Albertini, M., Kohli, M. & Vogel, C. (2007) Intergenerational transfers of time and money in European families: Common patterns – different regimes?
Journal of European Social Policy
Aldous, J. (1995) New views of grandparents in intergenerational context. Journal of Family Issues
Alexander, R. D. (1974) The evolution of social behavior. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics
American Academy of Pediatrics (1997) Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics
Anderson, K. G. (2005) Relatedness and investment in children in South Africa. Human Nature
Anderson, K. G. (2006) How well does paternity confidence match actual paternity? Evidence from worldwide nonpaternity rates. Current Anthropology
Anderson, K. G., Kaplan, H. & Lancaster, J. B. (2007) Confidence of paternity, divorce, and investment in children by Albuquerque men. Evolution and Human Behavior
Andreoni, J. (1990) Impure altruism and donations to public goods: A theory of warm-glow giving. Economic Journal
Apfel, N. H. & Seitz, V. (1991) Four models of adolescent mother–grandmother relationships in Black inner-city families. Family Relations
Arias, E. (2006) United States life tables, 2003. National vital statistics reports (Vol. 54, No. 14). National Center for Health Statistics.
Arrondel, L. & Masson, A. (2006) Altruism, exchange or indirect reciprocity: What do the data on family transfers show? In: Handbook of the economics of giving, altruism and reciprocity, vol. 2: Applications, ed. Kolm, S. C. & Ythier, J. M., pp. 971–1053. Handbooks in Economics 23. North-Holland/ Elsevier.
Atsalis, S. & Margulis, S. W. (2008) Perimenopause and menopause: Documenting life changes in aging female gorillas. Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology
Attar-Schwartz, S., Tan, J.-P., Buchanan, A., Flouri, E. & Griggs, J. (2009) Grandparenting and adolescent adjustment in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families. Journal of Family Psychology
Attias-Donfut, C., Ogg, J. & Wolff, F. C. (2005) European patterns of intergenerational financial and time transfers. European Journal of Ageing
Attias-Donfut, C. & Segalen, M. (2002) The construction of grandparenthood. Current Sociology
Aubel, J., Touré, I. & Diagne, M. (2004) Senegalese grandmothers promote improved maternal and child nutrition practices: The guardians of tradition are not averse to change. Social Science and Medicine
Austad, S. N. (1994) Menopuase: An evolutionary perspective. Experimental Gerontology
Banks, J. W. (2003) Ka'nisténhsera Teiakotíhsnie's. A native community rekindles the tradition of breastfeeding. AWHONN Lifelines
Barrett, L., Dunbar, R. & Lycett, J. (2002) Human evolutionary psychology. Palgrave.
Barro, R. J. (1974) Are government bonds net wealth?
Journal of Political Economy
Barry, D. (1984) Babies and other hazards of sex, p. 54. Rodale
Bateman, A. J. (1948) Intra-sexual selection in Drosophila
Bauer, T. & Strub, S. (2002) Ohne Krippe Grosi stünde Vieles still [Without grandparental daycare, many things would come to a standstill]. Input for “Forum Familienfragen” der Eidgenössischen Koordinationskommission für Familenfragen, Solothurn, Switzerland. Büro für arbeits- und sozialpolitische Studie, Berne, & Swiss National Science Foundation.
Beck, C. T. (2001) Predictors of postpartum depression. An update. Nursing Research
Becker, G. S. (1974) A theory of social interactions. Journal of Political Economy
Becker, G. S. (1991) A treatise on the family. Harvard University Press.
Becker, G. S. & Tomes, N. (1976) Child endowments and the quantity and quality of children. Journal of Political Economy
Becker, G. S. & Tomes, N. (1979) An equilibrium theory of the distribution of income and intergenerational mobility. Journal of Political Economy
Bengtson, V. L. (2001) Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds. Journal of Marriage and Family
Bentley, M. E., Caulfield, L. E., Gross, S. M., Bronner, Y., Jensen, J., Kessler, L. A. & Paige, D. M. (1999) Sources of influence on intention to breastfeed among African-American women at entry to WIC. Journal of Human Lactation
Bentley, M. E., Dee, D. L. & Jensen, J. L. (2003) Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: Power, beliefs and decision making. Journal of Nutrition
Bernheim, B. D. & Severinov, S. (2000) Bequests as signals: An explanation for the equal division puzzle (NBER Working Paper No. 7791). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Billari, F.C. & Kohler, H.-P. (2004) Patterns of low and lowest-low fertility in Europe. Population Studies
Billari, F. C., Kohler, H.-P., Andersson, G. & Lundström, H. (2007) Approaching the limit: Long-term trends in late and very late fertility. Population and Development Review
Bishop, D. I., Meyer, B. C., Schmidt, T. M. & Gray, B. R. (2009) Differential investment behavior between grandparents and grandchildren: The role of paternity uncertainty. Evolutionary Psychology
Black, M. M. & Nitz, K. (1996) Grandmother co-residence, parenting, and child development among low income, urban teen mothers. Journal of Adolescent Health
Black, M. M., Papas, M. A., Hussey, J. M., Hunter, W., Dubowitz, H., Kotch, J. B., English, D. & Schneider, M. (2002) Behavior and development of preschool children born to adolescent mothers: Risk and 3-generation households. Pediatrics
Black, M. M., Siegel, E. H., Abel, Y. & Bentley, M. E. (2001) Home and videotape intervention delays early complementary feeding among adolescent mothers. Pediatrics
Blake, J. (1987) Differential parental investment: Its effects on child quality and status attainment. In: Parenting across the life span: Biosocial dimensions, ed. Lancaster, J. B., Altmann, J., Rossi, A. S. & Sherrod, L. R., pp. 351–75. Aldine de Gruyter.
Blurton Jones, N., Hawkes, K. & O'Connell, J. (2002) Antiquity of postreproductive life: Are there modern impacts on hunter-gatherer postreproductive life spans?
American Journal of Human Biology
Bogin, B. (1997) Evolutionary hypotheses for human childhood. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology
Bogin, B. & Smith, B. H. (1996) Evolution of the human life cycle. American Journal of Human Biology
Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1998) The demographic transition: Are we any closer to an evolutionary explanation?
