J. M. Ackerman , C. C. Nocera & J. A. Bargh (2010) Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions. Science 328(5986):1712–15.
T. W. Adorno , E. Frenkel-Brunswik , D. J. Levinson & R. N. Sanford (1950) The authoritarian personality. Harper.
J. R. Alford , C. L. Funk & J. R. Hibbing (2005) Are political orientations genetically transmitted? American Political Science Review 99(2):153–67.
B. Altemeyer (1981) Right-wing authoritarianism. University of Manitoba Press.
B. Altemeyer (1996) The authoritarian specter. Harvard University Press.
D. F. Alwin & J. A. Krosnick (1991) Aging, cohorts, and the stability of sociopolitical orientations over the life span. American Journal of Sociology 97:169–95.
D. M. Amodio , J. T. Jost , S. L. Master & C. M. Yee (2007) Neurocognitive correlates of liberalism and conservatism. Nature Neuroscience 10(10):1246–47. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1979.
C. L. Apicella & D. A. Cesarini (2011) Testosterone response and political donations: Winner loser effects in the 2008 presidential election. In: Man is by nature a political animal: Evolution, biology and politics, ed. P. K.Hatemi & R.McDermott, pp. 261–72. University of Chicago Press.
E. N. Aron (1996) The highly sensitive person. Broadway Books.
R. F. Baumeister , E. Bratslavsky , C. Finkenauer & K. D. Vohs (2001) Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology 5(4):323–70.
D. Bell (1960) The end of ideology: On the exhaustion of political ideas in the fifties. Harvard University Press.
E. Bell , J. A. Schermer & P. A. Vernon (2009) The origins of political attitudes and behaviours: An analysis using twins. Canadian Journal of Political Science 42(4):855–79.
D. L. Benjamin , D. Cesarini , J. H. M. Matthijs , C. T. Dawes , P. D. Koellinger , P. K. E. Magunsson , C. F. Chabris , D. Conley , D. Laibson , M. Johannesson & P. M. Visscher (2012) The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 109(21):8026–31. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120666109.
J. Berger , M. Meredith & S. C. Wheeler (2008) Contextual priming: Where people vote affects how they vote. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105(26):8846–49.
J. Block & J. H. Block (2006) Nursery school personality and political orientation two decades later. Journal of Research in Personality 40:734–49.
N. Bobbio (1996) Left & right: The significance of a political distinction. University of Chicago Press.
G. A. Bonanno & J. T. Jost (2006) Conservative shift among high-exposure survivors of the September 11th terrorist attacks. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28(4):311–23.
T. J. Bouchard Jr. (2009) Authoritarianism, religiousness and conservatism: Is “obedience to authority” the explanation for their clustering, universality and evolution? In: The biological evolution of religious mind and behaviour, ed. E.Voland & W.Schiefenhövel, pp. 165–80. Springer.
T. J. Bouchard & M. McGue (2003) Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. Journal of Neurobiology 54(1):4–45.
T. Brader (2006) Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. University of Chicago Press.
D. M. Buss & H. Greiling (1999) Adaptive individual differences. Journal of Personality 67(2):209–43.
J. T. Cacioppo , R. E. Petty , J. A. Feinstein & W. B. G. Jarvis (1996) Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation. Psychological Bulletin 119:197–253.
J. T. Cacioppo & P. S. Visser (2003) Political psychology and social neuroscience: Strange bedfellows or comrades in arms? Political Psychology 24(4):647–56.
G. V. Caprara , C. Barbaranelli & P. G. Zimbardo (1999) Personality profiles and political parties. Political Psychology 20(1):175–97.
E. G. Carmines & J. A. Stimson (1990) Issue evolution: Race and the transformation of American politics. Princeton University Press.
L. Carraro , L. Castelli & C. Macchiella (2011) The automatic conservative: Ideology-based attentional asymmetries in the processing of valenced information. PLoS ONE 6(11):e26456. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026456.
T. Carsay & G. Layman (2002) Party polarization and “conflict extension” in the American electorate. American Journal of Political Science 46(4):786–802.
