Skip to main content Accessibility help

Early stages in a sensorimotor transformation

  • Martha Flanders (a1), Stephen I. Helms Tillery (a1) and John F. Soechting (a1)

We present a model for several early stages of the sensorimotor transformations involved in targeted arm movement. In psychophysical experiments, human subjects pointed to the remembered locations of randomly placed targets in three-dimensional space. They made consistent errors in distance, and from these errors stages in the sensorimotor transformation were deduced. When subjects attempted to move the right index finger to a virtual target they consistently undershot the distance of the more distal targets. Other experiments indicated that the error was in the sensorimotor transformation rather than in the perception of distance. The error was most consistent when evaluated using a spherical coordinate system based at the right shoulder, indicating that the neural representation of target parameters is transformed from a retinocentric representation to a shoulder-centered representation. According to the model, the error in distance results from the neural implementation of a linear approximation in the algorithm to transform shoulder-centered target parameters into a set of arm orientations appropriate for placing the finger on the target. The transformation to final arm orientations places visually derived information into a frame of reference where it can readily be combined with kinesthetically derived information about initial arm orientations. The combination of these representations of initial and final arm orientations could give rise to the representation of movement direction recorded in the motor cortex by Georgopoulos and his colleagues. Later stages, such as the transformation from kinematic (position) to dynamic (force) parameters, or to levels of muscle activation, are beyond the scope of the present model.

Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' Initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Abend, W., Bizzi, E. & Morasso, P. (1982) Human arm trajectory formation. Brain 105:331–48. [JG]
Adams, R. W., Gandevia, S. C. & Skuse, N. F. (1990) The distribution of muscular weakness in upper motoneurone lesions affecting the lower limb. Brain 113:1459–76. [SCG]
Alexander, G. E. & Crutcher, M. D. (1990a) Preparation for movement: Neural representations of intended direction in three motor areas of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:133–50. [aMF]
Alexander, G. E. & Crutcher, M. D. (1990b) Neural representations of the target (goal) of visually guided arm movements in three motor areas of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:164–78. [aMF, GEA]
Andersen, R. A. (1987) Inferior parietal lobe function in spatial perception and visuomotor integration. In: Handbook of physiology, section I: The nervous system, vol. 5, part 2, ed. Plum, F. & Mountcastle, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [aMF]
Andersen, R. A. (1989) Visual and eye movement functions of the posterior parietal cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 12:377403. [aMF]
Andersen, R. A., Bracewell, R. M., Barash, S., Gnadt, J. W. & Fogassi, L. (1990) Eye position effects of visual, memory and saccade-related activity in areas LIP and 7a of macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 10:1176–96. [RMB]
Andersen, R. A., Essick, G. K. & Siegel, R. M. (1985) Encoding of spatial location by posterior parietal neurons. Science 230:456–58. [aMF, GEA]
Andersen, R. A. & Mountcastle, V. B. (1983) The influence of the angle of gaze upon the excitability of posterior parietal neurons. Journal of Neuroscience 3:532–48. [YB]
Andersen, R. A. & Zipser, D. (1988) The role of the posterior parietal cortex in coordinate transformations for visual-motor integration. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 66:488501. [arMF, YB]
Arbib, M. A. (1981) Perceptual structures and distributed motor control. In: Handbook of physiology – the nervous system II. Motor control, ed. Brooks, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [MAA]
Arbib, M. A. (1985) Schemas for the temporal organization of behaviour. Human Neurobiology 4:6372. [JG]
Arbib, M. A. (1991) Schema theory. In: The encyclopedia of artificial intelligence, 2nd ed., ed. Shapiro, S.. Wiley-Interscience (in press). [MAA]
Arbib, M. A. & Amari, S. (1985) Sensori-motor transformations in the brain (with a critique of the tensor theory of cerebellum). Journal of Theoretical Biology 112:123–55. [MAA]
Arbib, M. A. & Cobas, A. (1991) Prey-catching and predator avoidance 1: Maps and schemas. In: Visual structures and integrated functions, Research notes in neural computing, ed. Arbib, M. A. & J.-P., Ewert. Springer-Verlag. [MAA]
Barash, S., Bracewell, R. M., Fogassi, L., Gnadt, J. W. & Andersen, R. A. (1991a) Saccade-related activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). I. Temporal properties; comparison to area 7a. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:10951108. [RMB]
Barash, S., Bracewell, R. M., Fogassi, L., Gnadt, J. W. & Andersen, R. A. (1991b) Saccade-related activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). II. Spatial properties. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:1109–24. [RMB]
Bard, C., Fleury, M. & Paillard, J. (1990) Different patterns in aiming accuracy for head-movers and non-head-movers. Journal of Human Movements Studies 18:3748. [JB]
Becker, W. & Fuchs, A. F. (1969) Further properties of the human saccadic system: Eye movements and correction saccades with and without visual fixation points. Vision Research 9:1247–58. [MAG]