Trends in Ecology and Evolution
Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (2007) Hamilton's rule and kin competition: The Kipsigis case. Evolution and Human Behavior
Börsch-Supan, A. & Miegel, M., eds. (2001) Pension reform in six countries: What can we learn from each other?
Botcheva, L. B. & Feldman, S. S. (2004) Grandparents as family stabilizers during economic hardship in Bulgaria. International Journal of Psychology
Bridges, L. J., Roe, A. E. C., Dunn, J. & O'Connor, T. G. (2007) Children's perspectives on their relationships with grandparents following parental separation: A longitudinal study. Social Development
Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2003) Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature
Brosnan, S. F., Schiff, H. C. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005) Tolerance for inequity may increase with social closeness in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Brown, S. L., Nesse, R. M., Vinokur, A. D. & Smith, D. M. (2003) Providing social support may be more beneficial than receiving it: Results from a prospective study of mortality. Psychological Science
Brown, W. M., Consedine, N. S. & Magai, C. (2005) Altruism relates to health in an ethnically diverse sample of older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Burkart, J. M., Fehr, E., Efferson, C. & van Schaik, C. P.. (2007) Other-regarding preferences in a non-human primate: Common marmosets provision food altruistically. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Burton, L. M. (1990) Teenage childbearing as an alternative life-course strategy in multigeneration black families. Human Nature
Burton, L. M. (1992) Black grandparents rearing children of drug-addicted parents: Stressors, outcomes, and social service needs. The Gerontologist
Caldwell, J. C., Caldwell, B. K., Caldwell, P., McDonald, P. F. & Schindlmayr, T. (2006) Demographic Transition Theory. Springer.
Cant, M. A. & Johnstone, R. A. (2008) Reproductive conflict and the separation of reproductive generations in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Cao, H. (2006) Time and financial transfers within and beyond the family. Journal of Family and Economic Issues
Caputo, R. K. (1999) Age-condensed and age-gapped families: Coresidency with elderly parents and relatives in a mature women's cohort, 1967–1995. Marriage and Family Review
Carey, J. R. & Judge, D. S. (2001) Life span extension in humans is self-reinforcing: A general theory of longevity. Population and Development Review
Caro, T. M., Sellen, D. W., Parish, A., Frank, R., Brown, D. M., Voland, E. & Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1995) Termination of reproduction in nonhuman and human female primates. International Journal of Primatology
Caspari, R. & Lee, S.-H. (2004) Older age becomes common late in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Zamsky, E. S. (1994) Young African-American multigenerational families in poverty: Quality of mothering and grandmothering. Child Development
Chrastil, E. R., Getz, W. M., Euler, H. A. & Starks, P. T. (2006) Paternity uncertainty overrides sex chromosome selection for preferential grandparenting. Evolution and Human Behavior
Cigno, A. (1993) Intergenerational transfers without altruism: Family, market and state. European Journal of Political Economy
Cigno, A. (2006) The political economy of intergenerational cooperation. In: Handbook of the economics of giving, altruism and reciprocity, vol. 2: Applications, ed. Kolm, S. C. & Ythier, J. M., pp. 1505–58. Handbooks in Economics 23. North-Holland/Elsevier.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989) Mammalian mating systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1991) The evolution of parental care. Princeton University Press.
Coall, D. A., Meier, M., Hertwig, R., Wänke, M. & Höpflinger, F. (2009) Grandparental investment: The influence of reproductive timing and family size. American Journal of Human Biology
Cohen, A. A. (2004) Female post-reproductive lifespan: A general mammalian trait. Biological Reviews
Cohen, J. (1965) Some statistical issues in psychological research. In: Handbook of clinical psychology, ed. Wolman, B. B., pp. 95–121. McGraw-Hill.
Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edition. Erlbaum.
Cohen, S. & Wills, T. A. (1985) Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin
Cooney, T. M. & An, J. S. (2006) Women in the middle: Generational position and grandmothers' adjustment to raising grandchildren. Journal of Women and Aging
Council of Europe (2005) Recent demographic developments in Europe, 2004. Council of Europe Publishing.
Cox, C. B. (2000) Empowering grandparents raising grandchildren: A training manual for group leaders. Springer.
Cremer, H. & Pestieau, P. (2006) Wealth transfer taxation: A survey of the theoretical literature. In: Handbook of the economics of giving, altruism and reciprocity, vol. 2: Applications, ed. Kolm, S. C. & Ythier, J. M., pp. 1107–34. Handbooks in Economics 23. North-Holland/Elsevier.
Crookston, B. T., Dearden, K. A., Chan, K., Chan, T. & Stoker, D. D. (2007) Buddhist nuns on the move: An innovative approach to improving breastfeeding practices in Cambodia. Maternal and Child Nutrition
Crosnoe, R. & Elder, G. H. (2002) Life course transitions, the generational stake, and grandparent–grandchild relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1980) Discriminative parental solicitude: A biological perspective. Journal of Marriage and Family
Dawkins, R. (2006) The selfish gene, 30th anniversary edition. Oxford University Press.
Denham, T. E. & Smith, C. W. (1989) The influence of grandparents on grandchildren: A review of the literature and resources. Family Relations
Dennis, C. L. (2005) Psychosocial and psychological interventions for prevention of postnatal depression: Systematic review. British Medical Journal
de Quervain, D. J., Fischbacher, U., Treyer, V., Schellhammer, M., Schnyder, U., Buck, A. & Fehr, E. (2004) The neural basis of altruistic punishment. Science
d'Espaignet, T. D., Measey, M. L., Carnegie, M. A. & Mackerras, D. (2003) Monitoring the “Strong women, strong babies, strong culture program”: The first eight years. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
de Waal, F. (2006) Primates and philosophers. How morality evolved. Princeton University Press.