E. Castano , B. Leidner , A. Bonacossa , J. Nikkah , R. Perrull , B. Spencer & N. Humphrey (2011) Ideology, fear of death, and death anxiety. Political Psychology 32:601–21.
L. Castelli & L. Carraro (2011) Ideology is related to basic cognitive processes involved in attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47:1013–16.
E. Charney (2008) Politics, genetics, and ‘greedy reductionism.’ Perspectives on Politics 6(2):299–320.
E. Charney & W. English (2012) Candidate genes and political behavior. American Political Science Review 106(1):1–34.
A. Chirumbolo , A. Areni & G. Sensales (2004) Need for cognitive closure and politics: Voting, political attitudes, and attributional style. International Journal of Psychology 39(4):245–53.
G. Cochran & H. Harpending (2009) The 10,000 year explosion. Basic Books.
S. Cohen & N. Hamrick (2003) Stable individual differences in physiological response to stressors: Implications for stress-elicited changes in immune related health. Brain, Behavior & Immunity 17(6):407–14.
P. E. Converse (1964) The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In: Ideology and discontent, ed. D. E.Apter, pp. 206–61. Free Press of Glencoe.
E. Culotta (2012) Roots of racism. Science 336:825–27.
M. Dambrum , G. Despres & S. Guimond (2003) On the multifaceted nature of prejudice: Psychophysiological responses to ingroup and outgroup ethnic stimuli. Current Research in Social Psychology 8:187–206.
M. E. Dawson , A. M. Schell & D. L. Filion (2007) The electrodermal system. In: Handbook of psychophysiology, ed. J. T.Cacioppo, L. G.Tassinary & G. G.Berntson. Cambridge University Press.
C. K. W. De Dreu , L. L. Greer , G. A. Van Kleef , S. Salvi & M. J. J. Handgraaf (2011) Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108:1262–66.
K. D. Deppe , S. F. Stoltenberg , K. B. Smith & J. R. Hibbing (2013) Candidate genes and voter turnout: Further evidence on the role of 5-HTTLPR. American Political Science Review 107(2):375–81.
C. De Weerth & P. Van Geert (2002) A longitudinal study of basal cortisol in infants. Infant Behavior and Development 25(4): 375–98.
M. D. Dodd , A. Balzer , C. M. Jacobs , M. W. Gruszczynski , K. B. Smith & J. R. Hibbing (2012) The political left rolls with the good; the political right confronts the bad. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Biological Sciences 367(1589):640–49.
A. Echebarria-Echabe & E. Fernandez-Guede (2006) Effects of terrorism on attitudes and ideological orientation. European Journal of Social Psychology 36(2):259–65.
R. W. Emerson (1903) The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Houghton Mifflin.
C. Federico , A. Golec & J. Dial (2005) The relationship between need for closure and support for military action against Iraq: Moderating effects of national attachment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:621–32.
S. Feldman (2003) Values, ideology, and the structure of political attitudes. In: Oxford handbook of political psychology, ed. D. O.Sears, L.Huddy & J.Jervis, pp. 477–508. Oxford University Press.
S. Feldman & K. Stenner (1997) Perceived threat and authoritarianism. Political Psychology 18(4):741–70.
A. J. Figueredo , P. Gladden , G. Vasques , P. S. A. W. Wolf & D. N. Jones (2009) Evolutionary theories of personality. In: Cambridge handbook of personality psychology: Part IV, biological perspectives, ed. P. J.Corr & G.Matthews, pp. 265–74. Cambridge University Press.
C. L. Fincher & R. Thornhill (2012) Parasite-stress promotes in-group assortative sociality: The cases of strong family ties and heightened religiosity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35(2):61–79.
M. P. Fiorina (2005) Culture war? The myth of a polarized America. Longman.
E. M. Fodor , D. P. Wick , K. M. Hartsen & R. M. Preve (2008) Right-wing authoritarianism in relation to proposed judicial action, electromyographic response, and affective attitudes toward a schizophrenic mother. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 38(1):215–33.
J. H. Fowler , L. A. Baker & C. T. Dawes (2008) Genetic variation in political participation. American Political Science Review 102(2):233–48.
