Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 50
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bosch, Oliver G. and Seifritz, Erich 2016. The behavioural profile of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol in humans. Brain Research Bulletin,

    Brand, Ralf and Koch, Helen 2016. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    Bulley, Adam Miloyan, Beyon Brilot, Ben Gullo, Matthew J. and Suddendorf, Thomas 2016. An evolutionary perspective on the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 196, p. 62.

    Casartelli, Luca and Chiamulera, Cristiano 2016. The motor way: Clinical implications of understanding and shaping actions with the motor system in autism and drug addiction. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 191.

    Gorelik, Gregory 2016. The Evolution of Transcendence. Evolutionary Psychological Science,

    Grönbladh, Alfhild Nylander, Erik and Hallberg, Mathias 2016. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone. Brain Research Bulletin,

    Müller, Christian P. and Hassan, Zurina 2016. The evaluation of new psychoactive drugs. Brain Research Bulletin,

    Müller, Christian P. Quednow, Boris B. Lourdusamy, Anbarasu Kornhuber, Johannes Schumann, Gunter and Giese, K. Peter 2016. CaM Kinases: From Memories to Addiction. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, Vol. 37, Issue. 2, p. 153.

    Pickard, Hanna 2016. Denial in Addiction. Mind & Language, Vol. 31, Issue. 3, p. 277.

    Purcell, Ryan H and Wolpe, Paul R 2016. eLS.

    Quednow, Boris B. 2016. Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse.

    Sattler, Sebastian and Schunck, Reinhard 2016. Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs for Cognitive Enhancement. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,

    Schneider, Miriam Levant, Beth Reichel, Martin Gulbins, Erich Kornhuber, Johannes and Müller, Christian P. 2016. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews,

    Stevens, Alex 2016. Inequality and adolescent cannabis use: A qualitative comparative analysis of the link at national level. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, p. 1.

    Vargo, Elisabeth J. and Petróczi, Andrea 2016. “It Was Me on a Good Day”: Exploring the Smart Drug Use Phenomenon in England. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    Wadley, Greg 2016. How psychoactive drugs shape human culture: A multi-disciplinary perspective. Brain Research Bulletin,

    Wiegel, Constantin Sattler, Sebastian Göritz, Anja S. and Diewald, Martin 2016. Work-related stress and cognitive enhancement among university teachers. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 100.

    Ainslie, George 2015. A “cohesive moral community” is already patrolling behavioral science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 38,

    Casey, Sharon 2015. Offending: Drug-related expertise and decision making. Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 20, p. 82.

    Englert, Chris and Wolff, Wanja 2015. Neuroenhancement and the strength model of self-control. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,


Drugs as instruments: A new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use

  • Christian P. Müller (a1) (a2) and Gunter Schumann (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 10 November 2011

Most people who are regular consumers of psychoactive drugs are not drug addicts, nor will they ever become addicts. In neurobiological theories, non-addictive drug consumption is acknowledged only as a “necessary” prerequisite for addiction, but not as a stable and widespread behavior in its own right. This target article proposes a new neurobiological framework theory for non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption, introducing the concept of “drug instrumentalization.” Psychoactive drugs are consumed for their effects on mental states. Humans are able to learn that mental states can be changed on purpose by drugs, in order to facilitate other, non-drug-related behaviors. We discuss specific “instrumentalization goals” and outline neurobiological mechanisms of how major classes of psychoactive drugs change mental states and serve non-drug-related behaviors. We argue that drug instrumentalization behavior may provide a functional adaptation to modern environments based on a historical selection for learning mechanisms that allow the dynamic modification of consummatory behavior. It is assumed that in order to effectively instrumentalize psychoactive drugs, the establishment of and retrieval from a drug memory is required. Here, we propose a new classification of different drug memory subtypes and discuss how they interact during drug instrumentalization learning and retrieval. Understanding the everyday utility and the learning mechanisms of non-addictive psychotropic drug use may help to prevent abuse and the transition to drug addiction in the future.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. Adell , A. Bortolozzi , L. Diaz-Mataix , N. Santana , P. Celada & F. Artigas (2010) Serotonin interaction with other neurotransmitter systems. In: Handbook of the behavioral neurobiology of serotonin, ed. C. P. Müller & B. L. Jacobs , pp. 259–76. Academic Press.

G. K. Aghajanian & G. J. Marek (1997) Serotonin induces excitatory postsynaptic potentials in apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal cells. Neuropharmacology 36:589–99.

B. K. Alexander (1990) The empirical and theoretical bases for an adaptive model of addiction. Journal of Drug Issues 20:2937.

C. Allison & J. A. Pratt (2003) Neuroadaptive processes in GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in benzodiazepine dependence. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 98:171–95.

A. M. Arria & E. D. Wish (2006) Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among students. Pediatric Annals 35:565–71.

M. Arroyo , A. Markou , T. W. Robbins & B. J. Everitt (1998) Acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a second-order schedule of reinforcement in rats: Effects of conditioned cues and continuous access to cocaine. Psychopharmacology 140(3):331–44.