de Waal, F. B. M. (2008) Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology
de Waal, F. B. M., Leimgruber, K. & Greenberg, A. R. (2008) Giving is self-rewarding for monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Drew, L. M. & Silverstein, M. (2007) Grandparents' psychological well-being after loss of contact with their grandchildren. Journal of Family Psychology
Drew, L. M. & Smith, P. K. (2002) Implications for grandparents when they lose contact with their grandchildren: Divorce, family feud, and geographical separation. Journal of Mental Health and Aging
Dubas, J. S. (2001) How gender moderates the grandparent–grandchild relationship: A comparison of kin-keeper and kin-selector theories. Journal of Family Issues
Duong, D. V., Lee, A. H. & Binns, W. (2005) Determinants of breast-feeding within the first 6 months post-partum in rural Vietnam. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Edwards, O. W. (2006) Teachers' perceptions of the emotional and behavioral functioning of children raised by grandparents. Psychology in the Schools
Eggebeen, D. J. (1992) Family structure and intergenerational exchanges. Research on Aging
Eisenberg, A. R. (1988) Grandchildren's perspectives on relationships with grandparents: The influence of gender across generations. Sex Roles
Ekström, A., Widström, A. M. & Nissen, E. (2003) Breastfeeding support from partners and grandmothers: Perceptions of Swedish women. Birth
Ellison, P. T. (1990) Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: New hypotheses. American Anthropologist
Ellison, P. T. (2001) On fertile ground: A natural history of human reproduction. Harvard University Press.
Esbensen, B. A., Østerlind, K. & Hallberg, I. R. (2007) Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: A 6-month follow-up. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Essock-Vitale, S. M. & McGuire, M. T. (1985) Women's lives viewed from an evolutionary perspectives. II. Patterns of helping. Ethology and Sociobiology
Euler, H. A., Hoier, S. & Rohde, P. A. (2001) Relationship-specific closeness of intergenerational family ties. Findings from evolutionary psychology and implications for models of cultural transmission. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Euler, H. A. & Michalski, R. L. (2007) Grandparental and extended kin relationships. In: Family relationships: An evolutionary perspective, ed. Salmon, C. & Shackelford, T. K., pp. 185–204. Oxford University Press.
Euler, H. A. & Weitzel, B. (1996) Discriminative grandparental solicitude as reproductive strategy. Human Nature
Falbo, T. (1991) The impact of grandparents on children's outcomes in China. Marriage and Family Review
Fedigan, L. M. & Pavelka, M. S. M. (2001) Is there adaptive value to reproductive termination in Japanese macaques? A test of maternal investment hypotheses. International Journal of Primatology
Fehr, E. & Gächter, S. (2002) Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature
Fehr, E. & Schmidt, K. M. (2006) The economics of fairness, reciprocity and altruism: Experimental evidence and new theories. In: Handbook of the economics of giving, altruism and reciprocity, vol. 1: Foundations, ed. Kolm, S. C. & Ythier, J. M., pp. 615–91. Handbooks in Economics 23. North-Holland/Elsevier.
Fergusson, E., Maughan, B. & Golding, J. (2008) Which children receive grandparental care and what effect does it have?
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Finch, J. & Mason, J. (1993) Negotiating family responsibilities. Routledge.
Fisher, J. R. W., Hammarberg, K. & Baker, H. W. G. (2005) Assisted conception is a risk factor for postnatal mood disturbances and early parenting difficulties. Fertility and Sterility
Fisher, R. A. (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. Clarendon Press.
Friedman, D., Hechter, M. & Kreager, D. (2008) A theory of the value of grandchildren. Rationality and Society
Fujiwara, T. & Lee, C. K. (2008) The impact of altruistic behaviors for children and grandchildren on major depression among parents and grandparents in the United States: A prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders
Fuller-Thomson, E. (2005) Canadian First Nations grandparents raising grandchildren: A portrait in resilience. International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Fuller-Thomson, E. & Minkler, M. (2000) African American grandparents raising grandchildren: A national profile of demographic and health characteristics. Health and Social Work
Gaulin, S. J. C. (1980) Sexual dimorphism in the human post-reproductive life-span: Possible causes. Journal of Human Evolution
Gaulin, S. J. C. & Schlegel, A. (1980) Paternal confidence and paternal investment: A cross cultural test of a sociobiological hypothesis. Ethology and Sociobiology
Geary, D. C. (2000) Evolution and proximate expression of human parental investment. Psychological Bulletin
Gibson, M. A. & Mace, R. (2005) Helpful grandmothers in rural Ethiopia: A study of the effect of kin on child survival and growth. Evolution and Human Behavior
Gibson, M. A. & Mace, R. (2006) An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia. PLoS Medicine
Goh, E. C. L. (2009) Grandparents as childcare providers: An in-depth analysis of the case of Xiamen, China. Journal of Aging Studies
Gordon, R. A., Chase-Lansdale, P. L. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004) Extended households and the life course of young mothers: Understanding the associations using a sample of mothers with premature, low birth weight babies. Child Development
Grundy, E. & Henretta, J. C. (2006) Between elderly parents and adult children: A new look at the intergenerational care provided by the “sandwich generation”. Ageing and Society
Gurven, M. & Kaplan, H. (2007) Longevity among hunter–gatherers: A cross-cultural examination. Population and Development Review
Güth, W., Schmittberger, R. & Schwarze, B. (1982) An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization
Hadley, C. (2004) The costs and benefits of kin: Kin networks and children's health among the Pimbwe of Tanzania. Human Nature
Hagen, E. H. (1999) The functions of postpartum depression. Evolution and Human Behavior
Hagen, E. H., Barrett, H. C. & Price, M. E. (2006) Do human parents face a quantity-quality tradeoff?: Evidence from a Shuar community. American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Hames, R. B. (1988) The allocation of parental care among the Ye'kwana. In: Human reproductive behavior: A Darwinian perspective, ed. Betzig, L., Borgerhoff Mulder, M. & Turke, P., pp. 237–51. Cambridge University Press.