Ben-Israel, A. & Greville, T. N. E. (1974) Generalized inverses: Theory and applications. John Wiley. [MAA]
Biguer, B., Jearmerod, M. & Prablanc, C. (1982) The coordination of eye, head and arm movements during reaching at a single visual target. Experimental Brain Research 46:301–04. [JB]
Bizzi, E., Chapple, W. & Hogan, N. (1982) Mechanical properties of muscles: Implications for motor control. Trends in Neuroscience 5:395–98. [MK]
Boff, K. R., Kaufman, L. & Thomas, J. P. (1986) Handbook of perception and human performance. John Wiley. [VH]
Bookstein, F. L. (1981) Coordinate systems and morphogenesis. In: Morphogenesis and pattern formation, ed. Connelly, T. G., Brinkley, L. & Carlson, B.. Raven Press. [FLB]
Bourbon, W. T., Copeland, K. E., Dyer, V. T., Harman, W. K. & Mosley, B. L. (1990) On the accuracy and reliability of predictions by controlsystem theory. Perceptual and Motor Skills 71:1331–38. [WTP]
Bowditch, H. P. & Southard, W. F. (1880) A comparison of sight and touch. Journal of Physiology 3:232–45. [DHH]
Bracewell, R. M., Barash, S. & Andersen, R. A. (1990) A neural analogue in the lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP) of the end-point up-shift of memoryguided saccades made in the dark. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 16:622. [RMB]
Braitenberg, V. (1988) Some types of movements. In: Artificial life: SFI studies in the sciences of complexity, ed. Langton, C.. Addison-Wesley. [GM]
Bridgeman, B. (1989) Separate visual representations for perception and for visually guided behavior. Spatial Display & Spatial Instruments. NASA. [JB]
Bridgeman, B., Lewis, S., Heit, G. & Nagle, M. (1979) Relation between cognitive and motor-oriented systems of visual position perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance 5:692700. [JB]
Brown, J. S., Knauft, E. B. & Rosenbaum, G. (1948) The accuracy of positioning reactions as a function of their direction and extent. American Journal of Psychology 61:167–82. [DHH, LLEM]
Brüwer, M. & Cruse, H. (1990) A network model for the control of the movement of a redundant manipulator. Biological Cybernetics 62:549–55. [HC]
Bruynincks, H. (1991) Some invariance problems in robotics. Report 91R4, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. [VH]
Buchanan, T. S., Rovai, G. P. & Rymer, W. Z. (1989) Strategies for muscle activation during isometric torque generation at the human elbow. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:1201–12. [aMF]
Buchanan, T. S., Almdale, D. P. J., Lewis, J. L. & Rymer, W. Z. (1986) Characteristics of synergic relations during isometric contractions of human elbow muscles. Journal of Neurophysiology 56:1225–41. [aMF]
Buck, L. (1976) The boundary distance effects on overshooting. Journal of Motor Behavior 8:3541. [JG]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1988) Neural dynamics of planned arm movements: Emergent invariants and speed-accuracy properties during trajectory formation. Psychological Review 95:4990. [aMF]
Burnod, Y., Caminiti, R., Johnson, P. B., Granguillaume, P. & Otto, I. (1990) Model of visuomotor transformations performed by the cerebral cortex to command arm movements at visual targets in the 3-D space. In: Advanced neural computers, ed. Eckmiller, R.. North-Holland. [YB]
Büttner, U. & Büttner-Ennever, J. A. (1988) Present concepts of oculomotor organization. In: Neuroanatomy of the oculomotor system. Reviews of oculomotor research, vol. 2, ed. Büttner-Ennever, J. A.. Elsevier. [aMF]
Caminiti, R., Johnson, P. B., Galli, C., Ferraina, S. & Burnod, Y. (1991) Making arm movements within different parts of space: The premotor and motor cortical representation of a coordinate system for reaching to visual targets. Journal of Neuroscience 11:1182–97. [RMB, YB]
Caminiti, R., Johnson, P. B. & Urbano, A. (1990) Making arm movements within different parts of space: Dynamic aspects in the primate motor cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 10:2039–58. [RMB, YB]
Carpenter, R. H. S. (1988) Movements of the eyes, 2nd ed.Pion. [RMB]
Carr, J. N., Louca, D. & Grobstein, P. (1991) Directed movement in the frog: Explorations using back propagation networks. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:1578. [PG]
Cobas, A. & Arbib, M. A. (1991) Prey-catching and predator avoidance 2: Modeling the medullary hemifield deficit. In: Visual structures and integrated functions. Research notes in neural computing, ed. Arbib, M. A. & Ewert, J.-P.. Springer-Verlag. [MAA]
Colebatch, J. G. & Gandevia, S. C. (1989) The distribution of muscular weakness in upper motor neuron lesions affecting the arm. Brain 112:749–63. [SCG]
Collewijn, H. & Erkelens, C. J. (1990) Binocular eye movements and the perception of depth. In: Eye movements and their role in visual and cognitive processes, ed. Kowler, E.. Elsevier. [YB]
Cooke, J. D., Brown, S., Forget, R. & Lamarre, Y. (1985) Initial agonist burst duration changes with movement amplitude in a deafferented patient. Experimental Brain Research 60:184–87. [JB]
Cordo, P. J. & Flanders, M. (1989) Sensory control of target acquisition. Trends in Neurosciences 12:110–16. [aMF]
Cruse, H. (1986) Constraints for joint angle control of the human arm. Biological Cybernetics 54:125–32. [HC]
Cruse, H. & Brüwer, M. (1987) The human arm as a redundant manipulator: The control of path and joint angles. Biological Cybernetics 57:137–44. [rMF, HC, ZH]
Crutcher, M. D. & Alexander, G. E. (1990) Movement-related neuronal activity selectively coding either direction or muscle pattern in three motor areas of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:151–63. [aMF]