J. H. Fowler & C. T. Dawes (2008) Two genes predict voter turnout. Journal of Politics 70(3):579–94.
J. H. Fowler & C. T. Dawes (2013) In defense of genopolitics. American Political Science Review 107(2):362–74.
R. C. Fraley , B. N. Griffin , J. Belsky & G. I. Roisman (2012) Developmental antecedents of political ideology: A longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years. Psychological Science 23:1425–31.
F. Fukuyama (1992) The end of history and the last man. Free Press.
S. Galdi , L. Arcuri & B. Gawronski (2008) Automatic mental associations predict future choices of undecided decision-makers. Science 321(5892):1100–102.
A. S. Gerber , D. P. Green & R. Schachar (2003) Voting may be habit-forming: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. American Journal of Political Science 47(3):540–50.
A. S. Gerber , G. A. Huber , D. Doherty , C. M. Dowling & S. E. Ha (2010) Personality and political attitudes: Relationships across issue domains and political contexts. American Political Science Review 104(01):111–33.
W. M. Gervais & A. Norenzayan (2012) Analytic thinking promotes religious disbelief. Science 336:493–96.
A. Golec (2002) Need for cognitive closure and political conservatism: Studies on the nature of the relationship. Polish Psychological Bulletin 33:5–12.
A. Golec , A. Cislak & E. Wesolowska (2010) Political conservatism, need for cognitive closure, and intergroup hostility. Political Psychology 3(44):521–41.
S. D. Gosling , P. J. Rentfrow & W. B. Swann (2003) A very brief measure of the big-five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality 37(6):504–28.
J. Graham , J. Haidt & B. Nosek (2009) Liberals and conservatives use different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96:1029–46.
J. Haidt & J. Graham (2007) When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research 20(1):98–116.
J. Haidt & C. Joseph (2004) Intuitive ethics: How innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues. Daedalus 133(4):55–66.
J. Haidt , C. McCauley & P. Rozin (1994) Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors. Personality and Individual Differences 16(5):701–13.
C. H. Hansen & R. D. Hansen (1988) Finding the face in the crowd: An anger superiority test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:917–24.
P. K. Hatemi , J. R. Alford , J. R. Hibbing , N. G. Martin & L. J. Eaves (2009) Is there a “party” in your genes? Political Research Quarterly 62(3):584–600.
P. K. Hatemi , N. A. Gillespie , L. J. Eaves , B. S. Maher , B. T. Webb , A. C. Heath , S. E. Medland , D. C. Smyth , H. N. Beeby , S. D. Gordon , G. W. Montgomery , G. Zhu , E. M. Byrne & N. G. Martin (2011) A genome-wide analysis of liberal and conservative political attitudes. Journal of Politics 73(1):1–15.
P. K. Hatemi , R. McDermott , L. J. Eaves , K. S. Kendler & M. C. Neale (2013) Fear as a disposition and an emotional state. American Journal of Political Science 57:279–93.
P. K. Hatemi , S. Medland , K. Morley , A. C. Heath & N. G. Martin (2007) The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study. Behavior Genetics 37(3):435–48.
E. G. Helzer & D. A. Pizarro (2011) Dirty liberals! Reminders of physical cleanliness influence moral and political attitudes. Psychological Science 22(4):517–22.
M. J. Hetherington & J. D. Weiler (2009) Authoritarianism and polarization in American politics. Cambridge University Press.
J. B. Hirsh , C. G. DeYoung , X. Xu & J. B. Peterson (2010) Compassionate liberals and polite conservatives: Associations of agreeableness with political ideology and moral values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36(5):655–64.
L. Huddy & S. Feldman (2011) Americans respond politically to 9/11: Understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath. American Psychologist 66(6):455–67.
L. Huddy , S. Feldman & C. Weber (2007) The political consequences of perceived threat and felt insecurity. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 614(1):131–53.
N. A. T. M. Huizenga , J. W. Koper , P. de Lange , H. A. P. Pols , R. P. Stolk , D. E. Grobbee , F. H. de Jong & S. W. J. Lamberts (1998) Interperson variability but intraperson stability of baseline plasma cortisol concentrations, and its relation to feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to a low dose of dexamethasone in elderly individuals. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83(1):47–54.
Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro & P. Bloom (2009a) Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals. Cognition and Emotion 23(4):714–25.
Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro & P. Bloom (2012a) Disgusting smells cause decreased liking of gay men. Emotion 12:23–37.
Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro , R. Iyer & J. Haidt (2012b) Disgust sensitivity, political conservatism, and voting. Social Psychological and Personality Science 3(5):537–44.
Y. Inbar , D. A. Pizarro , J. Knobe & P. Bloom (2009b) Disgust sensitivity predicts intuitive disapproval of gays. Emotion 9:435–39.
M. Inzlicht , I. McGregor , J. B. Hirsh & K. Nash (2009) Neural markers of religious conviction. Psychological Science 20(3):385–92.
R. Iyer , S. Koleva , J. Graham , P. H. Ditto & J. Haidt (2012) Understanding libertarian morality: The psychological roots of an individualist ideology. PLos ONE 7(8):e42366.
W. G. Jacoby (2009) Ideology and vote choice in the 2004 election. Electoral Studies 28(4):584–94.
R. Janoff-Bulman (2009) To provide or protect: Motivational bases of political liberalism and conservatism. Psychological Inquiry 20:120–28.
C. Jencks (1980) Heredity, environment, and public policy reconsidered. American Sociological Review 45:723–36.
M. K. Jennings & R. G. Niemi (1968) The transmission of political values from parent to child. American Political Science Review 62(1):169–84.
J. T. Jost (2006) The end of the end of ideology. American Psychologist 61(7):651–70.
J. T. Jost & D. M. Amodio (2012) Political ideology as motivated social cognition: Behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Motivation and Emotion 36:55–64.
J. T. Jost , G. Fitzsimons & A. C. Kay (2004) The ideological animal. In: Handbook of experimental psychology, ed. J.Greenberg, S. L.Koole & T.Pyszczynski, pp. 263–83. Guilford.
J. T. Jost , J. Glaser , A. W. Kruglanski & F. J. Sulloway (2003) Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin 129(3):339–75.
J. T. Jost , A. W. Kruglanski & L. Simon (1999) Effects of epistemic motivation on conservatism, intolerance, and other system justifying attitudes. In: Shared cognition in organizations: The management of knowledge, ed. L.Thompson, D. M.Messick & J. M.Levine, pp. 91–116. Erlbaum.
J. T. Jost , B. A. Nosek & S. D. Gosling (2008) Ideology: Its resurgence in social, personality, and political psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3:126–36.
D. Kahneman & A. Tversky (1984) Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist 39(4):341–50.
R. Kanai , T. Feilden , C. Firth & G. Rees (2011) Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Current Biology 21:677–80.
M. Kemmelmeier (1997) Need for closure and political orientation among German university students. Journal of Social Psychology 137(6):787–89.
R. Klemmensen , P. K. Hatemi , S. B. Hobolt , I. Petersen , A. Skytthe & A. S. Norgaard. (2012) The genetics of political participation, civic duty and political efficacy across cultures. Journal of Theoretical Politics 24(3):409–27.
K. M. Knutson , J. N. Wood , M. V. Spampinato & J. Grafman (2006) Politics on the brain: An fMRI investigation. Social Neuroscience 1(1):25–40.
M. Kosfeld , M. Heinrichs , P. J. Zak , U. Fischbacher & E. Fehr (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435:673–76.
M. Kossowska & A. Van Hiel (2003) The relationship between need for closure and conservative beliefs in Western and Eastern Europe. Political Psychology 24(3):501–18.
A. W. Kruglanski , D. M. Webtser & A. Klem (1993) Motivated resistance and openness to persuasion in the presence or absence of prior information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65(5):861–76.
G. Lakoff (2002) Moral politics: How liberals and conservatives think. University of Chicago Press.
M. J. Landau , S. Solomon & J. Greenberg (2004) Deliver us from evil: The effects of mortality salience and reminders of 9/11 on support for President George W. Bush. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30:1136–50.
J.A. Laponce (1981) Left and right: The topography of political perceptions. University of Toronto Press.