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour (I and II). Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hamilton, W. D. (1966) The moulding of senescence by natural selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hammarberg, K. & Clarke, V. E. (2005) Reasons for delaying childbearing: A survey of women aged over 35 years seeking assisted reproductive technology. Australian Family Physician
Hammer, M. L. A. & Foley, R. A. (1996) Longevity and life history in hominid evolution. Human Evolution
Hank, K. & Buber, I. (2009) Grandparents caring for their grandchildren: Findings from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Journal of Family Issues
Hartung, J. (1985) Matrilineal inheritance: New theory and analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Hawkes, K., O'Connell, J. F. & Blurton Jones, N. G. (1989) Hardworking Hadza grandmothers. In: Comparative socioecology: The behavioural ecology of humans and other mammals, ed. Standen, V. & Foley, R. A., pp. 341–66. Basil Blackwell.
Hawkes, K., O'Connell, J. F., Blurton Jones, N. G., Alvarez, H. & Charnov, E. L. (1998) Grandmothering, menopause and the evolution of human life histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Hayslip, B. & Kaminski, P. L. (2005) Grandparents raising their grandchildren: A review of the literature and suggestions for practice. The Gerontologist
Healy, M. C. (2000) Perceived acceptance from grandparents and grandchild adjustment. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia. Dissertation Abstracts International, DAI-B 61/10, p. 5565. (AAT 9990320)
Hertwig, R., Davis, J. N. & Sulloway, F. J. (2002) Parental investment: How an equity motive can produce inequality. Psychological Bulletin
Hess, C. R., Papas, M. A. & Black, M. M. (2002) Resilience among African American adolescent mothers: Predictors of positive parenting in early infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Heywood, E. M. (1999) Custodial grandparents and their grandchildren. The Family Journal
Hill, K. (1993) Life history theory and evolutionary anthropology. Evolutionary Anthropology
Hill, K. & Hurtado, A. M. (1991) The evolution of premature reproductive senescence and menopause in human females: An evaluation of the “grandmother hypothesis.”
Hill, K. & Hurtado, A. M. (1996) Ache life history: The ecology and demography of a foraging people. Aldine de Gruyter.
Hill, T. J. (2006) Grandchild, grandparent, and parent coresidence from 1970 to 1990: Structural factors affecting state patterns. International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Hoddinott, P., Tappin, D. & Wright, C. (2008) Breast feeding. Clinical Review. British Medical Journal
Hoff, A. (2007) Patterns of intergenerational support in grandparent–grandchild and parent–child relationships in Germany. Aging and Society
Hofferth, S. L. & Anderson, K. G. (2003) Are all dads equal? Biology versus marriage as a basis for paternal investment. Journal of Marriage and Family
Hoffman, E. (1980) Young adults' relations with their grandparents: An exploratory study. International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Hogan, D. P., Eggebeen, D. J. & Clogg, C. C. (1993) The structure of intergenerational exchanges in American families. American Journal of Sociology
Hoorens, S., Gallo, F., Cave, J. A. K. & Grant, J. C. (2007) Can assisted reproductive technologies help to offset population ageing? An assessment of the demographic and economic impact of ART in Denmark and UK. Human Reproduction
Hrdy, S. B. (1981) The woman that never evolved. Harvard University Press.
Hrdy, S. B. (1999) Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. Pantheon Books.
Hrdy, S. B. (2005a) Comes the Child before Man: How cooperative breeding and prolonged postweaning dependence shaped human potentials. In: Hunter–gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and colonial perspective, ed. Hewlett, B. S. & Lamb, M. E., pp. 65–91. Aldine Transaction.
Hrdy, S. B. (2005b) Cooperative breeders with an ace in the hole. In: Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life, ed. Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W., pp. 295–317. Rutgers University Press.
Hrdy, S. B. (2009) Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Harvard University Press.
Huber, B. R. & Breedlove, W. L. (2007) Evolutionary theory, kinship, and childbirth in cross-cultural perspective. Cross-Cultural Research
Huber, B. R., Linhartova, V., Cope, D. & Lacy, M. (2004) Evolutionary theory and birth-related investment by kin in cross-cultural perspective. World Cultures
Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., LaPierre, T. A. & Luo, Y. (2007) All in the family: The impact of caring for grandchildren on grandparents' health. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Hurme, H. (2006) Grandparents as resource factors in the family. In: Socioemotional development and health from adolescence to adulthood, ed. Pulkkinen, L., Kaprio, J. & Rose, R. J.. Cambridge University Press.
Hyun, O. K., Lee, W., Yoo, A. J., Cho, B. H., Miller, B. C., Schvaneveldt, J. D. & Lau, S. (2002) Social support for two generations of new mothers in selected populations in Korea, Hong Kong, and the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies
Ingram, J., Johnson, D. & Greenwood, R. (2002) Breastfeeding in Bristol: Teaching good positioning, and support from fathers and families. Midwifery
Ingram, J., Johnson, D. & Hamid, N. (2003) South Asian grandmothers' influence on breast feeding in Bristol. Midwifery
Ivey, P. K. (2000) Cooperative reproduction in Ituri forest hunter-gatherers: Who cares for Efe infants?
Jamison, C. S., Cornell, L. L., Jamison, P. L. & Nakazato, H. (2002) Are all grandmothers equal? A review and a preliminary test of the “grandmother hypothesis” in Tokugawa Japan. American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jensen, K., Hare, B., Call, J. & Tomasello, M. (2006) What's in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Johnson, J., Canning, J., Kaneko, T., Pru, J. K. & Tilly, J. L. (2004) Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary. Nature
Jones, K. P., Walker, L. C., Anderson, D., Lacreuse, A., Robson, S. L. & Hawkes, K. (2007) Depletion of ovarian follicles with age in chimpanzees: Similarities to humans. Biology of Reproduction
Joslin, D. & Harrison, R. (2002) Self-reported physical health among older surrogate parents to children orphaned and affected by HIV disease. AIDs Care
Judge, D. S. & Carey, J. R. (2000) Postreproductive life predicted by primate patterns. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Kahana, B. & Kahana, E. (1970) Grandparenthood from the perspective of the developing grandchild. Developmental Psychology
Kalil, A., Spencer, M. S., Spieker, S. J. & Gilchrist, L. D. (1998) Effects of grandmother coresidence and quality of family relationships on depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers. Family Relations
Kalra, S. K. & Molinaro, T. A. (2008) The association of in vitro fertilization and perinatal morbidity. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Kaplan, H. (1994) Evolutionary and wealth flows theories of fertility: Empirical tests and new models. Population and Development Review
Kaplan, H. (1996) A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology
Kaplan, H. (1997) The evolution of the human life course. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: The biodemography of longevity, ed. Wachter, K. W. & Finch, C. E., pp. 175–211. National Academy Press.
Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J. & Hurtado, A. M. (2000) A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology
Kellam, S. G., Ensminger, M. E. & Turner, R. J. (1977) Family structure and the mental health of children: Concurrent and longitudinal community-wide studies. Archives of General Psychiatry
Kenny, M. E., Blustein, D. L., Chaves, A., Grossman, J. M. & Gallagher, L. A. (2003) The role of perceived barriers and relational support in the educational and vocational lives of urban high school students. Journal of Counseling Psychology
Kirkwood, T. B. L. (1977) Evolution of ageing. Nature
Kivett, V. R. (1993) Racial comparisons of the grandmother role: Implications for strengthening the family support system of older black women. Family Relations
Kohler, H.-P., Billari, F. C. & Ortega, J. A. (2002) The emergence of lowest-low fertility in Europe during the 1990s. Population and Development Review
Kohli, M. (1999) Private and public transfers between generations: Linking the family and the state. European Societies
Kohli, M. (2004) Intergenerational transfers and inheritance: A comparative view. In: Intergenerational relations across time and place (Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 24), ed. Silverstein, M., pp. 266–89. Springer.
Kohli, M. & Künemund, H. (2003) Intergenerational transfers in the family: What motivates giving? In: Global aging and challenges to families, ed. Bengtson, V. L. & Lowenstein, , pp. 123–42. Aldine de Gruyter.
Kohli, M., Künemund, H., Motel, A. & Szydlik, M. (2000) Grunddaten zur Lebenssituation der 40-85 jährigen deutschen Bevölkerung. Ergebnisse des Alters-Survey [Basic data on the living situation of 40- to 85-year-old Germans: Result of the age survey]. Weißensee.
Korkeila, K., Korkeila, J., Vahtera, J., Kivimaki, M., Kivela, S.-L., Sillanmaki, L. & Koskenvuo, M. (2005) Childhood adversities, adult risk factors and depressiveness: A population study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Kotlikoff, L. J. & Summers, L. H. (1981) The role of intergenerational transfers in aggregate capital accumulation. Journal of Political Economy
Kramer, K. L. (2002) Variation in juvenile dependence: Helping behavior among Maya children. Human Nature
Kramer, K. L. (2005a) Children's help and the pace of reproduction: Cooperative breeding in humans. Evolutionary Anthropology
Kurland, J. A. (1979) Paternity, mother's brother, and human sociality. In: Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: An anthropological perspective, ed. Chagnon, N. A. & Irons, W. G., pp. 145–80. Duxbury Press.
Laferrère, A. & Wolff, F.-C. (2006) Microeconomic models of family transfers. In: Handbook of the economics of giving, altruism and reciprocity, vol. 2: Applications, ed. Kolm, S. C. & Ythier, J. M., pp. 889–969. Handbooks in Economics 23. North-Holland/Elsevier.
Laham, S. M., Gonsalkorale, K. & von Hippel, W., (2005) Darwinian grandparenting: Preferential investment in more certain kin. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Lahdenperä, M., Lummaa, V., Helle, S., Tremblay, M. & Russell, A. F. (2004) Fitness benefits of prolonged post-reproductive lifespan in women. Nature
Lahdenperä, M., Russell, A. F. & Lummaa, V. (2007) Selection for long lifespan in men: Benefits of grandfathering?
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Lancaster, J. B., Kaplan, H. S., Hill, K. & Hurtado, A. M. (2000) The evolution of life history, intelligence, and diet among chimpanzees and human foragers. In: Perspectives in ethology: Evolution, culture, and behavior, vol. 13, pp. 47–72. Plenum.
Lancaster, J. B. & King, B. J. (1985) An evolutionary perspective on menopause. In: In her prime: A new view of middle-aged women, ed. Kerns, V. & Brown, J. K., pp. 13–20. Bergen and Garvey.
Lancaster, J. B. & Lancaster, C. S. (1983) Parental investment: The hominid adaptation. In: How humans adapt: A biocultural odyssey, ed. Ortner, D., pp. 33–66. Proceedings of the Smithsonian's Seventh International Symposium.
Lavers, C. A. & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (1997) Annotation: On the grandmothers' role in the adjustment and maladjustment of grandchildren. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Lawson, D. W. & Mace, R. (2009) Trade-offs in modern parenting: A longitudinal study of sibling competition for parental care. Evolution and Human Behavior
Lee, R. D. (1997) Intergenerational relations and the elderly. In: Between Zeus and the salmon: The biodemography of longevity, ed. Wachter, K. W. & Finch, C. E. pp. 212–33. National Academy Press.
Lee, R. D. (2003a) Rethinking the evolutionary theory of aging: Transfers, not births, shape senescence in social species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lee, R. D. (2003b) The demographic transition: Three centuries of fundamental change. Journal of Economic Perspectives
Lee, R. D. (2008) Sociality, selection, and survival: Simulated evolution of mortality with intergenerational transfers and food sharing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Lee, R. D., Ensminger, M. E. & LaVeist, T. A. (2005) The responsibility continuum: Never primary, coresident and caregiver – Heterogeneity in the African-American grandmother experience. International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Lee, S., Colditz, G., Berkman, L. & Kawachi, I. (2003) Caregiving to children and grandchildren and risk of coronary heart disease in women. American Journal of Public Health
Leek, M. & Smith, P. K. (1991) Cooperation and conflict in three-generation families. In: The psychology of grandparenthood, ed. Smith, P. K., pp. 177–94. Routledge.