de Graaf, J. B., Sittig, A. C. & Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1991) Misdirections in slow goal-directed arm movements and pointer-setting tasks. Experimental Brain Research 84:434–38. [CJW]
Delabarre, E. B. (1891) Über Bewegungsempfindungen [On sensitivity to movement]. Doctoral dissertation, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Buchdruckerei Hch. Epstein. [CJW]
Draper, N. & Smith, H. (1981) Applied regression analysis, 2nd ed.John Wiley. [FLB]
Dum, R. P. & Strick, P. L. (1991) The origin of corticospinal projections from the premotor areas in the frontal lobe. Journal of Neuroscience 11:667–89. [YB]
Ezure, K. & Graf, W. (1984) A quantitative analysis of the spatial organization of the vestibulo-ocular reflexes in lateral- and frontal-eyed animals. I. Orientation of semicircular canals and extraocular muscles. Neuroscience 12:8594. [aMF]
Favilla, M., Gordon, J., Ghilardi, M. F. & Ghez, C. (1990a) Discrete and continuous processes in the programming of extent and direction in multijoint arm movements. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 16:1089. [aMF, RMB, JG]
Favilla, M., Gordon, J., Hening, W. & Ghez, C. (1990b) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses VII. Independent setting of amplitude and direction in response preparation. Experimental Brain Research 79:530–38. [aMF, RMB, JG]
Favilla, M., Hening, W. & Ghez, C. (1989) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses. VI. Independent specification of response amplitude and direction. Experimental Brain Research 75:280–94. [JG]
Feldman, A. G. (1986) Once more on the equilibrium-point hypothesis (λ model) for motor control. Journal of Motor Behavior 18:1754. [MK]
Ferrel, W. R. & Smith, A. (1989) The effect of loading on position sense at the proximal interphalangeal joint of the human index finger. Journal of Physiology (London) 418:145–61. [ZH]
Fitts, P. M. & Seeger, C. M. (1953) S-R compatibility: Spatial characteristic of stimulus and response codes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46:199210. [LLEM]
Flanders, M. & Soechting, J. F. (1990) Parcellation of sensorimotor transformations for arm movements. Journal of Neuroscience 10:2420–27. [arMF]
Foley, J. M. & Held, R. (1972) Visually directed pointing as a function of target distance, direction and available cues. Perception and Psychophysics 12(3):263–68. [DJB, MK]
Fookson, O., Berkinblit, M., Adamovich, S. & Poizner, H. (1991) Overshoot in three-dimensional pointing movements. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:1387. [MB]
Forget, R. & Lamarre, Y. (1987) Rapid elbow flexion in the absence of proprioceptive and cutaneous feedback. Human Neurobiology 6:2737. [JB]
Funahashi, S., Bruce, C. J. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1989) Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 61:331–49. [aMF, RMB]
Gandevia, S. C. (1985) Illusory movements produced by electrical stimulation of low-threshold muscle afferents from the hand. Brain 108:965–81. [SCG]
Gandevia, S. C. & Mahutte, C. K. (1982) Theoretical requirements for the interpretation of signals of intramuscular tension. Journal of Theoretical Biology 97:141–53. [SCG]
Georgopoulos, A. P. (1986) On reaching. Annual Review of Neuroscience 9:147–70. [rMF, JG, LLEM]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Caminiti, R., Kalaska, J. F. & Massey, J. T. (1983) Spatial coding of movement: A hypothesis concerning the coding of movement direction by motor cortical populations. Experimental Brain Research (Supplement) 7:327–36. [aMF, YB]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Kalaska, J. F., Caminiti, R. & Massey, J. T. (1982) On the relations between the direction of two-dimensional arm movements and cell discharge in primate motor cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 2:1527–37. [YB]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Kalaska, J. F. & Massey, J. T. (1981) Spatial trajectories and reaction times of aimed movements: Effects of practice, uncertainty, and change in target location. Journal of Neurophysiology 46:725–43. [JG, LLEM]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Kettner, R. E. & Schwartz, A. B. (1988) Primate motor cortex and free arm movements to visual targets in three-dimensional space. II. Coding the direction by a neuronal population. Journal of Neuroscience 8:2928–37. [aMF, JRB]
Georgopoulos, A. P. & Massey, J. T. (1988) Cognitive spatial-motor processes. 2. Information transmitted by the direction of two-dimensional arm movements and by neuronal populations in primate motor cortex and area 5. Experimental Brain Research 69:315–26. [aMF]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Schwartz, A. B. & Kettner, R. E. (1986) Neuronal population coding of movement direction. Science 233:1416–19. [YB]
Ghez, C., Gordon, J., Ghilardi, M. F., Christakos, C. N. & Cooper, S. E. (1991) Roles of proprioceptive input in the programming of arm trajectories. In: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia in Quantitative Biology 55:837–47. [rMF, JG, ZH]
Ghez, C., Hening, W. & Favilla, M. (1989) Gradual specification of response amplitude in human tracking performance. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 33:6974. [DJB]
Ghilardi, M. F., Gordon, J. & Ghez, C. (1991) Systematic directional errors in planar arm movements are reduced by the vision of the arm. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:1388. [JG]
Giszter, S. F., McIntyre, J. & Bizzi, E. (1989) Kinematic strategies and sensorimotor transformations in the wiping movements of frogs. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:750–67. [rMF]
