Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The impending demise of the icon: A critique of the concept of iconic storage in visual information processing

  • Ralph Norman Haber (a1)
Abstract

Without disputing the experimental evidence that subjects have available most of the content of brief displays for a fraction of a second, or that visual stimuli Persist after their physical termination for a similar time, I argue that this evidence is irrelevant to perception. Specifically, the notion of an icon as a brief storage of information persisting after stimulus termination cannot possibly be useful in any typical visual information-processing task except reading in a lightning storm. Since the visual world that provides the stimuli for perception is continuous and not chopped up by tachistoscopes, and since our eyes and heads are rarely motionless, no realistic circumstances exist in which having a frozen iconic storage of information could be helpful. Rather, the presence of such an icon interferes with perception. This paper examines instances of normal perception, and then reviews experimental evidence on temporal integration, saccadic suppression, masking, and the photoreceptor basis of visual persistence, to further demonstrate that a storage of excitation cannot be a useful device for storing information. Finally, I note that little would have to be changed in our theories of visual perception or information processing if we simply forgot all about the icon and iconic memory as an early stage of processing.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Adelson, E. H. (1979) Visual persistence without the rods. Perception and Psychophysics 26:254256. [WPB]
Adelson, E. H. & Jonides, J. (1980) The psychophysics of iconic storage. journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 6:486493. [EHA. taRNH, GML]
Allman, J. M. (1977) Evolution of the visual system in early primates. Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology 7:153. [MEG]
Averbach, E. & Coriell, E. (1961) Short-term memory in vision. Bell System Technical Journal 40:309328. [BGB, taRNH]
Averbach, E. & Sperling, G. (1961) Short-term storage of information in vision. In: information theory, ed. Cherry, C.. Butterworths. [taRNH, GS]
Badcock, D. & Lovegrove, W. (1981) The effects of contrast, stimulus duration, and spatial frequency on visible persistence in normal and specifically disabled readers. journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 7:495505. [GML, GEM]
Bahill, A. T., Clark, M. E. & Stark, L. (1975) Dynamic overshoot in saccadic eye movements is caused by neurological control signal reversals. Experimental Neurology 48:95112. [BB]
Banks, W. P. (1977) Encoding and processing of symbolic informatiois in comparative judgements. In: The psychology of learning and motication, ed. Bower, G. H., vol. 11. Academic Press. [WPB]
Banks, W. P. & Barber, G. (1977) Color information in iconic memory. Psychological Reciew 84:536546. [WPB]
Banks, W. P. & Barber, G. (1980) Normal iconic memory for stimuli invisible to the rods. Perception and Psychophysics 27:581584. [WPB]
Baron, W. S., Boynton, R. M. & Hammon, R. W. (1979) Component analysis of the fovea1 local electroretinogram elicited with sinusoidal flicker. Vision Research 19:479490. [EHA]
Barrand, A. G. (1979) An ecological approach to binocular perception: The neglected facts of occlusion. Dissertation Abstracts International 39:5604-B. [WMM]
Baxt, N. (1871) Ueber die Zeit welche nothig ist, damit ein Gesichtseindruck sum Bewusstsein kommt und über die Grösse (Extension) der bewussten Wahrnehmung bei einem Gesichtseindrucke von gegenbener Dauer. Pflugers Archiv 4:325336. [GS]
