Skip to main content Accessibility help

Do implicit evaluations reflect unconscious attitudes?

  • Adam Hahn (a1) and Bertram Gawronski (a1)


We extend Newell & Shanks' (N&S's) arguments to the question of whether implicit evaluations reflect unconscious attitudes. We argue that correspondence to explicit evaluations fails to meet the criteria of relevance and sensitivity. When awareness is measured adequately and in line with N&S's criteria, there is compelling evidence that people are consciously aware of their implicit evaluations.



Hide All
Blair, I. (2001) Implicit stereotypes and prejudice. In: Cognitive social psychology, ed. Moskowitz, G. B., pp. 359–74. Erlbaum.
Cameron, C. D., Brown-Iannuzzi, J. & Payne, B. K. (2012) Sequential priming measures of implicit social cognition: A meta-analysis of associations with behaviors and explicit attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Review 16:330–50.
De Houwer, J. (2009) How do people evaluate objects? A brief review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 3:3648.
Fazio, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C. & Williams, C. J. (1995) Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: A bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69:1013–27.
Ferguson, M. J. & Zayas, V. (2009) Automatic evaluation. Current Directions in Psychological Science 18:362–66.
Festinger, L. (1957) A theory of cognitive dissonance. Row Peterson and Stanford University Press.
Gawronski, B. & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006) Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin 132:692731.
Gawronski, B. & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2011) The associative-propositional evaluation model: Theory, evidence, and open questions. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 44:59127.
Gawronski, B., Deutsch, R. & Banse, R. (2011) Response interference tasks as indirect measures of automatic associations. In: Cognitive methods in social psychology, ed. Klauer, K. C., Voss, A., & Stahl, C., pp. 78123. Guilford Press.
Gawronski, B., Hofmann, W. & Wilbur, C. J. (2006) Are “implicit” attitudes unconscious? Consciousness and Cognition 15:485–99.
Gawronski, B. & LeBel, E. P. (2008) Understanding patterns of attitude change: When implicit measures show change, but explicit measures do not. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44:1355–61.
Gawronski, B., Peters, K. R., Brochu, P. M. & Strack, F. (2008) Understanding the relations between different forms of racial prejudice: A cognitive consistency perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34:648–65.
Gawronski, B. & Strack, F. (2004) On the propositional nature of cognitive consistency: Dissonance changes explicit, but not implicit attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40:535–42.
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E. & Schwartz, J. K. L. (1998) Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:1464–80.
Hahn, A., Judd, C. M., Hirsh, H. K. & Blair, I. V. (in press) Awareness of implicit attitudes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H. & Schmitt, M. (2005) A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:1369–85.
Nosek, B. A. (2005) Moderators of the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134:565–84.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Do implicit evaluations reflect unconscious attitudes?

  • Adam Hahn (a1) and Bertram Gawronski (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.