Gnadt, J. W. & Andersen, R. A. (1988) Memory-related motor planning activity in posterior parietal cortex of macaque. Experimental Brain Research 70:216–20. [RMB]
Gnadt, J. W., Bracewell, R. M. & Andersen, R. A. (1991) Sensorimotor transformation during eye movements to remembered visual targets. Vision Research 31:693715. [rMF, RMB, MAG]
Gnadt, J. W. & Mays, L. E. (1989) Posterior parietal cortex, the oculomotor near response and spatial coding in 3-D space. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15:786. [RMB]
Goodale, M. A. & Milner, A. D. (1992) Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neuroscience (in press). [MAG]
Goodale, M. A., Milner, A. D., Jakobson, L. S. & Carey, D. P. (1991) A neurological dissociation between perceiving objects and grasping them. Nature 349:154–56. [MAG]
Goodwin, G. M., McCloskey, D. I. & Matthews, P. B. C. (1972) The contribution of muscle afferents to kinaesthesia shown by vibration induced illusions of movements and by the effects of paralysing joint afferents. Brain 95:705–48. [SCG]
Gordon, J. & Ghez, C. (1987) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses. III. Compensatory adjustments for initial errors. Experimental Brain Research 67:253–69. [JG]
Gordon, J. & Ghez, C. (1989) Independence of direction and amplitude errors in planar arm movements. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15:50. [JG]
Gordon, J., Ghilardi, M. F. & Ghez, C. (1990) Deafferented subjects fail to compensate for workspace anisotropies in 2-dimensional arm movements. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 16:1089. [JG]
Gordon, J., Iyer, M. & Ghez, C. (1987) Impairment of motor programming and trajectory control in the deafferented patient. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 13:352. [JG]
Gottlieb, G. L., Corcos, D. M. & Agarwal, G. C. (1989) Strategies for the control of voluntary movements with one mechanical degree of freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:189250. [DHH]
Gowers, W. R. (1887) Lectures on the diagnosis of diseases of the brain, 2nd ed.J. & A. Churchill. [SCG]
Greene, P. H. (1972) Problems of organization of motor systems. In: Progress in theoretical biology, ed. Rosen, R. & Snell, F. M.. Academic Press. [JG]
Grobstein, P. (1987) The nervous system/behavior interface: Levels of organization and levels of approach. Behavioral & Brain Sciences 10:380–81. [PG]
Grobstein, P. (1988a) Between the retinotectal projection and directed movement: Topography of a sensorimotor interface. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 31:3448. [aMF, PG]
Grobstein, P. (1988b) From the head to the heart: Some thoughts on similarities between brain function and morphogenesis, and on their significance for research methodology and biological theory. Experientia 44:961–71. [PG]
Grobstein, P. (1989) Organization in the sensorimotor interface: A case study with increased resolution. In: Visuomotor coordination: Amphibians, comparisons, models, and robots, ed. Ewert, J.-P. & Arbib, M. A.. Plenum. [PG]
Grobstein, P. (1990a) Strategies for analyzing complex organization in the nervous system. I. Lesion experiments, the old rediscovered. In: Computational neuroscience, ed. Schwartz, E.. MIT Press. [PG]
Grobstein, P. (1990b) Strategies for analyzing complex organization in the nervous system. II. A case study: Directed movement and spatial representation in the frog. In: Computational neuroscience, ed. Schwartz, E.. MIT Press. [PG]
Grobstein, P. (1991a) Directed movement in the frog: A closer look at a central representation of spatial location. In: Visual structures and integrated functions, research notes in neural computing, ed. Arbib, M. A. & Ewert, J.-P.. Springer-Verlag. (in press). [PG]
Grobstein, P. (1991b) Directed movement in the frog: Motor choice, spatial representation, free will? In: Neurobiology of motor programme selection: New approaches to mechanisms of behavioral choice, ed. Kien, J., McCrohan, C. & Winlow, B.. Manchester University Press. [PG]
Grobstein, P., Comer, C. & Kostyk, S. K. (1983) Frog prey capture behavior: Between sensory maps and directed motor output. In: Advances in vertebrate neuroethology, ed. Ewert, J.-P., Capranica, R. R. & Ingle, D. J.. Plenum Press. [MAA]
Grobstein, P., Crowley, K. & Spiro, J. (1988) Neuronal organization for directed movement in the frog: Similarities in visual and tactile prey orienting. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 14:1236. [PG]
Grobstein, P., Meyer, J. & Egnor, R. (1990) Directed movement in the frog: Motor equivalence, multi-dimensionality, internal feedback? Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 16:117. [PG]
Grobstein, P. & Staradub, V. (1989) Frog orienting behavior: The descending distance signal. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15:54. [PG]
Grossberg, S. & Kuperstein, M. (1989) Neural dynamics of adaptive sensorymotor control. Pergamon Press. [GEA, JB]
Guitton, D., Buchtel, H. A. & Douglas, R. M. (1985) Frontal lobe lesions in man cause difficulties in suppressing reflexive glances and in generating goal-directed saccades. Experimental Brain Research 58:455–72. [MAG]
Gurfinkel, V. S., Lipshits, M. I. & Lestienne, F. G. (1988) Anticipatory neck muscle activity associated with rapid arm movements. Neuroscience Letters 94:104–08. [ZH]
Harris, C. S. (1965) Perceptual adaptation to inverted, reversed and displaced vision. Psychological Reviews 72:419–44. [rMF]
Hasan, Z. (1991) Moving a human or robot arm with many degrees of freedom: Issues and ideas. In: 1990 Lectures in complex systems, vol. 3, ed. Nadel, L. & Stein, D.. Addison-Wesley. [JG, ZH]