R. Axelrod & W. D. Hamilton (1981) The evolution of cooperation. Science 211(4489):1390–96.

A. Bandura (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84(2):191215.

M. T. Bardo (1998) Neuropharmacological mechanisms of drug reward: Beyond dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Critical Reviews in Neurobiology 12:3767.

M. T. Bardo & R. A. Bevins (2000) Conditioned place preference: What does it add to our preclinical understanding of drug reward? Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 153(1):3143.

C. Baum-Baicker (1985) The psychological benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: A review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 15:305–22.

D. Belin & B. J. Everitt (2008) Cocaine seeking habits depend upon dopamine-dependent serial connectivity linking the ventral with the dorsal striatum. Neuron 57(3):432–41.

K. C. Berridge (1996) Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 20:125.

L. J. Bierut , S. H. Dinwiddie , H. Begleiter , R. R. Crowe , V. Hesselbrock , J. I. Nurnberger Jr., B. Porjesz , M. A. Schuckit & T. Reich (1998) Familial transmission of substance dependence: Alcohol, marihuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: A report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry 55:982–88.

A. Blokland (1995) Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter for learning and memory? Brain Research Reviews 21:285300.

J. A. Boening (2001) Neurobiology of an addiction memory. Journal of Neural Transmission 108 (6):755–65.

M. O. Bonn-Miller , M. J. Zvolensky & A. Bernstein (2007) Marihuana use motives: Concurrent relations to frequency of past 30-day use and anxiety sensitivity among young adult marihuana smokers. Addictive Behavior 32:4962.

M. E. Bouton & E. W. Moody (2004) Memory processes in classical conditioning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 28(7):663–74.

A. Boys , J. Marsden & J. Strang (2001) Understanding reasons for drug use amongst young people: A functional perspective. Health Education Research 16:457–69.

F. Brischoux , S. Chakraborty , D. I. Brierley & M. A. Ungless (2009) Phasic excitation of dopamine neurons in ventral VTA by noxious stimuli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:4894–99.

G. C. Britt & E. F. McCance-Katz (2005) A brief overview of the clinical pharmacology of “club drugs.” Substance Use and Misuse 40:1189–201.

K. J. Brower (2002) Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence. Current Psychiatry Reports 4:377–87.

J. H. Brown & I. G. Kreft (1998) Zero effects of drug prevention programs: Issues and solutions. Evaluation Review 22:314.

S. A. Brown (1985) Expectancies versus background in the prediction of college drinking patterns. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 53:123–30.

A. M. Bruehl , D. H. Lende , M. Schwartz , C. E. Sterk & K. Elifson (2006) Craving and control: Methamphetamine users' narratives. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (Suppl. 3):385–92.

J. C. Campbell , K. K. Szumlinski & T. E. Kippin (2009) Contribution of early environmental stress to alcoholism vulnerability. Alcohol 43(7):547–54.

R. J. Carey , G. DePalma , E. Damianopoulos , A. Hopkins , A. Shanahan , C. P. Müller & J. P. Huston (2004) Dopaminergic and serotonergic autoreceptor stimulation effects are equivalent and additive in the suppression of spontaneous and cocaine induced locomotor activity. Brain Research 1019:134–43.

G. V. Carr & I. Lucki (2010) The role of serotonin in depression. In: Handbook of the behavioral neurobiology of serotonin, ed. C. P. Müller & B. L. Jacobs , pp. 493506. Academic Press.

M. H. Carrigan , L. S. Ham , S. E. Thomas & C. L. Randall (2008) Alcohol outcome expectancies and drinking to cope with social situations. Addictive Behaviors 33(9):1162–66.

B. M. Cato (1992) Youth's recreation and drug sensations: Is there a relationship? Journal of Drug Education 22:293301.

O. Cauli & M. Morelli (2005) Caffeine and the dopaminergic system. Behavioral Pharmacology 16:6377.

C. Y. Chen & J. C. Anthony (2004) Epidemiological estimates of risk in the process of becoming dependent upon cocaine: Cocaine hydrochloride powder versus crack cocaine. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 172:7886.

J. Chick (1999) Can light or moderate drinking benefit mental health? European Addiction Research 5:7481.

T. K. Clarke & G. Schumann (2009) Gene-environment interactions resulting in risk alcohol drinking behaviour are mediated by CRF and CRF1. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior 93(3):230–36.

D. H. Clayton & N. D. Wolfe (1993) The adaptive significance of self-medication. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8(2):6063.

P. J. Conrod , R. O. Pihl , S. H. Stewart & M. Dongier (2000) Validation of a system of classifying female substance abusers on the basis of personality and motivational risk factors for substance abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 14:243–56.

P. J. Conrod , S. H. Stewart , N. Comeau & A. M. Maclean (2006) Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions targeting personality risk factors for youth alcohol misuse. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 35:550–63.

M. L. Cooper , M. R. Frone , M. Russell & P. Mudar (1995) Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology 69:9901005.

M. L. Cooper , M. Russell , J. B. Skinner , M. R. Frone & P. Mudar (1992) Stress and alcohol use: Moderating effects of gender, coping, and alcohol expectancies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 101:139–52.