Leonetti, D. L., Nath, D. C. & Hemam, N. S. (2007) In-law conflict. Women's reproductive lives and the roles of their mothers and husbands among the matrilineal Khasi. Current Anthropology
Leonetti, D. L., Nath, D. C., Hemam, N. S. & Neill, D. B. (2005) Kinship organization and the impact of grandmothers on reproductive success among the matrilineal Khasi and patrilineal Bengali of northeast India. In: Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life, ed. Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W., pp. 194–214. Rutgers University Press.
Levitt, M. J., Weber, R. A. & Clark, M. C. (1986) Social network relationships as sources of maternal support and well-being. Developmental Psychology
Lin, C.-H. (2003) Intergenerational parallelism of self-efficacy: Moderating variables, mediating variables, and common antecedents. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Sociology, Texas A&M University, Dissertation Abstracts International, DAI-A 65/07, p. 2783. (AAT 3141190).
Mace, R. (1998) The coevolution of human fertility and wealth inheritance strategies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Mace, R. (2000) Evolutionary ecology of human life history. Animal Behaviour
Mace, R. & Sear, R. (2005) Are humans cooperative breeders? In: Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life, ed. Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W., pp. 143–59). Rutgers University Press.
Madrigal, L. & Melendez-Obando, M. (2008) Grandmothers' longevity negatively affects daughters' fertility. American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Manton, K. G., Gu, X. & Lowrimore, G. R. (2008) Cohort changes in active life expectancy in the U.S. elderly population: Experience from 1982–2004 national long-term care survey. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Marks, G. N. (2006) Family size, family type and student achievement: Cross-national differences and the role of socioeconomic and school factors. Journal of Comparative Family Studies
Masvie, H. (2006) The role of Tamang mothers-in-law in promoting breast feeding in Makwanpur District, Nepal. Midwifery
Maynard Smith, J. (1964) Group selection and kin selection. Nature
Mayr, E. (1961) Cause and effect in biology. Science
McClellan, W. M., Stanwyck, D. J. & Anson, C. A. (1993) Social support and subsequent mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
McHenry, H. M. (1994) Behavioral ecological implications of early hominid body size. Journal of Human Evolution
Medawar, P. B. (1952) An unsolved problem of biology. H. K. Lewis.
Meehan, C. L. (2005) The effects of residential locality on parental and alloparental investment among the Aka foragers of the Central African Republic. Human Nature
Mills, T. L., Wakeman, M. A. & Fea, C. B. (2001) Adult grandchildren's perceptions of emotional closeness and consensus with their maternal and paternal grandparents. Journal of Family Issues
Mitchell, W. (2007) Research review: The role of grandparents in intergenerational support for families with disabled children: A review of the literature. Child and Family Social Work
Modin, B. & Fritzell, J. (2009) The long arm of the family: Are parental and grandparental earnings related to young men's body mass index and cognitive ability?
International Journal of Epidemiology
Monserud, M. A. (2008) Intergenerational relationships and affectual solidarity between grandparents and young adults. Journal of Marriage and Family
Moore, M. R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2002) Adolescent parenthood. In: Handbook of parenting, vol. 3: Being and becoming a parent, 2nd edition, ed. Bornstein, M. H., pp. 173–214. Erlbaum.
Murphy, M. J. & Grundy, E. (2003) Mothers with living children and children with living mothers: The role of fertility and mortality in the period 1911–2050. Population Trends
Murray, C. J. L. & Lopez, A. D. (1997) Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause, 1990–2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet
Myrskylä, M., Kohler, H.-P. & Billari, F. C. (2009) Advances in development reverse fertility declines. Nature
Oakley, L., Doyle, P. & Maconochie, N. (2008) Lifetime prevalence of infertility and infertility treatment in the UK: Results from a population-based survey of reproduction. Human Reproduction
Oburu, P. O. (2005) Caregiving stress and adjustment problems of Kenyan orphans raised by grandmothers. Infant and Child Development
Oburu, P. O. & Palmerus, K. (2005) Stress related factors among primary and part-time caregiving grandmothers of Kenyan grandchildren. International Journal of Aging and Human Development
O'Hara, M. W. & Swain, A. M. (1996) Rates and risk of postpartum depression: A meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry
Okabayashi, H., Liang, J., Krause, N., Akiyama, H. & Sugisawa, H. (2004) Mental health among older adults in Japan: Do sources of social support and negative interaction make a difference?
Social Science and Medicine
Oyserman, D., Radin, N. & Benn, R. (1993) Dynamics in a three-generational family: Teens, grandparents, and babies. Developmental Psychology
Packer, C., Tatar, M. & Collins, A. (1998) Reproductive cessation in female mammals. Nature
Pallock, L. L. & Lamborn, S. D. (2006) Beyond parenting practices: Extended kinship support and the academic adjustment of African-American and European-American teens. Journal of Adolescence
Pashos, A. (2000) Does parental uncertainty explain discriminative grandparental solicitude? A cross-cultural study in Greece and Germany. Evolution and Human Behavior
Pashos, A. & McBurney, D. H. (2008) Kin relationships and the caregiving biases of grandparents, aunts and uncles: A two-generational questionnaire study. Human Nature
Patterson, C. J., Hurt, S. & Mason, C. D. (1998) Families of the lesbian baby boom: Children's contact with grandparents and other adults. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Paul, A. (2005) Primate predispositions for human grandmaternal behavior. In: Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life, ed. Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W., pp. 21–37. Rutgers University Press.
Pavard, S., Koons, D. N. & Heyer, E. (2007) The influence of maternal care in shaping human survival and fertility. Evolution
Pavelka, M. S. M. & Fedigan, L. M. (1991) Menopause: A comparative life history perspective. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology
Peccei, J. S. (1995) The origin and evolution of menopause: The altriciality-lifespan hypothesis. Ethology and Sociobiology
Peccei, J. S. (2001a) A critique of the grandmother hypotheses: Old and new. American Journal of Human Biology
Peccei, J. S. (2001b) Menopause: Adaptation or epiphenomenon?
Penn, D. J. & Smith, K. R. (2007) Differential fitness costs of reproduction between the sexes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
Poehlmann, J. (2005) Children's family environments and intellectual outcomes during maternal incarceration. Journal of Marriage and Family
Pollet, T. V., Nelissen, M. & Nettle, D. (2009) Lineage based differences in grandparental investment: Evidence from a large British cohort study. Journal of Biosocial Science
Pollet, T. V., Nettle, D. & Nelissen, M. (2006) Contact frequencies between grandparents and grandchildren in a modern society: Estimates of the impact of paternity uncertainty. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology
Pope, S. K., Whiteside, I., Brooks-Gunn, J., Kelleher, K. J., Rickert, V. I., Bradley, R. H. & Casey, P. H. (1993) Low-birth-weight infants born to adolescent mothers. Effects of coresidency with grandmother on child-development. Journal of the American Medical Association
Post, S. G. (2005) Altruism, happiness, and health: It's good to be good. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Presser, H. B. (1989) Some economic complexities of child care provided by grandmothers. Journal of Marriage and Family
Preston, S. O. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002) Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Reitzes, D. C. & Mutran, E. J. (2004) Grandparenthood: Factors influencing frequency of grandparent–grandchildren contact and grandparent role satisfaction. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Robbins, M. S., Briones, E., Schwartz, S. J., Dillon, F. R. & Mitrani, V. B. (2006) Differences in family functioning in grandparent and parent-headed households in a clinical sample of drug-using African American adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
Rogers, A. R. (1993) Why menopause?
Rose, H. & Rose, S. (2001) Alas poor Darwin: Arguments against evolutionary psychology. Vintage.
Ross, M. E. T. & Aday, L. A. (2006) Stress and coping in African American grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Journal of Family Issues
Rossi, A. S. & Rossi, P. H. (1990) Of human bonding: Parent–child relations across the life course. Aldine de Gruyter.
Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Socolar, R. R., Amaya-Jackson, L., English, D., Landsverk, J., Dubowitz, H., Browne, D. H., Bangdiwala, S. I. & Mathew, R. M. (1998) Children who prosper in unfavorable environments: The relationship to social capital. Pediatrics
Salmon, C. A. & Daly, M. (1998) Birth order and familial sentiment: Middleborns are different. Evolution and Human Behavior
Sanfey, A. G., Rilling, J. K., Aronson, J. A., Nystrom, L. E. & Cohen, J. D. (2003) The neural basis of economic decision-making in the ultimatum game. Science
Scholl Perry, K. (1996) Relationships among adolescents' ego development, their academic achievement, and the amount of their contact with and social distance from grandparents. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, Pace University, New York. Dissertation Abstracts International, DAI-B 57/08, p. 5391. (AAT 9701161)
Schölmerich, A., Leyendecker, B., Citlak, B., Miller, A. & Harwood, R. (2005) Variability of grandmother's roles. In: Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life, ed. Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W., pp. 277–92. Rutgers University Press.
Schröder-Butterfill, E. (2004) Inter-generational family support provided by older people in Indonesia. Ageing and Society
Schultz, N. W. (1980) A cognitive-developmental study of the grandchild–grandparent bond. Child Study Journal
Schwartz, J. & Waldrop, J. (1992) The growing importance of grandparents if you're marketing products and services for children and young adults. American Demographics
Sear, R. (2008) Kin and child survival in rural Malawi: Are matrilineal kin always beneficial in a matrilineal society?
Sear, R. & Mace, R. (2008) Who keeps children alive? A review of the effects of kin on child survival. Evolution and Human Behavior
Sear, R., Mace, R. & McGregor, I. A. (2000) Maternal grandmothers improve nutritional status and survival of children in rural Gambia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Shanley, D. P. & Kirkwood, T. B. L. (2001) Evolution of the human menopause. BioEssays
Shanley, D. P., Sear, R., Mace, R. & Kirkwood, T. B. L. (2007) Testing evolutionary theories of menopause. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Shanok, A. F. & Miller, L. (2007) Stepping up to motherhood among inner-city teens. Psychology of Women Quarterly
Sherman, P. W. (1998) The evolution of menopause. Nature
Silk, J. B., Brosnan, S. F., Vonk, J., Henrich, J., Povinelli, D. J., Richardson, A. S., Lambeth, S. P., Mascaro, J. & Schapiro, S. J. (2005) Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members. Nature
Silverstein, M. & Ruiz, S. (2006) Breaking the chain: How grandparents moderate the transmission of maternal depression to their grandchildren. Family Relations
Skaznik-Wikiel, M., Tilly, J. C., Lee, H.-J., Niikura, Y., Kaneko-Tarui, T., Johnson, J. & Tilly, J. L. (2007) Serious doubts over “eggs forever?”. Differentiation
Smith, M. S. (1987) Evolution and developmental psychology: Toward a sociobiology of human development. In: Sociobiology and psychology: Ideas, issues, and applications, ed. Crawford, C., Smith, M. & Krebs, D. pp. 225–52. Erlbaum.
Smith, M. S. (1988) Research in developmental sociobiology: Parenting and family behavior. In: Sociobiological perspectives on human development, ed. MacDonald, K. B., pp. 271–92. Springer.
Smith, M. S. (1991) An evolutionary perspective on grandparent–grandchild relationships. In: The psychology of grandparenthood, ed. Smith, P. K., pp. 155–75. Routledge.
Smith, M. S., Kish, B. J. & Crawford, C. B. (1987) Inheritance of wealth as human kin investment. Ethology and Sociobiology
Smith, P. K. & Drew, L. (2002) Grandparenthood. In: Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Being and becoming a parent, 2nd edition, ed. Bornstein, M. H., pp. 141–72. Erlbaum.
Smith, P. K. & Drew, L. (2004) Grandparenting and extended support networks. In: Sage handbook of parenting, ed. Hohhughi, M. & Long, N., pp. 146–59. Sage.
Spieker, S. J. & Bensley, L. (1994) Roles of living arrangements and grandmother social support in adolescent mothering and infant attachment. Developmental Psychology
Stack, C. B. (1975) All our kin: Strategies for survival in a Black community. Harper & Row.