Hasan, Z. & Karst, G. M. (1989) Muscle activity for initiation of planar, twojoint arm movements in different directions. Experimental Brain Research 76:673–89. [aMF]
Hasan, Z. & Stuart, D. G. (1984) Mammalian muscle receptors. In: Handbook of the spinal cord, vols. 2 & 3: Anatomy and physiology, ed. Davidoff, R. A.. Marcel Dekker. [JG]
Helms Tillery, S. I., Flanders, M. & Soechting, J. F. (1991) A coordinate system for the synthesis of visual and kinesthetic information. Journal of Neuroscience 11:770–78. [arMF, JG]
Hening, W., Favilla, M. & Ghez, C. (1988a) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses. V. Gradual specification of response amplitude. Experimental Brain Research 71:116–28. [JG]
Hening, W., Vicario, D. & Ghez, C. (1988b) Trajectory control in targeted force impulses. IV. Influences of choice, prior experience and urgency. Experimental Brain Research 71:103–15. [JG]
Hepp, K. & Hepp-Reymond, M.-C. (1989) Donder's and Listing's law for reaching and grasping arm synergies. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 15:604. [ZH]
Hikosaka, O. & Wurtz, R. H. (1983) Visual and oculomotor functions of monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata. III. Memory-contingent visual and saccade responses. Journal of Neurophysiology 49:1268–84. [RMB]
Hikosaka, O. & Wurtz, R. H. (1985) Modification of saccadic eye movements by GABA-related substances. II. Effects of muscimol in monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata. Journal of Neurophysiology 53:292308. [MAG]
Hildreth, E. C. & Koch, C. (1987) The analysis of visual motion: From computational theory to neural mechanism. Annual Review of Neuroscience 10:477533. [aMF]
Hinton, G. E., McClelland, J. L. & Rumelhart, D. E. (1986) Distributed representations. In: Parallel distributed processing, vol. 1, ed. Rumelhart, D. E. & McClelland, J. L.. MIT Press. [aMF]
Hogan, N. (1988) Planning and execution of multijoint movements. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 66:508–17. [JG]
Hogan, N. & Flash, T. (1987) Moving gracefully: Quantitative theories of motor coordination. Trends in Neurosciences 10:170–74. [aMF]
Hogan, N., Bizzi, E., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Flash, T. (1987) Controlling multijoint motor behavior. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 15:153–90. [aMF]
Holding, D. H. (1968) Accuracy of delayed aiming responses. Psychonomic Science 12:125–26. [DHH]
Hollerbach, J. M. & Flash, T. (1982) Dynamic interactions between limb segments during planar arm movement. Biological Cybernetics 44:6777. [aMF]
Hollingworth, H. L. (1909) The inaccuracy of movement. Archives of Psychology 13:187. [CJW]
Holmes, G. (1918) Disturbances of visual orientation. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2:449–68. [RMB]
Hore, J., Goodale, M. & Vilis, T. (1990) The axis of rotation of the arm during pointing. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 16:1087. [ZH]
Hoy, M. G. & Zernicke, R. F. (1986) The role of intersegmental dynamics during rapid limb oscillations. Journal of Biomechanics 19:867–77. [aMF]
Iberall, T., Bingham, G. & Arbib, M. A. (1986) Opposition space as a structuring concept for the analysis of skilled hand movements. Experimental Brain Research Series 15:158–73. [MAA]
Jakobson, L. S., Goodale, M. A. & Keillor, J. M. (1991) A dissociation between grasping real and remembered objects in visual form agnosia. Third IBRO World Congress of Neuroscience Abstracts 177. [MAG]
Jeannerod, M. (1988) The neural and behavioural organization of goaldirected movements. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [CJW]
Johnson, R. A. & Wichern, D. W. (1982) Applied multivariate statistical analysis. Prentice-Hall. [aMF]
Jones, R. D., Donaldson, I. M. & Parkin, P. J. (1989) Impairment and recovery of ipsilateral sensory-motor function following unilateral cerebral infarction. Brain 112:113–32. [SCG]
Jordan, M. & Rosenbaum, D. (1989) Action. In: Foundations of cognitive neuroscience, ed. Poster, M. I.. MIT Press. [MK]
Joyce, G. C., Rack, P. M. H. & Ross, H. F. (1974) The forces generated at the human elbow joint in response to imposed sinusoidal movements of the forearm. Journal of Physiology 240:351–74. [LLEM]
Kalaska, J. F., Cohen, D. A., Hyde, M. L. & Prud'homme, M. (1989) A comparison of movement direction-related versus load direction-related activity in primate motor cortex using a two-dimensional reaching task. Journal of Neuroscience 9:20802102. [aMF]
Kalaska, J. F., Cohen, D. A., Prud'homme, M. & Hyde, M. L. (1990) Parietal area 5 neuronal activity encodes movement kinematics, not movement dynamics. Experimental Brain Research 80:351–64. [aMF]
Kalish, M. (1991) Human performance in visually directed reaching: Results on systematic, idiosyncratic error. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: 770–74. [MK, DZ]
Karst, G. M. & Hasan, Z. (1991a) Initiation rules for planar, two-joint arm movements: Agonist selection for movements throughout the work space. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:1579–93. [ZH]
Karst, G. M. & Hasan, Z. (1991b) Timing and magnitude of electromyographic activity for two-joint arm movements in different directions. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:15941604. [ZH]
Kawato, M., Maeda, Y., Uno, Y. & Suzuki, R. (1990) Trajectory formation of arm movement by cascade neural network model based on minimum torque-change criterion. Biological Cybernetics 62:275–88. [aMF, MK]
Kelly, T. M. & Chapple, W. D. (1990) Kinematic analysis of the defense response in crayfish. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:6476. [rMF]
Kelso, J. A. S. & Holt, K. G. (1980) Exploring a vibratory systems analysis of human movement production. Journal of Neurophysiology 43:1183–96. [MK]