Baylor, D. A. & Hodgkin, A. L. (1974) Changes in time scale and sensitivity in turtle photoreceptors. journal of Physiology 242:729758. [EHA]
Bergen, J. R. & Julesz, B. (1981) Discrimination with brief inspection times. journal of the Optical Society of America 71:1570. [BJ]
Bowen, R. W., Pola, J. & Matin, L. (1974) Visual persistence: Effects of flash luminance, duration, and energy. Vision Research 14:295303. [GML, JTLW]
Bowling, A. & Lovegrove, W. (1980) The effect of stimulus duration on the persistence of gratings. Perception doubt; Psychophysics 27:574578. [GML]
Bowling, A. & Lovegrove, W. (1981) Two components to visible persistence: Effects of orientation and contrast. Vision Research 21:12411251 [GML]
Bowling, A. & Lovegrove, W. (1982) Iconic memory: Fallacies persist (?). Perception and Psychophysics 31:194198. [GML]
Bowling, A.Lovegrove, W. J. & Mapperson, B. (1979) The effect of spatial frequency and contrast on visual persistence. Perception 8:529539. [GEM]
Boynton, R. M. (1972) Discrimination of homogeneous double pulses of light. In: Handbook of sensory physiology: 7. Visual psychophysics, ed. Jameson, D. & Hurvich, L. M., pp. 202232. Springer. [taRNH, JTLW]
Braddick, O. (1973) A short-range process in apparent motion. Vision Research 14:519527. [WAP]
Braunstein, M. L. (1975) Depth perception through motion. Academic Press. [taRNH]
Breitmeyer, B. (1975) Simple reaction time as a measure of the temporal response properties of transient and sustained channels. Vision Research 15:1411–12. [AV]
Breitmeyer, B. (1980) Unmasking visual masking: A look at the “why” behind the veil of the “how.” Psychological Review 87:5269. [BGB, taRNH, GH]
Breitmeyer, B. (1980) (in press a) Sensory masking, persistence and enhancement in visual exploration and reading. In: Eye movements in reading: Perceptual and language processes, ed. Rayner, K.. Academic Press. [BGB]
Breitmeyer, B. (1980) (in press b) Visual masking: An integratice approach. Oxford University Press. [BGB]
Breitmeyer, B. G. & Ganz, L. (1976) Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing. Psychological Review 83, 136. [DWM]
Breitmeyer, B. G., Kropfl, W. & Julesz, B. (in press) The existence and role of retimiotopic and spatiotopic forms of visual persistence. Acta Psychologica. [BGB, GH, BJ]
Bridgeman, B. (1980) Temporal response characteristics of cells in monkey striate cortex measured with metacontrast masking and brightness discrimination. Brain Research 196:347364. [GEM]
Bridgeman, B., Hendry, D. & Stark, L. (1975) Failure to detect displacement of the visual world during saccadic eye movements. Vision Research 15:719722. [BB]
Broadbent, D. E. (1958) Perception and communication. Pergamon Press. [taRN H]
Brown, J. (1960) Evidence for a selective process during perception of tachistoscopically presented stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 59:176181. [DJKM]
Bruce, C. J. & Coldberg, M. E. (1981) Frontal eye fields in the monkey: Classification of neurons discharging before saccades. Neuroscience Abstracts 7:131. [MEG]
Bushnell, M. C., Goldberg, M. E. & Robinson, D. L. (1981) Behavioral enhancement of visual responses in monkey cerebral cortex: I. Modulation in posterior parietal cortex related to selective visual attention. journal of Neurophysiology 46:755772. [MEG]
Butler, B. E. (1973) Components of the familiarity effect in tachistoscopic recognition. journal of Experimental Psychology 101:367372. [DJKM]
Butler, B. E. (1974) The limits of selective attention in tachistoscopic recognition. Canadian journal of Psychology 28:199213. [DJKM]
Butler, B. E. (1975) Selective attention and target search with brief visual displays. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 27:467477. [DJKM]