L. Cosmides & J. Tooby (1999) Toward an evolutionary taxonomy of treatable conditions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 108(3):453–64.

H. V. Curran (1991) Benzodiazepines, memory and mood: A review. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 105:18.

J. Davey , N. Richards & J. Freeman (2007) Fatigue and beyond: Patterns of and motivations for illicit drug use among long-haul truck drivers. Traffic Injury Prevention 8:253–59.

H. de Wit & J. Stewart (1981) Reinstatement of cocaine-reinforced responding in the rat. Psychopharmacology 75(2):134–43.

E. Dere , A. Easton , L. Nadel & J. P. Huston (2008) Handbook of episodic memory. Elsevier.

G. Di Chiara & R. A. North (1992) Neurobiology of opiate abuse. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 13:185–93.

J. E. Donovan & J. Richard (1985) Structure of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 53(6):890904.

R. Dudley (2000) Evolutionary origins of human alcoholism in primate frugivory. The Quarterly Review of Biology 75(1):315.

R. Dudley (2002) Fermenting fruit and the historical ecology of ethanol ingestion: Is alcoholism in modern humans an evolutionary hangover? Addiction 97:381–88.

T. Eissenberg & R. L. Balster (2000) Initial tobacco use episodes in children and adolescents: Current knowledge, future directions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 59(Suppl. 1):S4160.

G. S. Emley & R. R. Hutchinson (1983) Unique influences of 10 drugs upon post-shock biting attack and preshock manual responding. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 19:512.

W. E. Fantegrossi , W. L. Woolverton , M. Kilbourn , P. Sherman , J. Yuan , G. Hatzidimitriou , G. A. Ricaurte , J. H. Woods & G. Winger (2004) Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of long-term intravenous self-administration of MDMA and its enantiomers by rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 29(7):1270–81.

M. G. P. Feenstra , M. H. A. Botterblom & J. F. M. Vanuum (1995) Novelty-induced increase in dopamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex in-vivo – Inhibition by diazepam. Neuroscience Letters 189:8184.

C. C. Felder & M. Glass (1998) Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists. Annual Reviews of Pharmacology and Toxicology 38:179200.

A. G. Frolov & O. G. Pavlova (2003) Instrumentalization of movements evoked by stimulation of the motor cortex by food reinforcement in dogs. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology 33:203207.

F. H. Gawin (1991) Cocaine addiction: Psychology and neurophysiology. Science 251:1580–86.

F. H. Gawin & H. D. Kleber (1986) Abstinence symptomatology and psychiatric diagnosis in cocaine abusers. Clinical observations. Archives of General Psychiatry 43:107–13.

M. A. Geyer & F. X. Vollenweider (2008) Serotonin research: Contributions to understanding psychoses. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 29(9):445–53.

D. Goldman , G. Oroszi & F. Ducci (2005) The genetics of addictions: Uncovering the genes. Nature Reviews Genetics 6:521–32.

R. R. Griffiths , R. J. Lamb , C. A. Sannerud , N. A. Ator & J. V. Brady (1991) Self-injection of barbiturates, benzodiazepines and other sedative-anxiolytics in baboons. Psychopharmacology 103:154–61.

E. H. Hagen , R. J. Sullivan , R. Schmidt , G. Morris , R. Kempter & P. Hammerstein (2009) Ecology and neurobiology of toxin avoidance and the paradox of drug reward. Neuroscience 160(1):6984.

B. Hahn & I. P. Stolerman (2002) Nicotine-induced attentional enhancement in rats: Effects of chronic exposure to nicotine. Neuropsychopharmacology 27:712–22.

B. Hahn , M. Shoaib & I. P. Stolerman (2002) Nicotine-induced enhancement of attention in the five-choice serial reaction time task: The influence of task demands. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 162:129–37.

W. D. Hamilton (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:116.

C. Harper (2007) The neurotoxicity of alcohol. Human & Experimental Toxicology 26(3):251–57.

R. A. Harris , J. R. Trudell & S. J. Mihic (2008) Ethanol's molecular targets. Science Signaling 1(28):re7.

A. A. Harrison , F. Gasparini & A. Markou (2002) Nicotine potentiation of brain stimulation reward reversed by DH beta E and SCH 23390, but not by eticlopride, LY 314582 or MPEP in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 160:5666.

A. Heberlein , S. Bleich , J. Kornhuber & T. Hillemacher (2009) Benzodiazepine dependence: Causalities and treatment options. Fortschritte der Neurologie und Psychiatrie 77:715.

A. Heyne , T. May , P. Goll & J. Wolffgramm (2000) Persisting consequences of drug intake: Towards a memory of addiction. Journal of Neural Transmission 107(6):613–38.

S. T. Higgins , W. K. Bickel , J. R. Hughes , M. Lynn , M. A. Capeless & J. W. Fenwick (1990) Effects of intranasal cocaine on human learning, performance and physiology. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 102:451–58.