Keshner, E. A., Campbell, D., Katz, R. T. & Peterson, B. W. (1989) Neck muscle activation patterns in humans during isometric head stabilization. Experimental Brain Research 75:335–44. [aMF]
Knudsen, E. I., duLac, S. & Esterly, S. (1987) Computational maps in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 10:4165. [aMF]
Konishi, M. (1986) Centrally synthesized maps of sensory space. Trends in Neurosciences 9:163–68. [aMF]
Kostyk, S. K. & Grobstein, P. (1987a) Neuronal organization underlying visually elicited prey orienting in the frog. I. Effects of various unilateral lesions. Neuroscience 21:4155. [aMF, MAA, PG]
Kostyk, S. K. & Grobstein, P. (1987b) Neuronal organization underlying visually elicited prey orienting in the frog. II. Anatomical studies on the laterality of central projections. Neuroscience 21:5782. [PG]
Kostyk, S. K. & Grobstein, P. (1987c) Neuronal organization underlying visually elicited prey orienting in the frog. III. Evidence for the existence of an uncrossed descending tectofugal projection. Neuroscience 21:8396. [PG]
Kuperstein, M. (1988a) Neural model of adaptive hand-eye coordination for simple postures. Science 239:1308–10. [arMF, GEA, MK]
Kuperstein, M. (1988b) An adaptive model for mapping invariant target position. Behavioral Neuroscience 102:148–59. [aMF]
Lacquaniti, F. (1989) Central representations of human limb movement as revealed by studies of drawing and writing. Trends in Neurosciences 12:287–91. [aMF]
Lacquaniti, F., LeTaillanter, M., Lopiano, L. & Maioli, C. (1990) The control of limb geometry in cat posture. Journal of Physiology (London) 426:177–92. [FL]
Lacquaniti, F. & Maioli, C. (1991) Distributed control of limb position and force. In: Tutorials in motor behavior II, ed. Stelmach, G. E. & Requin, J.. Elsevier. [FL]
Lacquaniti, F., Soechting, J. F. & Terzuolo, C. A. (1986) Path constraints on point-to-point arm movements in three-dimensional space. Neuroscience 17:313–24. [rMF]
Lee, C., Rohrer, W. H. & Sparks, D. L. (1988) Population coding of saccadic eye movements by neurons in the superior colliculus. Nature 332:357–59. [aMF]
Lehky, S. R. & Sejnowski, T. J. (1990) Neural network model of visual cortex for determining surface curvature from images of shaded surfaces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 240:251–78. [GEA]
Linsker, R. (1990) Perceptual neural organization: Some approaches based on network models and information theory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:257–81. [aMF]
Livingston, M. & Hubel, D. (1988) Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: Anatomy, physiology, and perception. Science 240:740–49. [aMF]
Llinás, R. & Sasaki, K. (1989) The functional organization of the olivocerebellar system as examined by multiple Purkinje cell recordings. European Journal of Neuroscience 1:587602. [GM]
Logothetis, N. K., Schiller, P. H., Charles, E. R. & Hurlbert, A. C. (1989) Perceptual deficits and the activity of the color-opponent and broad-band pathways at isoluminance. Science 247:214–17. [aMF]
MacKenzie, C. L., Sivak, B. & Elliot, D. (1988) Manual localization of lateralized visual targets. Journal of Motor Behavior 20:433–57. [MB]
Macpherson, J. M. (1988) Strategies that simplify the control of quadrupedal stance. I. Forces at the ground. Journal of Neurophysiology 60:204–17. [aMF]
Marr, D. (1982) Vision. Freeman. [aMF]
Masino, T. & Grobstein, P. (1989a) The organization of descending tectofugal pathways underlying orienting in the frog, Rana pipiens. I. Lateralization, parcellation, and an intermediate spatial representation. Experimental Brain Research 75:227–44. [aMF, PG]
Masino, T. & Grobstein, P. (1989b) The organization of descending tectofugal pathways underlying orienting in the frog, Rana pipiens. II. Evidence for the involvement of a tecto-tegmento-spinal pathway. Experimental Brain Research 75:245–64. [PG]
Masino, T. & Knudsen, E. I. (1990) Horizontal and vertical components of head movement are controlled by distinct neural circuits in the barn owl. Nature 345:434–37. [aMF, PG]
Massone, L. & Bizzi, E. (1989) A neural network model for limb trajectory formation. Biological Cybernetics 61:417–25. [aMF]
Mays, L. E. & Sparks, D. L. (1980) Saccades are spatially, not retinocentrically coded. Science 208:1163–65. [aMF]
McCloskey, D. I. (1978) Kinesthetic sensibility. Physiological Reviews 58:763820. [aMF]
McIlwain, J. T. (1990) Topography of eye-position sensitivity of saccades evoked electrically from the cat's superior colliculus. Visual Neuroscience 4:289–98. [aMF]
Mel, B. W. (1990) Vision-based robot motion planning. In: Neural networks for control, ed. Miller, W. T., Sutton, R. S. & Werbos, P. J.. MIT Press. [GEA]
Milner, A. D. & Goodale, M. A. (1992) Visual pathways to perception and action. In: Progress in brain research: The visually responsive neuron: From basic neurophysiology to behavior, ed. Hicks, T. P., Molotchnikoff, S. & Ono, T.. Elsevier (in press). [MAG]
Mittelstaedt, H. (1983) A new solution to the problem of the subjective vertical. Naturwissenschaften 70:272–81. [GM]
Morasso, P. (1981) Spatial control of arm movements. Experimental Brain Research 42:223–27. [JG, LLEM]
Neilson, P. D., Neilson, M. D. & O'Dwyer, N. J. (1991) Adaptive model theory: Application to disorders of motor control. In: Approaches to the study of motor control and learning, ed. Summers, J. J.. North-Holland. [PDN]
Olson, C. T. & Hanson, S. J. (1990) Spatial representation of the body. In: Connectionist modeling and brain function, ed. Hanson, S. J. & Olson, C. R.. MIT Press. [MK]