M. S. Lewis-Beck , R. Nadeau & A. Elias (2008) Economics, party, and the vote: Causality issues and panel data. American Journal of Political Science 52(1):84–95.
M. D. Lieberman , D. Schreiber & K. N. Ochsner (2003) Is political thinking like riding a bicycle? How cognitive neuroscience can inform research on political thinking. Political Psychology 24(4):681–704.
M. Lienesch (1982) Right-wing religion: Christian conservatism as a political movement. Political Science Quarterly 97(3):403–25.
M. Lodge & R. Hamill (1986) A partisan schema for political information processing. American Political Science Review 80(2):505–20.
M. Lodge & C. S. Taber (2005) The automaticity of affect for political leaders, groups, and issues: An experimental test of the hot cognition hypothesis. Political Psychology 26(3):455–82.
M. Lodge & C. S. Taber (2013) The rationalizing voter. Cambridge University Press.
D. Lykken (1999) Happiness: What studies of twins show us about nature, nurture, and the happiness set point. Golden Books.
D. Madsen (1985) A biochemical property relating to power seeking in humans. American Political Science Review 79(2):448–57.
G. W. Marcus , R. Newman & M. Mackuen (2000) Affective intelligence and political judgment. University of Chicago Press.
G. W. Marcus , J. L. Sullivan , E. Theiss-Morse & S. Wood (1995) With malice toward some: How people make civil liberties judgments. Cambridge University Press.
N. G. Martin , L. J. Eaves , A. C. Heath , R. Jardine , L. M. Feingold & H. J. Eysenck (1986) Transmission of social attitudes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 15:4364–68.
N. M. McCarty , K. T. Poole & H. Rosenthal (2006) Polarized America: The dance of ideology and unequal riches. MIT Press.
H. McCloskey (1958) Conservatism and personality. American Political Science Review 52(1):27–45.
R. R. McCrae (1996) Social consequences of experiential openness. Psychological Bulletin 120(3):323–37.
R. McDermott , D. Johnson , J. Cowden & S. Rosen (2007) Testosterone and aggression in a simulated crisis game. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 614(1):15–33.
R. McDermott , D. Tingley , J. Cowden , G. Frazzetto & D. Johnson (2009) Monoamine Oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(7):2118–23.
S. P. McLean , J. P. Garza , S. A. Wiebe , M. D. Dodd , K. B. Smith , J. R. Hibbing & K. A. Espy (in press) Applying the flanker task to political psychology. Political Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/pops.12056.
R. M. Merelman (1971) The development of policy thinking in adolescence. American Political Science Review 65(4):1033–47.
J. S. Mill (1991) On liberty. In: On liberty and other essays, ed. J.Gray, pp. 1–128. Oxford University Press.
J. J. Mondak & K. D. Halperin (2008) A framework for the study of personality and political behavior. British Journal of Political Science 38(2):335–62.
J. J. Mondak , M. V. Hibbing , D. Canache , M. A. Seligson & M. R. Anderson (2010) Personality and civic engagement: An integrative framework for the study of trait effects on political behavior. American Political Science Review 104(1):85–110.
P. R. Nail & I. McGregor (2009) Conservative shift among liberals and conservatives following 9/11/013. Social Justice Research 22(2–3):231–40.
J. L. Neiman (2012) Political ideology, personality and the correlations with tastes and preferences for music, art, literature and food. Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2012.
D. Nettle (2006) The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals. American Psychologist 61(6):622–31.
R. G. Niemi & M. K. Jennings (1991) Issues and inheritance in the formation of party identification. American Journal of Political Science 35(4):970–88.
C. J. Norris , J. T. Larsen , L. E. Crawford & J. T. Cacioppo (2011) Better (or worse) for some than others: Individual differences in the positivity offset and negativity bias. Journal of Research in Personality 45:100–11.
B. A. Nosek , J. Graham & C. B. Hawkins (2010) Implicit political cognition. In: Handbook of implicit social cognition, ed. B.Gawronski & B. K.Payne, pp. 548–64. Guilford.
D. R. Oxley , K. B. Smith , J. R. Alford , M. V. Hibbing , J. L. Miller , M. Scalora , P. K. Hatemi & J. R. Hibbing (2008) Political attitudes vary with physiological traits. Science 321(5896):1667–70.