E. M. Hill & K. Chow (2002) Life-history theory and risky drinking. Addiction 97(4):401–13.

Y. J. Ho , C. R. Pawlak , L. Guo , R. K. Schwarting (2004) Acute and long-term consequences of single MDMA administration in relation to individual anxiety levels in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research 149(2):135–44.

J. P. Huston , H. L. Haas , F. Boix , M. Pfister , U. Decking , J. Schrader & R. K. Schwarting (1996) Extracellular adenosine levels in neostriatum and hippocampus during rest and activity periods of rats. Neuroscience 73:99107.

S. Ikemoto & J. Panksepp (1999) The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in motivated behavior: A unifying interpretation with special reference to reward-seeking. Brain Research Reviews 31:641.

T. Ito , T. Suzuki , S. E. Wellman & I. K. Ho (1996) Pharmacology of barbiturate tolerance/dependence: GABAA receptors and molecular aspects. Life Sciences 59:169–95.

B. L. Jacobs & C. A. Fornal (2010) Activity of brain serotonergic neurons in relation to physiology and behavior. In: Handbook of the behavioral neurobiology of serotonin, ed. C. P. Müller & B. L. Jacobs , pp. 153–62. Academic Press.

L. K. Jacobsen , S. M. Southwick & T. R. Kosten (2001) Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of the literature. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:1184–90.

J. I. Javaid , M. W. Fischman , C. R. Schuster , H. Dekirmenjian & J. M. Davis (1978) Cocaine plasma concentration: Relation to physiological and subjective effects in humans. Science 202:227–28.

J. D. Jentsch & R. H. Roth (1999) The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: From NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:201–25.

Y. H. Jo , D. A. Talmage & L. W. Role (2002) Nicotinic receptor-mediated effects on appetite and food intake. Journal of Neurobiology 53:618–32.

C. E. Johanson , R. L. Balster & K. Bonese (1976) Self-administration of psychomotor stimulant drugs: The effects of unlimited access. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 4:4551.

C. Johnson , R. Beaton & K. Hall (1975) Poison-based avoidance learning in nonhuman primates: Use of visual cues. Physiology & Behavior 14(4):403407.

B. M. Johnstone , E. V. Leino , C. R. Ager , H. Ferrer & K. M. Fillmore (1996) Determinants of life-course variation in the frequency of alcohol consumption: Meta-analysis of studies from the collaborative alcohol-related longitudinal project. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 57(5):494506.

P. W. Kalivas , B. A. Sorg & M. S. Hooks (1993) The pharmacology and neural circuitry of sensitization to psychostimulants. Behavioural Pharmacology 4:315–34.

P. W. Kalivas & N. D. Volkow (2005) The neural basis of addiction: A pathology of motivation and choice. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:1403–13.

G. Kanayama , K. J. Brower , R. I. Wood , J. I. Hudson & H. G. Pope Jr. (2009) Anabolic–androgenic steroid dependence: An emerging disorder. Addiction 104:1966–78.

E. R. Kandel (2001) The molecular biology of memory storage: A dialogue between genes and synapses. Science 294:1030–38.

K. S. Kendler , K. C. Jacobson , C. A. Prescott & M. C. Neale (2003b) Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for use and abuse/dependence of cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, sedatives, stimulants, and opiates in male twins. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:687–95.

K. S. Kendler , C. A. Prescott , J. Myers & M. C. Neale (2003a) The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:929–37.

A. J. King , D. D. Johnson & M. Van Vugt (2009) The origins and evolution of leadership. Current Biology 19(19):R911–16.

G. F. Koob (1992) Drugs of abuse: Anatomy, pharmacology and function of reward pathways. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 13:177–84.

G. F. Koob & M. Le Moal (1997) Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science 278:5258.

G. F. Koob & M. Le Moal (2008) Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annual Review of Psychology 59:2953.

G. F. Koob , P. P. Sanna & F. E. Bloom (1998) Neuroscience of addiction. Neuron 21:467–76.

M. J. Kreek , D. A. Nielsen , E. R. Butelman & K. S. Laforge (2005) Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Nature Neuroscience 8:1450–57.

E. Kuntsche , R. Knibbe , G. Gmel & R. Engels (2005) Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives. Clinical Psychology Review 25:841–61.

E. Kuntsche , R. Knibbe , G. Gmel & R. Engels (2006) Who drinks and why? A review of socio-demographic, personality, and contextual issues behind the drinking motives in young people. Addictive Behavior 31:1844–57.

M. Lader (1994) Anxiolytic drugs: Dependence, addiction and abuse. European Neuropsychopharmacology 4:8591.

H. M. Lavikainen , T. Lintonen & E. Kosunen (2009) Sexual behavior and drinking style among teenagers: A population-based study in Finland. Health Promotion International 24(2):108–19.

B. Le Foll & S. R. Goldberg (2006) Nicotine as a typical drug of abuse in experimental animals and humans. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 184:367–81.

B. C. Leigh (1989) In search of the Seven Dwarves: Issues of measurement and meaning in alcohol expectancy research. Psychological Bulletin 105(3):361–73.

A. Licata , S. Taylor , M. Berman & J. Cranston (1993) Effects of cocaine on human aggression. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 45:549–52.