Ostry, D. J., Flanagan, J. R., Feldman, A. G. & Munhall, K. G. (in press) Jaw movement kinematics and control. In: Tutorials in motor behavior II, ed. G. E. Stelmach & J. Requin. North-Holland. [DJO]
Paillard, J. (1986) Cognitive versus sensorimotor encoding of spatial information. In: Cognitive processes and spatial orientation in animal and man, ed. Ellen, P. & C., Thinus-Blanc. Martinus Nijhoff. [JB]
Paillard, J. (1991) Knowing where and knowing how to get there. In: Brain and space, ed. Paillard, J.. Oxford University Press. [JB]
Paillard, J., Jordan, P. & Brouchon, M. (1981) Visual motion cues in prismatic adaptation: Evidence of two separate and additive processes. Acta Psychologica 48:253–70. [JB]
Pedoe, D. (1970) A course of geometry for colleges and universities. Cambridge University Press. [FLB]
Pellionisz, A. J. (1984) Coordination: A vector-matrix description of transformations of overcomplete CNS coordinates and a tensorial solution using the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse. Journal of Theoretical Biology 110:353–75. [MAA]
Pellionisz, A. J. (1988) Tensorial aspects of the multidimensional massively parallel sensorimotor function of neuronal networks. Progress in Brain Research 76:341–54. [GEA]
Pellionisz, A. J. & Graf, W. (1987) Tensor network model of the “threeneuron vestibulo-ocular reflex-are” in cat. Journal of Theoretical Neurobiology 5:127–51. [aMF]
Pellionisz, A. & Llinás, R. (1979) Brain modeling by tensor network theory and computer simulation. The cerebellum: Distributed processor for predictive coordination. Neuroscience 4:323–48. [aMF]
Pellionisz, A. & Llinás, R. (1980) Tensorial approach to the geometry of brain function: Cerebellar coordination via a metric tensor. Neuroscience 5:1125–36. [aMF]
Pellionisz, A. & Llinás, R. (1982) Space-time representation in the brain. The cerebellum as a predictive space-time metric tensor. Neuroscience 7:2949–70. [aMF]
Penrose, R. (1955) On best approximation solutions of linear matrix equations. Cambridge Philosophical Society 51:406. [MAA]
Perkell, J. & Nelson, W. (1985). Variability in the production of the vowels /i/ and /a/. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 77:1889–95. [DJO]
Phillips, J. (1986; 1990) Freedom in machinery, vol. I: Introducing screw theory, vol 2: Screw theory exemplified. Cambridge University Press. [VH]
Poggio, G. F., Gonzalez, F. & Krause, F. (1988) Stereoscopic mechanisms in the monkey visual cortex: Binocular correlation and disparity selectivity. Journal of Neuroscience 8:4531–50. [aMF, RMB]
Poizner, H. & Soechting, J. F. (1992) New strategies for studying higher level motor disorders. In: Cognitive neuropsychology in clinical practice, ed. Margolin, D.. Oxford University Press (in press). [rMF]
Polit, A. & Bizzi, E. (1979) Characteristics of motor programs underlying arm movements in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 42:183–94. [rMF]
Poulton, E. C. (1975) Range effects in experiments on people. American Journal of Psychology 88:332. [CJW]
Poulton, E. C. (1981) Human manual control. In: Handbook of physiology, sec. 1. The nervous system: vol. 2. Motor control, part 2, ed. Brooks, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [JG]
Prablanc, C., Pélisson, D. & Goodale, M. A. (1986) Visual control of reaching movements without vision of the limb. I. Role of retinal feedback of target position in guiding the hand. Experimental Brain Research 62:293302. [JG]
Rumelhart, D. E., McClelland, J. L. & PDP Research Group (1986) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, vols. 1 & 2. MIT Press. [GEA]
Rymer, W. Z. & D'Almeida, A. (1980) Joint position sense: The effects of muscle contraction. Brain 103:122. [ZH]
Sakata, H., Shibutani, H. & Kawano, K. (1980) Spatial properties of visual fixation neurons in posterior parietal association cortex of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 43:1654–72. [RMB]
Sanes, J. N. & Evarts, E. V. (1983) Effects of perturbation on accuracy of arm movements. Journal of Neuroscience 3:977–86. [LLEM]
Sanes, J. N. & Evarts, E. V. (1984) Motor psychophysics. Human Neurobiology 2:217–25. [LLEM]
Schwartz, A. B., Kettner, R. E. & Georgopoulos, A. P. (1988) Primate motor cortex and free arm movements to visual targets in three-dimensional space. I. Relations between single cell discharge and direction of movement. Journal of Neuroscience 8:2913–27. [YB]
Sejnowski, T. J. (1987) Computational models and the development of topographic projections. Trends in Neuroscience 10:304–05. [aMF]
Sejnowski, T. J., Koch, K. & Churchland, P. S. (1988) Computational neuroscience. Science 241:12991306. [aMF]
Shallice, T. (1988) From neuropsychology to mental structure. Cambridge University Press. [PG]
Siciliano, B. (1990) A closed-loop inverse kinematic scheme for on-line jointbased robot control. Robotica 8:231–43. [JPT]
Siddall, G. J., Holding, D. H. & Draper, J. (1957) Errors of aim and extent in manual point to point movement. Occupational Psychology 31:185–95. [DHH]
Simpson, J. I. & Graf, W. (1985) The selection of reference frame and its investigators. In: Adaptive mechanisms in gaze control, ed. Berthoz, A. & Jones, G. Melvill. Elsevier Science Publishers. [aMF]
Simpson, J. I., Leonard, C. S. & Soodak, R. E. (1988) The accessory optic system of rabbit. II. Spatial organization of direction selectivity. Journal of Neurophysiology 60:2055–72. [aMF]
Slack, C. W. (1953) Some characteristics of the “range effect.” Journal of Experimental Psychology 46:7680. [DHH]
Smit, A. C., Van Gisbergen, J. A. & Cools, A. R. (1987) A parametric analysis of human saccades in different experimental paradigms. Vision Research 27:1745–62. [MAG]