M. B. Petersen (2009) Public opinion and evolved heuristics: The role of category-based inference. Journal of Cognition and Culture 9(3):367–89.
S. Pinker (2002) The blank slate: The modern denial of human nature. Viking.
S. Pinker (2011) The better angels of our nature. Penguin.
Y. Piurko , S. Schwartz & E. Davidov (2011) Basic personal values and the meaning of left-right political orientations in 20 countries. Political Psychology 32(40):537–61.
E. Plutzer (2002) Becoming a habitual voter: Inertia, resources, and growth in young adulthood. American Political Science Review 96(1):41–56.
F. Pratto , J. Sidanius , L. M. Stallworth & B. F. Malle (1994) Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67(4):741–63.
M. Prior (2010) You've either got it or you don't? The stability of political interest over the life cycle. Journal of Politics 72(3):747–66.
J. N. Pruitt & S. E. Riechert (2011) How within-group behavioral variation and task efficiency enhance fitness in a social group. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278:1209–15.
D. P. Redlawsk (2006) Feeling politics: Emotion in political information processing. Macmillan.
P. J. Rentfrow , J. T. Jost , S. D. Gosling & J. Potter (2009) Statewide differences in personality predict voting patterns in 1996–2004 U. S. presidential elections. In: Social and psychological bases of ideology and system justification, ed. J. T.Jost, A. C.Kay & H.Thorisdottir, pp. 314–47. Oxford University Press.
M. S. Rock & R. Janoff-Bulman (2010) Where do we draw our lines? Politics, rigidity, and the role of self-regulation. Social Psychological and Personality Science 1(1):26–33.
R. Rozin & E. B. Royzman (2001) Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Review 4:296–320.
A. M. Rutchick (2010) Deus ex machina: The influence of polling place on voting behavior. Political Psychology 31(2):209–25.
M. Sargent (2004) Less thought, more punishment: Need for cognition predicts support for punitive responses to crime. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30(11):1485–93.
M. Schaller & S. L. Neuberg (2008) Intergroup prejudices and intergroup conflicts. In: Foundations of evolutionary psychology, ed. C.Crawford & D. L.Krebs, pp. 399–412. Erlbaum.
D. M. Schreiber , G. Fonzo , A. N. Simmons , C. T. Dawes , T. Flagan , J. H. Fowler & M. P. Paulus (2013) Red brain, blue brain: Evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans. PLoS ONE 8:e52970.
S. Schnall , J. Haidt , G. L. Clore & A. H. Jordan (2008) Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34(8):1096–109.
S. Schwartz (2006) A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology 5(2–3):137–82.
S. H. Schwartz (1992) Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 25, ed. M. P.Zanna, pp. 1–65. Academic Press.
S. H. Schwartz , G. V. Caprara & M. Vecchione (2010) Basic personal values, core political values, and voting: A longitudinal analysis. Political Psychology 31(3):421–52.
D. O. Sears & C. L. Funk (1999) Evidence of the long-term persistence of adults' political predispositions. The Journal of Politics 61(01):1–28.
J. E. Settle , C. T. Dawes , N. A. Christakis & J. H. Fowler (2010) Friendships moderate an association between a Dopamine gene variant and political ideology. Journal of Politics 72(4):1189–98.
N. J. Shook & R. H. Fazio (2009) Political ideology, exploration of novel stimuli, and attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45(4):995–98.
J. Sidanius & F. Pratto (2001) Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. Cambridge University Press.
K. B. Smith & P. K. Hatemi (2013) OLS is AOK for ACE: A regression-based approach to synthesizing political science and behavioral genetics models. Political Behavior 35:383–408. doi: 10.1007/s11109-012-9192-2.
K. B. Smith , D. R. Oxley , M. V. Hibbing , J. R. Alford & J. R. Hibbing (2011) Disgust sensitivity and the neurophysiology of left-right political orientations. PloS ONE 6(10):1–9.
T. Sowell (1987) A conflict of visions: Ideological origins of political struggles. Quill.
S. J. Stanton , K. S. LaBar , E. K. Saini , C. M. Kuhn & J. C. Beehner (2010) Stressful politics: Voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States presidential election. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35(5):768–74.
K. Stenner (2005) The authoritarian dynamic. Cambridge University Press.
D. G. Sullivan & D. R. Masters (1988) Happy warriors: Leaders' facial displays, viewers' emotions, and political support. American Journal of Political Science 32(2):345–68.
P. E. Tetlock & G. Mitchell (1993) Liberal and conservative approaches to justice: Conflicting psychological portraits. In: Psychological perspectives on justice; Theory and Applications, ed. B. A.Mellers & J.Baron, pp. 234–55. Cambridge University Press.
H. Thorisdottir , J. T. Jost , I. Liviatan & P. E. Shrout (2007) Psychological needs and values underlying left-right political orientations: Cross-national evidence from Eastern and Western Europe. Public Opinion Quarterly 71(2):175–203.
R. Thornhill , C. L. Fincher & D. Aran (2009) Parasites, democratization, and the liberalization of values across contemporary countries. Biological Reviews 84(1):113–31.
S. S. Tomkins (1963) Left and right: A basic dimension of ideology and personality. In: The study of lives, ed. R. W.White, pp. 388–411. Atherton.
J. Tooby & L. Cosmides (1992) The psychological foundations of culture. In: The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, ed. J. H.Barkow, L.Cosmides & J.Tooby, pp. 19–136. Oxford University Press.
J. M. Tybur , D. Lieberman & V. Griskevicius (2009) Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97(1):103–22.
J. M. Tybur , L. A. Merriman , A. E. Caldwell , M. W. McDonald & C. D. Navarrete (2010) Extending the behavioral immune system to political psychology: Are political conservatism and disgust sensitivity really related? Evolutionary Psychology 8:599–616.
N. A. Valentino , V. L. Hutchings , A. J. Banks & A. K. Davis (2008) Is a worried citizen a good citizen? Emotions, political information seeking, and learning via the internet. Political Psychology 29(2):247–73.
A. van Hiel , M. Pandelaere & B. Duriez (2004) The impact of need for closure on conservative beliefs and racism: Differential mediation by authoritarian submission and authoritarian dominance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30(7):824–37.
E. J. Vanman , J. Saltz , L. Nathan & J. Warren (2004) Racial discrimination by low-prejudiced whites: Facial movements as implicit measures of attitudes related to behavior. Psychological Science 15:711–14.
J. M. Vigil (2010) Political leanings vary with facial expression processing and psychosocial functioning. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 13:547–58.
N. Wade (2011) Depth of the kindness hormone appears to know some bounds. The New York Times, January 10.
J. C. Wahlke (1979) Pre-Behavioralism in political science. American Political Science Review 73(1):9–31.
I. Waismel-Manor , G. Ifergaine & H. Cohen (2011) When endocrinology and democracy collide: Emotions, cortisol and voting at national elections. European Neuropsychopharmacology 21(11):789–95.
J. Weaver (1992) Two kinds: The genetic origin of conservatives and liberals. Baird.
H. F. Weisberg (1974) Dimensionland: An excursion into spaces. American Journal of Political Science 18(4):743–76.
D. Westen , P. S. Blagov , K. Harenski , C. Kilts & S. Hamann (2006) Neural bases of motivated reasoning: An fMRI study of emotional constraints on partisan political judgment in the 2004 U. S. presidential election. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18(11):1947–58.
T. Wheatley & J. Haidt (2005) Hypnotically induced disgust makes moral judgments more severe. Psychological Science 16(10):780–84.
G. D. Wilson (1973) The psychology of conservatism. Academic Press.
G. D. Wilson (1990) Ideology and humor preferences. International Political Science Review 11(4):461–72.
G. D. Wilson , J. Ausman & T. R. Matthews (1973) Conservatism and art preferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 25(2):286–88.
G. D. Wilson & J. R. Patterson (1968) A new measure of conservatism. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 7(4):264–69.
R. B. Zajonc (1980) Social psychology: An experimental approach. Brooks/Cole.
J. Zaller (1992) The nature and origins of mass opinion. Cambridge University Press.