M. E. Liechti , M. R. Saur , A. Gamma , D. Hell & F. X. Vollenweider (2000) Psychological and physiological effects of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) after pretreatment with the 5-HT(2) antagonist ketanserin in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 23:396404.

R. I. Lipton (1994) The effect of moderate alcohol use on the relationship between stress and depression. American Journal of Public Health 84:1913–17.

L. D. Lisonbee , J. J. Villalba , F. D. Provenza & J. O. Hall (2009) Tannins and self-medication: Implications for sustainable parasite control in herbivores. Behavioural Processes 82(2):184–89.

G. A. Lozano (1998) Parasitic stress and self-medication in wild animals. Advances in the Study of Behavior 27:291317.

A. Markou (2008) Neurobiology of nicotine dependence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B Biological Sciences 363:3159–68.

G. A. Marlatt & W. H. George (1984) Relapse prevention: Introduction and overview of the model. British Journal of Addiction 79(3):261–73.

M. Matsumoto & O. Hikosaka (2009) Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals. Nature 459:837–41.

T. J. Matthews , P. Abdelbaky & D. W. Pfaff (2005) Social and sexual motivation in the mouse. Behavioral Neuroscience 119(6):1628–39.

W. J. McBride , A. D. Le & A. Noronha (2002) Central nervous system mechanisms in alcohol relapse. Alcohol Clinical and Experimental Research 26:280–86.

S. E. McCabe , J. R. Knight , C. J. Teter & H. Wechsler (2005) Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: Prevalence and correlates from a national survey. Addiction 100:96106.

J. L. McGaugh (2000) Memory – A century of consolidation. Science 287:248–51.

A. T. McLellan , G. E. Woody & C. P. O'Brien (1979) Development of psychiatric illness in drug abusers: Possible role of drug preference. New England Journal of Medicine 301(24):1310–14.

R. Mechoulam , E. Fride & V. Di Marzo (1998) Endocannabinoids. European Journal of Pharmacology 359:118.

G. Mengod , R. Cortes , M. Teresa Vilaro & D. Hoyer (2010) Distribution of 5-HT receptors in the central nervous system. In: Handbook of the behavioral neurobiology of serotonin, ed. C. P. Müller & B. L. Jacobs , pp. 123–38. Academic Press.

C. Miller-Tutzauer , K. E. Leonard & M. Windle (1991) Marriage and alcohol use: A longitudinal study of “maturing out.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol 52(5):434–40.

B. Milner , L. R. Squire & E. R. Kandel (1998) Cognitive neuroscience and the study of memory. Neuron 20(3):445–68.

S. N. Mitchell (1993) Role of the locus-coeruleus in the noradrenergic response to a systemic administration of nicotine. Neuropharmacology 32:937–49.

D. S. Molnar , M. A. Busseri , C. P. Perrier & S. W. Sadava (2009) A longitudinal examination of alcohol use and subjective well-being in an undergraduate sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 70:704–13.

N. Mondaini , T. Cai , P. Gontero , A. Gavazzi , G. Lombardi , V. Boddi & R. Bartoletti (2009) Regular moderate intake of red wine is linked to a better women's sexual health. Journal of Sexual Medicine 6(10):2772–77.

C. P. Müller & R. J. Carey (2006) Intracellular 5-HT 2C-receptor dephosphorylation: A new target for treating drug addiction. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 27:455–58.

C. P. Müller , R. J. Carey , J. P. Huston & M. A. De Souza Silva (2007a) Serotonin and psychostimulant addiction: Focus on 5-HT1A-receptors. Progress in Neurobiology 81:133–78.

C. P. Müller , R. J. Carey , M. Wilkisz , S. Schwenzner , G. Jocham , J. P. Huston & M. A. De Souza Silva (2008) Acute anxiolytic effects of cocaine: The role of test latency and activity phase. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior 89:218–26.

C. P. Müller , M. A. De Souza Silva & J. P. Huston (2007b) Double dissociating effects of sensory stimulation and cocaine on serotonin activity in the occipital and temporal cortices. Neuropharmacology 52:854–62.

C. P. Müller , M. E. Pum , G. Schumann & J. P. Huston (2010) The role of serotonin in drug addiction. In: The behavioral neurobiology of serotonin, ed. C. P. Müller & B. L. Jacobs , pp. 507–46. Academic Press.

C. P. Müller , H. Thönnessen , M. Barros , C. Tomaz , R. J. Carey & J. P. Huston (2004) Hippocampus 5-HT(1A)-receptors attenuate cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and the increase in hippocampal but not nucleus accumbens 5-HT. Hipppocampus 14:710–21.

R. M. Nesse (2002) Evolution and addiction. Addiction 97:470–71.

R. M. Nesse & K. C. Berridge (1997) Psychoactive drug use in evolutionary perspective. Science 278:6366.

D. B. Newlin (2002) The self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) theory of substance use disorders. Addiction 97:427–45.

R. Niaura , M. Goldstein & D. Abrams (1991) A bioinformational systems perspective on tobacco dependence. British Journal of Addiction 86(5):593–97.

D. E. Nichols (2004) Hallucinogens. Pharmacological Therapy 101(2):131–81.

P. Nilsen , M. Holmqvist , E. Hultgren , P. Bendtsen & M. Cedergren (2008) Alcohol use before and during pregnancy and factors influencing change among Swedish women. Acta Obstetrics and Gynecology of Scandinavia 87(7):768–74.

C. P. O'Brien , A. R. Childress , R. Ehrman & S. J. Robbins (1998) Conditioning factors in drug abuse: Can they explain compulsion? Journal of Psychopharmacology 12(1):1522.

J. Olds & P. Milner (1954) Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 47:419–27.

J. Orford (2001a) Addiction as excessive appetite. Addiction 96(1):1531.

J. Orford (2008) Asking the right questions in the right way: The need for a shift in research on psychological treatments for addiction. Addiction 103(6):875–85.

D. A. Overton (1968) Visual cues and shock sensitivity in the control of T-maze choice by drug conditions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 66:216–19.

J. B. Panksepp & G. P. Lahvis (2007) Social reward among juvenile mice. Genes Brain and Behavior 6(7):661–71.

J. Panksepp , B. Knutson & J. Burgdorf (2002) The role of brain emotional systems in addictions: A neuro-evolutionary perspective and new “self-report” animal model. Addiction 97(4):459–69.

O. A. Parsons (1998) Neurocognitive deficits in alcoholics and social drinkers: A continuum? Alcohol Clinical and Experimental Research 22(4):954–61.

S. Peele & A. Brodsky (2000) Exploring psychological benefits associated with moderate alcohol use: A necessary corrective to assessments of drinking outcomes? Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60:221–47.

H. W. Perkins (1999) Stress-motivated drinking in collegiate and postcollegiate young adulthood: Life course and gender patterns. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60:219–27.

E. K. Perry & R. H. Perry (1995) Acetylcholine and hallucinations: Disease-related compared to drug-induced alterations in human consciousness. Brain and Cognition 28:240–58.

T. Porkka-Heiskanen , R. E. Strecker , M. Thakkar , A. A. Bjorkum , R. W. Greene & R. W. McCarley (1997) Adenosine: A mediator of the sleep-inducing effects of prolonged wakefulness. Science 276:1265–68.

M. Pum , R. J. Carey , J. P. Huston & C. P. Müller (2007) Dissociating effects of cocaine and d-amphetamine on dopamine and serotonin in the perirhinal, entorhinal, and prefrontal cortex of freely moving rats. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 193:375–90.

M. E. Pum , J. P. Huston , M. A. De Souza Silva & C. P. Müller (2008) Visual sensory-motor gating by serotonin activation in the medial prefrontal and occipital, but not in the rhinal, cortices in rats. Neuroscience 153:361–72.

I. M. Quadros , A. Takahashi & K. A. Miczek (2010) Serotonin and aggression. In: Handbook of the behavioral neurobiology of serotonin, ed. C. P. Müller & B. L. Jacobs , pp. 687714. Academic Press.

B. B. Quednow , F. Jessen , K. U. Kuhn , W. Maier , I. Daum & M. Wagner (2006) Memory deficits in abstinent MDMA (ecstasy) users: Neuropsychological evidence of frontal dysfunction. Journal of Psychopharmacology 20:373–84.

B. B. Quednow , K. U. Kuhn , C. Hoppe , J. Westheide , W. Maier , I. Daum & M. Wagner (2007) Elevated impulsivity and impaired decision-making cognition in heavy users of MDMA (“Ecstasy”). Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 189:517530.

A. D. Redish , S. Jensen & A. Johnson (2008) A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31(4):415–37.

R. B. Resnick , R. S. Kestenbaum & L. K. Schwartz (1977) Acute systemic effects of cocaine in man: A controlled study by intranasal and intravenous routes. Science 195:696–98.

A. H. Rezvani & E. D. Levin (2001) Cognitive effects of nicotine. Biological Psychiatry 49:258–67.

J. A. Rich & D. E. Singer (1991) Cocaine-related symptoms in patients presenting to an urban emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:616–21.

M. E. Risner & B. E. Jones (1980) Intravenous self-administration of cocaine and norcocaine by dogs. Psychopharmacology 71(1):8389.

T. W. Robbins & B. J. Everitt (1996) Neurobehavioural mechanisms of reward and motivation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 6:228–36.

T. W. Robbins & B. J. Everitt (1999) Drug addiction: Bad habits add up. Nature 398(6728):567–70.

T. E. Robinson & K. C. Berridge (1993) The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews 18:247–91.

T. E. Robinson & K. C. Berridge (2003) Addiction. Annual Reviews in Psychology 54:2553.

B. Rodgers , A. E. Korten , A. F. Jorm , H. Christensen , S. Henderson & P. A. Jacomb (2000) Risk factors for depression and anxiety in abstainers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers. Addiction 95:1833–45.