Smyrnis, N., Ashe, J., Taira, M., Lurito, J. T. & Georgopoulos, A. P. (1991) Motor cortical cell activity in a memorized delay task. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:308. [rMF]
Soechting, J. F. (1982) Does position sense at the elbow reflect a sense of elbow joint angle or one of limb orientation? Brain Research 248:392–95. [SCG]
Soechting, J. F. & Flanders, M. (1989a) Sensorimotor representations for pointing to targets in three-dimensional space. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:582–94. [arMF, GEA, MB, HC, JG, MAG, ZH, JPT, JW, CJW]
Soechting, J. F. & Flanders, M. (1989b) Errors in pointing are due to approximations in sensorimotor transformations. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:595608. [arMF, MB, JG, HP, JPT]
Soechting, J. F. & Flanders, M. (1990) Deducing central algorithms of arm movement control. In: Motor control: Concepts and issues, ed. Humphrey, D. R. & Freund, H.-J.. John Wiley. [aMF]
Soechting, J. F. & Lacquaniti, F. (1981) Invariant characteristics of a pointing movement in man. Journal of Neuroscience 1:710–20. [rMF]
Soechting, J. F. & Ross, B. (1984) Psychophysical determination of coordinate representation of human arm orientation. Neuroscience 13:595604. [aMF, SCG]
Soechting, J. F. & Terzuolo, C. A. (1986) An algorithm for the generation of curvilinear wrist motion in an arbitrary plane in three-dimensional space. Neuroscience 19:13951405. [aMF]
Soechting, J. F., Helms Tillery, S. I. & Flanders, M. (1990) Transformation from head- to shoulder-centered representation of target direction in arm movements. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2:3243. [arMF, MB, HP, JW, CJW]
Sparks, D. L. (1986) Translation of sensory signals into commands for the control of saccadic eye movements: Role of the primate superior colliculus. Physiological Reviews 66:118–71. [aMF]
Sparks, D. L. & Mays, L. E. (1990) Signal transformations required for the generation of saccadic eye movements. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:309–36. [arMF]
Straumarm, D., Haslwanter, T., Hepp-Reymond, M.-C. & Hepp, K. (1991) Listing's law for eye, head and arm movements and their synergistic control. Experimental Brain Research 86:209–15. [rMF]
Suga, N. (1982) Functional organization of the auditory cortex. Representation beyond tonotopy in the bat. In: Cortical sensory organization, vol. 3, ed. Woolsey, C. N.. Humana Press. [aMF]
Taylor, J. L. & McCloskey, D. I. (1988) Pointing. Behavioural Brain Research 29:15. [SCG]
Thelen, E. & Fisher, D. M. (1983) The organization of spontaneous leg movements in newborn infants. Journal of Motor Behavior 29:353–77. [rMF]
Trevelyan, J. P. (1989) Sensing and control for sheep shearing robots. IEEE Transcript on Robotics and Automation 5:716–27. [JPT]
Trevelyan, J. P. (1992) Robots for shearing sheep. Oxford University Press. [JPT]
Trevelyan, J. P., Key, S. J. & Owens, R. A. (1982) Techniques for surface representation arid adaptation in automated sheep shearing. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Paris. [JPT]
van Gisbergen, J. A. M., van Opstal, A. J. & Tax, A. A. M. (1987) Collicular ensemble coding of saccades based on vector summation. Neuroscience 21:541–55. [aMF]
van Opstal, A. J. & van Gisbergen, J. A. M. (1989) A nonlinear model for collicular spatial interactions underlying the metrical properties of electrically elicited saccades. Biological Cybernetics 60:171–83. [aMF]
Vicario, D. S. & Ghez, C. (1984) The control of rapid limb movement in the cat. IV. Updating of ongoing isometric responses. Experimental Brain Research 55:134–44. [JG]
Vierordt, K. (1868) Der Zeitsinn [The sense of time]. Verlag der H. Laupp'schen Buchhandlung. [CJW]
von Hofsten, C. (1979) Development of visually directed reaching: The approach phase. Journal of Human Movement Studies 5:160–78. [rMF]
von Hofsten, C. & Rösblad, B. (1988) The integration of sensory information in the development of precise manual pointing. Neuropsychologia 26:805–21. [JG, MK]
Waitzman, D. M., Ma, T. P., Optican, L. M. & Wurtz, R. H. (1988) Superior colliculus neurons provide the saccadic motor error signal. Experimental Brain Research 72:649–52. [aMF]
Whitney, D. E. (1972) The mathematics of coordinated control of prosthetic arms and manipulators. ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement & Control 94:303–09. [MAA]
Wise, S. P. (1985) The primate premotor cortex: Past, present and preparatory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 8:119. [RMB]
Woodworth, R. S. (1899) The accuracy of voluntary movement. Psychological Review (Series of Monograph Supplements) 3(3): 1114. [DJB, MB]
Worringham, C. J. (1991) Some historical roots of phenomena and methods in motor behavior research. In: Tutorials in motor behavior II, ed. Stelmach, G. E. & Requin, J.. North-Holland. [CJW]
Worringham, C. J. & Beringer, D. B. (1989) Operator orientation and compatibility in visual-motor task performance. Ergonomics 32:387–99. [ZH]
Worringham, C. J. & Stelmach, G. E. (1985) The contribution of gravitational torques to limb position sense. Experimental Brain Research 61:3842. [GM]
Worringham, C. J., Stelmach, G. E. & Martin, Z. E. (1987) Limb segment inclination sense in proprioception. Experimental Brain Research 66:653–58. [SCG]
Yardley, L. (1990) Contribution of somatosensory information to perception of the visual vertical with body tilt and rotating visual field. Perception & Psychophysics 48:131–34. [JB]
Zajac, F. E. & Gordon, M. E. (1989) Determining muscle's force and action in multi-articular movement. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 17:187230. [aMF]
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed