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  • Cited by 9
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ribeiro, Sidarta and Stickgold, Robert 2014. Sleep and school education. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 18.

    Sikka, Pilleriin Valli, Katja Virta, Tiina and Revonsuo, Antti 2014. I know how you felt last night, or do I? Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM sleep dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 25, p. 51.

    Valli, Katja 2011. Dreaming in the multilevel framework. Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 20, Issue. 4, p. 1084.

    Hasler, Brant P. and Germain, Anne 2009. Correlates and Treatments of Nightmares in Adults. Sleep Medicine Clinics, Vol. 4, Issue. 4, p. 507.

    Valli, Katja Strandholm, Thea Sillanmäki, Lauri and Revonsuo, Antti 2008. Dreams are more negative than real life: Implications for the function of dreaming. Cognition & Emotion, Vol. 22, Issue. 5, p. 833.

    Ribeiro, S. and Nicolelis, M.A.L. 2007. Evolution of Nervous Systems.

    Goldberg, Arnold 2004. David Milrod’s “The Concept of the Self and the Self Representation”. Neuropsychoanalysis, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 91.

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan and Solms, Mark 2004. Incidence of Threat in Dreams: A Response to Revonsuo's Threat Simulation Theory.. Dreaming, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 220.

    Vertes, Robert P. 2004. Memory Consolidation in Sleep. Neuron, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 135.


Dreaming is not an adaptation

  • Owen Flanagan (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 December 2000

The five papers in this issue all deal with the proper evolutionary function of sleep and dreams, these being different. To establish that some trait of character is an adaptation in the strict biological sense requires a story about the fitness enhancing function it served when it evolved and possibly a story of how the maintenance of this function is fitness enhancing now. My aim is to evaluate the proposals put forward in these papers. My conclusion is that although sleep is almost certainly an adaptation, dreaming is not.

[Hobson et al.; Nielsen; revonsuo; Solms; Vertes & Eastman]

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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