E. Rodriguez , M. Aregullin , T. Nishida , S. Uehara , R. Wrangham , Z. Abramowski , A. Finlayson & G. H. Towers (1985) Thiarubrine A, a bioactive constituent of Aspilia (Asteraceae) consumed by wild chimpanzees. Experientia 41(3):419–20.

R. Room (2000) The more drinking, the more fun; but is there a calculus of fun, and should it drive policy? Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60:249–50.

H. E. Ross & L. J. Young (2009) Oxytocin and the neural mechanisms regulating social cognition and affiliative behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 30(4):534–47.

J. Sareen , L. McWilliams , B. Cox & M. B. Stein (2004) Does a U-shaped relationship exist between alcohol use and DSM-III-R mood and anxiety disorders? Journal of Affective Disorders 82:113–18.

M. Sarter & J. P. Bruno (1997) Cognitive functions of cortical acetylcholine: Toward a unifying hypothesis. Brain Research Reviews 23:2846.

M. Sarter , M. E. Hasselmo , J. P. Bruno & B. Givens (2005) Unraveling the attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: Interactions between signal-driven and cognitive modulation of signal detection. Brain Research Reviews 48:98111.

W. Schultz (2000) Multiple reward signals in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 1:199207.

G. Schumann (2007) Okey Lecture 2006: Identifying the neurobiological mechanisms of addictive behaviour. Addiction 102:1689–95.

G. Schumann , D. Rujescu , C. Kissling , M. Soyka , N. Dahmen , U. W. Preuss , S. Wieman , M. Depner , S. Wellek , J. Lascorz , B. Bondy , I. Giegling , I. Anghelescu , M. S. Cowen , A. Poustka , R. Spanagel , K. Mann , F. A. Henn & A. Szegedi (2003) Analysis of genetic variations of protein tyrosine kinase fyn and their association with alcohol dependence in two independent cohorts. Biological Psychiatry 54:1422–26.

R. K. Schwarting , C. M. Thiel , C. P. Müller & J. P. Huston (1998) Relationship between anxiety and serotonin in the ventral striatum. NeuroReport 9:1025–29.

B. Segal (1985) Confirmatory analyses of reasons for experiencing psychoactive drugs during adolescence. International Journal of Addiction 20:1649–62.

B. Sen (2002) Does alcohol-use increase the risk of sexual intercourse among adolescents? Evidence from the NLSY97. Journal of Health Economics 21(6):1085–93.

Y. Shaham , U. Shalev , L. Lu , H. de Wit & J. Stewart (2003) The reinstatement model of drug relapse: History, methodology and major findings. Psychopharmacology 168(1–2):320.

P. W. Sheldon & G. K. Aghajanian (1990) Serotonin (5-HT) induces IPSPs in pyramidal layer cells of rat piriform cortex – Evidence for the involvement of a 5-HT2-activated interneuron. Brain Research 506:6269.

J. Simons , C. J. Correia & K. B. Carey (2000) A comparison of motives for marihuana and alcohol use among experienced users. Addictive Behavior 25:153–60.

M. S. Singer , K. C. Mace & E. A. Bernays (2009) Self-medication as adaptive plasticity: Increased ingestion of plant toxins by parasitized caterpillars. PLoS.One. 4(3):e4796.

J. C. Skogen , S. B. Harvey , M. Henderson , E. Stordal & A. Mykletun (2009) Anxiety and depression among abstainers and low-level alcohol consumers. The Nord-Trondelag Health Study. Addiction 104:1519–29.

R. Spanagel (2009) Alcoholism: A systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiological Reviews 89:649705.

R. Spanagel , G. Pendyala , C. Abarca , T. Zghoul , C. Sanchis-Segura , M. C. Magnone , J. Lascorz , M. Depner , D. Holzberg , M. Soyka , S. Schreiber , F. Matsuda , M. Lathrop , G. Schumann & U. Albrecht (2005) The clock gene Per2 influences the glutamatergic system and modulates alcohol consumption. Nature Medicine 11:3542.

R. D. Spealman & S. R. Goldberg (1978) Drug self-administration by laboratory animals: Control by schedules of reinforcement. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 18:313–39.

L. P. Spear (2000) The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24:417–63.

L. R. Squire , B. Knowlton & G. Musen (1993) The structure and organization of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 44:453–95.

D. Stacey , T. K. Clarke & G. Schumann (2009) The genetics of alcoholism. Current Psychiatry Reports 11(5):364–69.

C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs (1990) Alcohol myopia. Its prized and dangerous effects. The American Psychologist 45(8):921–33.

R. Stillman , R. T. Jones , D. Moore , J. Walker & S. Welm (1993) Improved performance 4 hours after cocaine. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 110:415–20.

I. Stolerman (1992) Drugs of abuse: Behavioural principles, methods and terms. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 13:170–76.

R. J. Sullivan & E. H. Hagen (2002) Psychotropic substance-seeking: Evolutionary pathology or adaptation? Addiction 97(4):389400.

R. J. Sullivan , E. H. Hagen & P. Hammerstein (2008) Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275:1231–41.

W. Tatarkiewicz (1976) Analysis of happiness. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

B. Taylor , J. Rehm & G. Gmel (2005) Moderate alcohol consumption and the gastrointestinal tract. Digestive Disorders 23:170–76.

J. Taylor , N. Fulop & J. Green (1999) Drink, illicit drugs and unsafe sex in women. Addiction 94(8):1209–18.

C. M. Thiel , C. P. Müller , J. P. Huston & R. K. Schwarting (1999) High versus low reactivity to a novel environment: Behavioural, pharmacological and neurochemical assessments. Neuroscience 93(1):243–51.

N. Tinbergen (1963) On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 20:410–33.

T. M. Tzschentke (2007) Measuring reward with the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: Update of the last decade. Addiction Biology 12(3–4):227462.

R. Uher (2009) The role of genetic variation in the causation of mental illness: An evolution-informed framework. Molecular Psychiatry 14(12):1072–82.

M. Usher , J. D. Cohen , D. Servan-Schreiber , J. Rajkowski & G. Aston-Jones (1999) The role of locus coeruleus in the regulation of cognitive performance. Science 283:549–54.

J. J. Villalba , F. D. Provenza , J. O. Hall & L. D. Lisonbee (2010) Selection of tannins by sheep in response to gastrointestinal nematode infection. Journal of Animal Science 88(6):2189–98.

N. D. Volkow , R. Hitzemann , G. J. Wang , J. S. Fowler , A. P. Wolf , S. L. Dewey & L. Handlesman (1992) Long-term frontal brain metabolic changes in cocaine abusers. Synapse 11(3):184–90.

N. D. Volkow , G. J. Wang , M. W. Fischman , R. W. Foltin , J. S. Fowler , N. N. Abumrad , S. Vitkun , J. Logan , S. J. Gatley , N. Pappas , R. Hitzemann & C. E. Shea (1997) Relationship between subjective effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter occupancy. Nature 386:827–30.

N. D. Volkow , G. J. Wang , Y. M. Ma , J. S. Fowler , C. Wong , M. Jayne , F. Telang & J. M. Swanson (2006) Effects of expectation on the brain metabolic responses to methylphenidate and to its placebo in non-drug abusing subjects. Neuroimage 32(4):1782–92.

J. C. Wakefield (1999) Evolutionary versus prototype analyses of the concept of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 108(3):374–99.

R. J. Ward , F. Lallemand & W. P. de (2009) Biochemical and neurotransmitter changes implicated in alcohol-induced brain damage in chronic or “binge drinking” alcohol abuse. Alcohol and Alcoholism 44(2):128–35.

I. E. Waskow , J. E. Olsson , C. Salzman & M. M. Katz (1970) Psychological effects of tetrahydrocannabinol. Archives of General Psychiatry 22:97107.

A. T. Weil (1998) The natural mind. Houghton Mifflin Co.

R. D. Weiss , S. M. Mirin , J. L. Michael & A. C. Sollogub (1986) Psychopathology in chronic cocaine abusers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 12:1729.

R. West (2006) Theory of addiction. Blackwell.

B. P. White , K. A. Becker-Blease & K. Grace-Bishop (2006) Stimulant medication use, misuse, and abuse in an undergraduate and graduate student sample. Journal of the American College of Health 54:261–68.

N. M. White (1989) Reward or reinforcement: What's the difference? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 13(2–3):181–86.

G. C. Williams (1957) Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11:398411.

M. J. Williams & B. Adinoff (2007) The role of acetylcholine in cocaine addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1779–97.

E. M. Williamson & F. J. Evans (2000) Cannabinoids in clinical practice. Drugs 60:1303–14.

S. C. Wilsnack (1974) The effects of social drinking on women's fantasy. Journal of Personality 42:4361.

R. A. Wise (1980) The dopamine synapse and the notion of “pleasure centers” in the brain. Trends in Neurosciences 9195.

R. A. Wise (2002) Brain reward circuitry: Insights from unsensed incentives. Neuron 36(2):229–40.

P. A. Woicik , S. H. Stewart , R. O. Pihl & P. J. Conrod (2009) The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale: A scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles. Addictive Behavior 34:1042–55.

K. Wolff & A. R. Winstock (2006) Ketamine: From medicine to misuse. CNS Drugs 20:199218.

R. I. Wood (2004) Reinforcing aspects of androgens. Physiology Behavior 83(2):279–89.

R. Wrangham & T. Nishida (1983) Aspilla spp. Leaves: A puzzle in the feeding behavior of wild chimpanzees. Primates 24(2):276–82.

R. J. Wyatt , F. Karoum , R. Suddath & R. Fawcett (1988) Persistently decreased brain dopamine levels and cocaine. Journal of the American Medical Association 259:2996.

A. M. Young , M. H. Joseph & J. A. Gray (1993) Latent inhibition of conditioned dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience 54:59.

J. P. Zacny & S. A. Lichtor (2008) Nonmedical use of prescription opioids: Motive and ubiquity issues. Journal of Pain 9:473–86.

N. E. Zinberg , W. M. Harding , S. M. Stelmack & R. A. Marblestone (1978) Patterns of heroin use. Annals of the New York of Academy Sciences 311:1024.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *