism in relation to proposed judicial action, electromyographic response, and affective attitudes toward a schizophrenic mother. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 38(1):215–33.

J. H. Fowler , L. A. Baker & C. T. Dawes (2008) Genetic variation in political participation. American Political Science Review 102(2):233–48.

J. H. Fowler & C. T. Dawes (2008) Two genes predict voter turnout. Journal of Politics 70(3):579–94.

R. C. Fraley , B. N. Griffin , J. Belsky & G. I. Roisman (2012) Developmental antecedents of political ideology: A longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years. Psychological Science 23:1425–31.

S. Galdi , L. Arcuri & B. Gawronski (2008) Automatic mental associations predict future choices of undecided decision-makers. Science 321(5892):1100–102.

W. M. Gervais & A. Norenzayan (2012) Analytic thinking promotes religious disbelief. Science 336:493–96.

S. D. Gosling , P. J. Rentfrow & W. B. Swann (2003) A very brief measure of the big-five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality 37(6):504–28.

J. Graham , J. Haidt & B. Nosek (2009) Liberals and conservatives use different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96:1029–46.

J. Haidt & J. Graham (2007) When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research 20(1):98116.

J. Haidt , C. McCauley & P. Rozin (1994) Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors. Personality and Individual Differences 16(5):701–13.

C. H. Hansen & R. D. Hansen (1988) Finding the face in the crowd: An anger superiority test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:917–24.

P. K. Hatemi , J. R. Alford , J. R. Hibbing , N. G. Martin & L. J. Eaves (2009) Is there a “party” in your genes? Political Research Quarterly 62(3):584600.

P. K. Hatemi , N. A. Gillespie , L. J. Eaves , B. S. Maher , B. T. Webb , A. C. Heath , S. E. Medland , D. C. Smyth , H. N. Beeby , S. D. Gordon , G. W. Montgomery , G. Zhu , E. M. Byrne & N. G. Martin (2011) A genome-wide analysis of liberal and conservative political attitudes. Journal of Politics 73(1):115.

P. K. Hatemi , S. Medland , K. Morley , A. C. Heath & N. G. Martin (2007) The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study. Behavior Genetics 37(3):435–48.

E. G. Helzer & D. A. Pizarro (2011) Dirty liberals! Reminders of physical cleanliness influence moral and political attitudes. Psychological Science 22(4):517–22.

M. J. Hetherington & J. D. Weiler (2009) Authoritarianism and polarization in American politics. Cambridge University Press.

L. Huddy & S. Feldman (2011) Americans respond politically to 9/11: Understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath. American Psychologist 66(6):455–67.

L. Huddy , S. Feldman & C. Weber (2007) The political consequences of perceived threat and felt insecurity. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 614(1):131–53.

N. A. T. M. Huizenga , J. W. Koper , P. de Lange , H. A. P. Pols , R. P. Stolk , D. E. Grobbee , F. H. de Jong & S. W. J. Lamberts (1998) Interperson variability but intraperson stability of baseline plasma cortisol concentrations, and its relation to feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to a low dose of dexamethasone in elderly individuals. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83(1):4754.

Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro & P. Bloom (2009a) Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals. Cognition and Emotion 23(4):714–25.

Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro & P. Bloom (2012a) Disgusting smells cause decreased liking of gay men. Emotion 12:2337.

Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro , R. Iyer & J. Haidt (2012b) Disgust sensitivity, political conservatism, and voting. Social Psychological and Personality Science 3(5):537–44.

Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro , J. Knobe & P. Bloom (2009b) Disgust sensitivity predicts intuitive disapproval of gays. Emotion 9:435–39.

M. Inzlicht , I. McGregor , J. B. Hirsh & K. Nash (2009) Neural markers of religious conviction. Psychological Science 20(3):385–92.

W. G. Jacoby (2009) Ideology and vote choice in the 2004 election. Electoral Studies 28(4):584–94.

R. Janoff-Bulman (2009) To provide or protect: Motivational bases of political liberalism and conservatism. Psychological Inquiry 20:120–28.

C. Jencks (1980) Heredity, environment, and public policy reconsidered. American Sociological Review 45:723–36.

M. K. Jennings & R. G. Niemi (1968) The transmission of political values from parent to child. American Political Science Review 62(1):169–84.

J. T. Jost (2006) The end of the end of ideology. American Psychologist 61(7):651–70.

J. T. Jost & D. M. Amodio (2012) Political ideology as motivated social cognition: Behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Motivation and Emotion 36:5564.

J. T. Jost , J. Glaser , A. W. Kruglanski & F. J. Sulloway (2003) Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin 129(3):339–75.

J. T. Jost , B. A. Nosek & S. D. Gosling (2008) Ideology: Its resurgence in social, personality, and political psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3:126–36.

R. Kanai , T. Feilden , C. Firth & G. Rees (2011) Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Current Biology 21:677–80.

M. Kemmelmeier (1997) Need for closure and political orientation among German university students. Journal of Social Psychology 137(6):787–89.

R. Klemmensen , P. K. Hatemi , S. B. Hobolt , I. Petersen , A. Skytthe & A. S. Norgaard. (2012) The genetics of political participation, civic duty and political efficacy across cultures. Journal of Theoretical Politics 24(3):409–27.

K. M. Knutson , J. N. Wood , M. V. Spampinato & J. Grafman (2006) Politics on the brain: An fMRI investigation. Social Neuroscience 1(1):2540.

M. Kosfeld , M. Heinrichs , P. J. Zak , U. Fischbacher & E. Fehr (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435:673–76.

M. Kossowska & A. Van Hiel (2003) The relationship between need for closure and conservative beliefs in Western and Eastern Europe. Political Psychology 24(3):501–18.

A. W. Kruglanski , D. M. Webtser & A. Klem (1993) Motivated resistance and openness to persuasion in the presence or absence of prior information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65(5):861–76.

G. Lakoff (2002) Moral politics: How liberals and conservatives think. University of Chicago Press.

M. J. Landau , S. Solomon & J. Greenberg (2004) Deliver us from evil: The effects of mortality salience and reminders of 9/11 on support for President George W. Bush. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30:1136–50.

M. S. Lewis-Beck , R. Nadeau & A. Elias (2008) Economics, party, and the vote: Causality issues and panel data. American Journal of Political Science 52(1):8495.

M. D. Lieberman , D. Schreiber & K. N. Ochsner (2003) Is political thinking like riding a bicycle? How cognitive neuroscience can inform research on political thinking. Political Psychology 24(4):681704.

M. Lienesch (1982) Right-wing religion: Christian conservatism as a political movement. Political Science Quarterly 97(3):403–25.

M. Lodge & C. S. Taber (2005) The automaticity of affect for political leaders, groups, and issues: An experimental test of the hot cognition hypothesis. Political Psychology 26(3):455–82.

M. Lodge & C. S. Taber (2013) The rationalizing voter. Cambridge University Press.

G. W. Marcus , J. L. Sullivan , E. Theiss-Morse & S. Wood (1995) With malice toward some: How people make civil liberties judgments. Cambridge University Press.

R. R. McCrae (1996) Social consequences of experiential openness. Psychological Bulletin 120(3):323–37.

R. McDermott , D. Johnson , J. Cowden & S. Rosen (2007) Testosterone and aggression in a simulated crisis game. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 614(1):1533.

R. McDermott , D. Tingley , J. Cowden , G. Frazzetto & D. Johnson (2009) Monoamine Oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(7):2118–23.

J. J. Mondak & K. D. Halperin (2008) A framework for the study of personality and political behavior. British Journal of Political Science 38(2):335–62.

P. R. Nail & I. McGregor (2009) Conservative shift among liberals and conservatives following 9/11/013. Social Justice Research 22(2–3):231–40.

D. Nettle (2006) The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals. American Psychologist 61(6):622–31.

R. G. Niemi & M. K. Jennings (1991) Issues and inheritance in the formation of party identification. American Journal of Political Science 35(4):970–88.

C. J. Norris , J. T. Larsen , L. E. Crawford & J. T. Cacioppo (2011) Better (or worse) for some than others: Individual differences in the positivity offset and negativity bias. Journal of Research in Personality 45:100–11.

M. B. Petersen (2009) Public opinion and evolved heuristics: The role of category-based inference. Journal of Cognition and Culture 9(3):367–89.

Y. Piurko , S. Schwartz & E. Davidov (2011) Basic personal values and the meaning of left-right political orientations in 20 countries. Political Psychology 32(40):537–61.

E. Plutzer (2002) Becoming a habitual voter: Inertia, resources, and growth in young adulthood. American Political Science Review 96(1):4156.

F. Pratto , J. Sidanius , L. M. Stallworth & B. F. Malle (1994) Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67(4):741–63.

M. Prior (2010) You've either got it or you don't? The stability of political interest over the life cycle. Journal of Politics 72(3):747–66.

J. N. Pruitt & S. E. Riechert (2011) How within-group behavioral variation and task efficiency enhance fitness in a social group. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278:1209–15.

D. P. Redlawsk (2006) Feeling politics: Emotion in political information processing. Macmillan.

P. J. Rentfrow , J. T. Jost , S. D. Gosling & J. Potter (2009) Statewide differences in personality predict voting patterns in 1996–2004 U. S. presidential elections. In: Social and psychological bases of ideology and system justification, ed. J. T. Jost, A. C. Kay & H. Thorisdottir, pp. 314–47. Oxford University Press.

M. S. Rock & R. Janoff-Bulman (2010) Where do we draw our lines? Politics, rigidity, and the role of self-regulation. Social Psychological and Personality Science 1(1):2633.

A. M. Rutchick (2010) Deus ex machina: The influence of polling place on voting behavior. Political Psychology 31(2):209–25.

M. Sargent (2004) Less thought, more punishment: Need for cognition predicts support for punitive responses to crime. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30(11):1485–93.

D. M. Schreiber , G. Fonzo , A. N. Simmons , C. T. Dawes , T. Flagan , J. H. Fowler & M. P. Paulus (2013) Red brain, blue brain: Evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans. PLoS ONE 8:e52970.

S. Schnall , J. Haidt , G. L. Clore & A. H. Jordan (2008) Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34(8):1096–109.

S. Schwartz (2006) A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology 5(2–3):137–82.

S. H. Schwartz (1992) Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 25, ed. M. P. Zanna, pp. 165. Academic Press.

S. H. Schwartz , G. V. Caprara & M. Vecchione (2010) Basic personal values, core political values, and voting: A longitudinal analysis. Political Psychology 31(3):421–52.

D. O. Sears & C. L. Funk (1999) Evidence of the long-term persistence of adults' political predispositions. The Journal of Politics 61(01):128.

J. E. Settle , C. T. Dawes , N. A. Christakis & J. H. Fowler (2010) Friendships moderate an association between a Dopamine gene variant and political ideology. Journal of Politics 72(4):1189–98.

N. J. Shook & R. H. Fazio (2009) Political ideology, exploration of novel stimuli, and attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45(4):995–98.

K. B. Smith & P. K. Hatemi (2013) OLS is AOK for ACE: A regression-based approach to synthesizing political science and behavioral genetics models. Political Behavior 35:383408. doi: 10.1007/s11109-012-9192-2.

K. B. Smith , D. R. Oxley , M. V. Hibbing , J. R. Alford & J. R. Hibbing (2011) Disgust sensitivity and the neurophysiology of left-right political orientations. PloS ONE 6(10):19.

S. J. Stanton , J. C. Beehner , E. K. Saini , C. M. Kuhn & K. S. Labar (2009) Dominance, politics, and physiology: Voters' testosterone changes on the night of the 2008 United States presidential election. PLoS ONE 4(10):e7543. Available at:

S. J. Stanton , K. S. LaBar , E. K. Saini , C. M. Kuhn & J. C. Beehner (2010) Stressful politics: Voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States presidential election. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35(5):768–74.

K. Stenner (2005) The authoritarian dynamic. Cambridge University Press.

D. G. Sullivan & D. R. Masters (1988) Happy warriors: Leaders' facial displays, viewers' emotions, and political support. American Journal of Political Science 32(2):345–68.

P. E. Tetlock & G. Mitchell (1993) Liberal and conservative approaches to justice: Conflicting psychological portraits. In: Psychological perspectives on justice; Theory and Applications, ed. B. A. Mellers & J. Baron, pp. 234–55. Cambridge University Press.

H. Thorisdottir , J. T. Jost , I. Liviatan & P. E. Shrout (2007) Psychological needs and values underlying left-right political orientations: Cross-national evidence from Eastern and Western Europe. Public Opinion Quarterly 71(2):175203.

R. Thornhill , C. L. Fincher & D. Aran (2009) Parasites, democratization, and the liberalization of values across contemporary countries. Biological Reviews 84(1):113–31.

J. M. Tybur , D. Lieberman & V. Griskevicius (2009) Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97(1):103–22.

J. M. Tybur , L. A. Merriman , A. E. Caldwell , M. W. McDonald & C. D. Navarrete (2010) Extending the behavioral immune system to political psychology: Are political conservatism and disgust sensitivity really related? Evolutionary Psychology 8:599616.

N. A. Valentino , V. L. Hutchings , A. J. Banks & A. K. Davis (2008) Is a worried citizen a good citizen? Emotions, political information seeking, and learning via the internet. Political Psychology 29(2):247–73.

A. van Hiel , M. Pandelaere & B. Duriez (2004) The impact of need for closure on conservative beliefs and racism: Differential mediation by authoritarian submission and authoritarian dominance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30(7):824–37.

E. J. Vanman , J. Saltz , L. Nathan & J. Warren (2004) Racial discrimination by low-prejudiced whites: Facial movements as implicit measures of attitudes related to behavior. Psychological Science 15:711–14.

J. M. Vigil (2010) Political leanings vary with facial expression processing and psychosocial functioning. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 13:547–58.

I. Waismel-Manor , G. Ifergaine & H. Cohen (2011) When endocrinology and democracy collide: Emotions, cortisol and voting at national elections. European Neuropsychopharmacology 21(11):789–95.

H. F. Weisberg (1974) Dimensionland: An excursion into spaces. American Journal of Political Science 18(4):743–76.

D. Westen , P. S. Blagov , K. Harenski , C. Kilts & S. Hamann (2006) Neural bases of motivated reasoning: An fMRI study of emotional constraints on partisan political judgment in the 2004 U. S. presidential election. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18(11):1947–58.

T. Wheatley & J. Haidt (2005) Hypnotically induced disgust makes moral judgments more severe. Psychological Science 16(10):780–84.

G. D. Wilson (1990) Ideology and humor preferences. International Political Science Review 11(4):461–72.

G. D. Wilson & J. R. Patterson (1968) A new measure of conservatism. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 7(4):264–69.

J. Zaller (1992) The nature and origins of mass opinion. Cambridge University Press.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


This erratum applies to the following article(s)