Steinbach, I. & Henke, W. (1998) Grosselterninvestment – eine empirische interkulturelle Vergleichsstudie [Grandparental investment – An empirical cross-cultural comparative study]. Anthropologie
Stevens, J. H. (1988) Social support, locus of control, and parenting in three low-income groups of mothers: Black teenagers, black adults, and white adults. Child Development
Strassman, B. I. & Dunbar, R. I. (1999) Human evolution and disease: Putting the Stone Age in perspective. In: Evolution in health and disease, ed. Stearns, S. C., pp. 91–101). Oxford University Press.
Streib, G. F. (1958) Family patterns in retirement. Journal of Social Issues
Sugiyama, L. S. (2004) Illness, injury, and disability among Shiwiar forager-horticulturalists: Implications of health-risk buffering for the evolution of human life history. American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Surkan, P. J., Ryan, L. M., Carvalho Vieira, L. M., Berkman, L. F. & Peterson, K. E. (2007) Maternal social and psychological conditions and physical growth in low-income children in Piauí, Northeast Brazil. Social Science and Medicine
Szinovacz, M. E. (1998a) Grandparents today: A demographic profile. The Gerontologist
Szinovacz, M. E. (1998b) Research on grandparenting: Needed refinements in concepts, theories, and methods. In: Handbook on grandparenthood, ed. Szinovacz, M. E., pp. 257–88. Greenwood Press.
Thomas, M. & Avery, V. (1997) Infant feeding in Asian families: Early feeding practices and growth. The Stationery Office, London.
Thompson, R. A., Tinsley, B. R., Scalora, M. J. & Parke, R. D. (1989) Grandparents' visitation rights: Legalizing the ties that bind. American Psychologist
Tinsley, B. R. & Parke, R. D. (1984) Grandparents as support and socialization agents. In: Beyond the dyad, ed. Lewis, M., pp. 161–94. Plenum.
Tinsley, B. J. & Parke, R. D. (1987) Grandparents as interactive and social support agents for families with young infants. International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Tolson, T. F. J. & Wilson, M. N. (1990) The impact of two- and three-generational black family structure on perceived family climate. Child Development
Tomlin, A. M. (1998) Grandparents' influences on grandchildren. In: Handbook on grandparenthood, ed. Szinovacz, M. E., pp. 159–70. Greenwood Press.
Trivers, R. L. (1972) Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Sexual selection and the descent of man 1871–1971, ed. Campbell, B. G., pp. 136–79. Aldine.
Trivers, R. L. & Willard, D. E. (1973) Natural selection of parental ability to vary the sex ratio of offspring. Science
Turke, P. W. (1988) Helpers at the nest: Childcare networks on Ifaluk. In: Human reproductive behaviour: A Darwinian perspective, ed. Betzig, L., Borgerhoff Mulder, M. & Turke, P., pp. 173–88. Cambridge University Press.
Turke, P. W. (1997) Hypothesis: Menopause discourages infanticide and encourages continued investment by Agnates. Evolution and Human Behavior
Uhlenberg, P. (1996) Mortality decline in the twentieth century and supply of kin over the life course. The Gerontologist
Uhlenberg, P. (2009) Children in an aging society. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Uhlenberg, P. & Hammill, B. G. (1998) Frequency of grandparental contact with grandchild sets: Six factors that make a difference. The Gerontologist
Van Bavel, J. (2006) The effect of fertility limitation on intergenerational social mobility: The quality-quantity trade-off during the demographic transition. Journal of Biosocial Science
Victora, C. G. & WHO Collaborative Study Team (2000) Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries. A pooled analysis. WHO Collaborative Study Team on the Role of Breastfeeding on the Prevention of Infant Mortality. The Lancet
Voland, E. & Beise, J. (2002) Opposite effects of maternal and paternal grandmothers on infant survival in historical Krummhörn. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Voland, E. & Beise, J. (2005) “The husband's mother is the devil in house”: Data on the impact of the mother-in-law on stillbirth mortality in historical Krummhörn (1750–1874) and some thoughts on the evolution of postgenerative female life. In: Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life, ed. Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W., pp. 239–55. Rutgers University Press.
Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W. (2005) Grandmotherhood: A short overview of three fields of research on the evolutionary significance of postgenerative female life. In: Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life, ed. Voland, E., Chasiotis, A. & Schiefenhövel, W., pp. 1–17. Rutgers University Press.
Vonk, J., Brosnan, S. F., Silk, J. B., Henrich, J., Richardson, A. S., Lambeth, S. P., Schapiro, S. J. & Povinelli, D. J. (2007) Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrelated group members. Animal Behaviour
Walker, R. S, Gurven, M., Burger, O. & Hamilton, M. J. (2008) The trade-off between number and size of offspring in humans and other primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Warneken, F., Hare, B., Melis, A. P., Hanus, D. & Tomasello, M. (2007) Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children. PLoS Biology
Watson, J. A., Rudolph, S. M. & Lyons, J. L. (2005) African-American grandmothers as health educators in the family. International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Weiss, K. M. (1981) Evolutionary perspectives on human aging. In: Other ways of growing old: Anthropological perspectives, ed. Amoss, P. T. & Harrell, S., pp. 25–58. Stanford University Press.
Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Warner, V., Pilowsky, D. & Verdeli, H. (2006) Offspring of depressed parents: 20 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry
Werner, P., Lowenstein, A. & Katz, R. (1998) The meaning of grandparenthood: A critical review and research agenda. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Williams, G. C. (1957) Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution
Wilson, D. S. & Wilson, E. O. (2007) Rethinking the theoretical foundation of sociobiology. Quarterly Review of Biology
Wolff, F. C. (2000) Transferts et redistribution familiale collective. Revue Économique
Wood, S. & Liossis, P. (2007) Potentially stressful life events and emotional closeness between grandparents and adult grandchildren. Journal of Family Issues
Yong, F. (2006) Structural factors, types of grandparenting, and grandparents' well-being: Building causal mechanisms of grandparenting in an aging society. Doctoral dissertation, School of Social Welfare, State University of New York at Albany. Dissertation Abstracts International, DAI-A 67/10, p. 3935. (AAT 3239165).
Zervas, L. J. & Sherman, M. F. (1994) The relationship between perceived parental favoritism and self-esteem. Journal of Genetic Psychology