Butler, B. E. (1980a) The category effect in visual search: Identification versus localization factors. Canadian journal of Psychology 34:238247. [DJKM]
Butler, B. E. (1980b) Selective attention and stimulus localization in visual perception. Canadian Journal of Psychology 34:119133. [DJKM]
Butler, B. E. (1981) Identification amid localization in tachistoscopic recognition: The effects of data- and resource-limitations. Canadian journal of Psychology 35:3651. [DJKM]
Campbell, F. W. & Wurtz, R. H. (1978) Saccadic omission: Why we do not see a grey-out during saccadic eye movement. Vision Research 18:12971304. [GEM]
Cole, R. A., ed. (1980) The perception and production of fluent speech. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taRNH]
Coltheart, M. (1972) Visual information-processing. In: New horizons in psychology, vol. 2, ed. Dodwell, P. C.. Penguin. [MC]
Coltheart, M. (1975) Iconic memory: A reply to Professor Holding. Memory and Cognition 3:4248. [MC]
Coltheart, M. (1980) Iconic memory and visual persistence. Perception and Psychophysics 27:183228. [JA, WPB, BB, tarRNH, DHH, JJ, RLK, GML, DN, GS, JTLW]
Conrad, R. (1964) Acoustic confusions in immediate memory. British journal of Psychology 55:7584. [GS]
Coŕen, S., Porac, C. & Ward, L. M. (1978). Sensation and perception. Academic Press. [SC]
Corfield, R., Frosdick, J. P. & Campbell, F. W. (1978) Grey-out elimination: The roles of spatial waveform, frequency and phase. Vision Research 18:13051312. [GEM]
Cornsweet, T. N. (1970) Visual perception. Academic Press. [DWM]
Craik, F. I. M. (1979) Human memory. Annual Review of Psychology 30:63102. [GEM]
Davidson, M. L., Fox, M. J. & Dick, A. O. (1973) Effects of eye movements on backward masking and perceived location. Perception and Psychophysics 14:110116. [EHA, WPB, BGB, BB, MEG, taRNH, DHH, JJ, WMM, DJKM, DN, KR]
Darwin, C. J., Turvey, M. T. & Crowder, R. G. (1972) The auditory analogue of the Sperling partial report procedure: Evidence for brief auditory storage. Cognitive Psychology 3:225267. [taRNH]
Demkiw, P. & Michaels, C. (1976) Motion information in iconic memory. Acta Psychologica 40:257264. [taRNH, WAP, JTLW]
doubt;ick, A. O. (1970) Visual processing and the use of redundant information in tachistoscopic recognition. Canadian Journal of Psychology 24:133141. [DJKM]
doubt;ick, A. O. (1971) On the problem of selection in short-term visual (iconic) memory. Canadian journal of Psychology 25:250263. [DJKM]
doubt;ick, A. O. (1972) Parallel and serial processing in tachistoscopic recognition: Two mechanisms. journal of Experimental Psychology 96:6066. [DJKM]
Di, 'Lollo V. (1977) Temporal characteristics of iconic memory. Nature 267:241243. [VDL, GEM]
Di, 'Lollo V. (1978) On the spatio-temporal interactions of brief visual displays. In: Studies in perception, ed. Day, R. H. & Stanley, G. V.. University of Western Australia Press. [VDL]
Di, 'Lollo V. (1980) Temporal integration in visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 109:7597. [JA, SC, tarRNH, VDL, GEM]
Di, Lollo V., Lowe, D. G. & Scott, J. P. (1974) Temporal integration in visual memory. journal of Experimental Psychology 103:934940. [DJKM]
Di, Lollo V. & Woods, E. (1981) Duration of visible persistence in relation to range of spatial frequencies. journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Peformance 7:754769. [GEM]
Efron, R. (1970a) Effect of stimulus duration on perceptual onset and offset latencies. Perception and Psychophysics 8:231234. [GML, JTLW]
Efron, R. (1970b) The minimum duration of a perception. Neuropsychologia 8:5763. [GS]
Enroth-Cugell, C., Hertz, B. G. & Lennie, P. (1977) Convergence of rod and cone signals in the cat's retina. Journal of Physiology 269:297318. [EHA]
Eriksen, C. W. & Collins, J. F. (1967) Some temporal characteristics of visimal pattern perceptioms. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74:476484. [DHH, GS, JTLW]
Eriksen, C. W. & Schultz, D. W. (1978) Temporal factors in visual information processing: A tutorial review. In: Attention and performance, vol. 7, ed. Reguin, J., pp. 323. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [tarRNH, AV]
Erwin, D. E. (1976) Fumrther evidence for two components in visumal persistence. journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2:191209. [DHH]
Exner, S. (1868) Ueber die zu einer Gesichtswahrnehmung nöthige Zeit. Sitzungsbericht der Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien 58:601633. [GS]
Felsten, G. & Wasserman, G. S. (1980) Visual masking: Mechanisms and theories. Psychological Bulletin 88:329353. [GSW]
Felsten, G. & Wasserman, G. S. (1981) The photoreceptor sensory code for perceived duration during visual masking. Physiological Psychology 9:6876. [GSW]
Fodor, J. S. & Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1981) How direct is visual perception?: Some reflections on Gibson's [Ecological Approach.] Cognition 9:139196. [JA]
Freyd, J. J. & Finke, R. A. (1982) Representational momentum. Submitted for publication. [RAF]
Fuchs, A. F. (1976) The neurophysiology of saccades. In: Eye movements and psychological processes, ed. Monty, R. A. & Senders, J. W., pp. 3953. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [BGB]
Ganz, L. (1975) Temporal factors in visual perception. In: Handbook of perception: 5. Seeing, ed. Carterette, E. C. & Friedman, M. P., pp. 169232. Academic Press. [taRNH]
Gibson, J. J. (1966) The senses considered as perceptual systems. Houghton Mifflin. [taRNH, GJ, WMM, UN]
Gibson, J. J. (1976) Three kinds of distance that can be seen: Or, how Bishop Berkeley went wrong in the first place. In: Studies in perception: Festschrift for Fabio Metelli, ed. Arcais, G. B. Flores D'. Aldo Martello-Giunti. [WMM]
Gibson, J. J. (1979) The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mufflin. [JA, taRNH, WMM]
Gibson, J. J., Kaplan, G., Reynolds, H. N. & Wheeler, K. (1969) The change from visible to invisible: A study of optical transitions. Perception and Psychophysics 5:113116. [WMM]
Goldberg, M. E. & Bruce, C. J. (1981) Frontal eye fields in the monkey: Eye movements remap the effective coordinates of visual stimuli. Neuroscience Abstracts 7:131. [MEG]
Goldberg, M. E. & Bushnell, M. C. (1981) Behavioral enhancement of visual responses in monkey cerebral cortex: 2. Modulation in frontal eye fields specifically related to saccades. Journal of Neurophysiology 46:773787. [MEG]
Gross, C. G., Bender, D. B. & Mishkin, M. (1977) Contributions of the corpus callosum and the anterior commisure to visual activation of inferior temporal neurons. Brain Research 131:227239. [GEM]
Guttman, N. & Julesz, B. (1963) Lower limits of auditory periodicity analysis. journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35:610. [BJ]
Hadoubt;er, R. N. (1969) Information processing approaches to visual perception: An introduction. In: Information processing approaches to visual perception, ed. Haber, B. N., pp. 115. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. [taRNH]
Haber, R. N. (1971) Where are the visions in visual perception? In: The adaptive function of imagery, ed. Segal, S. J.. Academic Press. [VDL]
Haber, R. N. (1974) Information processing. In: Handbook of perception: I. History and philosophical roots of perception, ed. Carterette, E. C. & Friedman, H. P., pp. 313333. Academic Press. [taRNH]
Haber, R. N. (1979) Twenty years of haunting eidetic imagery: Where's the ghost? Behavioral doubt; Brain Sciences 2:583594. [taRNH]
Haber, R. N. (1982) One hundred years of visual perception: An ahistorical perspective. In: A century of psychology as science: Retrospectives and assessments, ed. Koch, S. and Leary, D. E., in press. McGraw Hill. [tarRNH]
Haber, R. N. (1983) Stimulus information and processing mechanisms in visual space perception. In: Human and machine vision, ed. Beck, J. & Rosenfeld, A.. Academic Press. In press. [rRNH]
Haber, R. N. & Hershenson, M. (1980) The psychology of visual perception. 2nd ed.Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [tarRNH]
Haber, R. N. & Standing, L. G. (1969) Direct measures of short-term visual storage. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 21:4354. [taRNH, DHH, DJKM, GS]
Haber, R. N. & Standing, L. G. (1970) Direct estimates of apparent duration of a flash followed by visual noise. Canadian journal of Psychology 24:216229. [RLK, GSW, JTLW]
Hallett, P. E. & Lightstone, A. D. (1976) Saccadic eye movements to flashed targets. Vision Research 16:107114. [MEG]
Hartline, H. K. (1938) The response of the single optic nerve fibres of the vertebrate eye to illumination of the retina. American Journal of Physiology 121:400415. [JTLW]
Hawkins, H. L. & Shulman, G. L. (1979) Two definitions of persistence in visual perception. Perception and Psychophysics 25:348350. [GML]
Hochberg, J. (1968) In the mind's eye. In: Contemporary theory and research in visual perception, ed. Haber, R. N., pp. 309331. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [BGB, taRNH, GH, JJ]
Hochberg, J. (1978) Perception. Prentice Hall. [GH]
Hoohberg, J. & Brooks, V. (1978) Perception in motion pictures. In: Handbook of perception, vol. 10, ed. Carterette, E. C. & Friedman, M. P., pp. 259304. Academic Press. [rRNH]
Hogben, J. H. & Di, Lollo V. (1974) Perceptual integration and perceptual segregation of brief visual stimuli. Vision Research 14:10591069. [BJ, GS]
Hogben, J. H., Julesz, B. & Ross, J. (1976) Short-term memory for symmetry. Vision Research 16, no. 8:861866. [BJ]
Holding, D. H. (1971) The amount seen in brief exposures. Quarterly journal of Experimental Psychology 23:7281. [DHH]
Holding, D. H. (1972) Brief visual memory for English and Arabic letters. Psychonomic Science 28:241242. [DHH]
Holding, D. H. (1975) Sensory storage reconsidered. Memory and Cognition 3:3141. [DHH]
Ikeda, M. (1965) Temporal summation of positive and negative flashes in the visual system. Journal of the Optical Society of America 35:15271534. [BJ]
James, W. (1890) The principles of psychology, vol. 1. Henry Holt. [WMM]
Johansson, G. (1973) Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis. Perception and Psychophysics 14:201211. [GJ, WAP]
Johansson, G. (1975) Visual motion perception. Scientific American 232(6):7688). [GJ]
Johansson, G. (1976) Spatio-temporal differentiation and integration in visual motion perception. Psychological Research 38:379393. [GJ]
Johansson, G. (1977) Spatial constancy and motion in visual perception. In: Spatial constancy and motion in visual perception, ed. Epstein, W.. Wiley. [GJ]
Johansson, G. (1979) Memory functions in visual event perception. In: Perspectives on memory research, ed. Nilsson, L.-G.. [GJ]
Jonides, J., Irwin, D. E. & Yantis, S. (1982) Integrating visual information from successive fixations. Science 215:192194. [JA, WPB, BGB, BB, taRNH, JJ, WMM, DJKM, DN, KR]
Judge, S. J., Wurtz, R. H. & Richmond, B. J. (1980) Vision during saccadic eye movements: 1. Visual interactions in striate cortex. journal of Neurophysiology 43:11331155. [MEG]
Julesz, B. (1964) Binocular depth perception without familiarity cues. Science 145:356362.
Julesz, B. (1981) Textons, the elements of texture perception, and their interactions. Nature 290:9197. [BJ]
Julesz, B. (1981) (in press) Adaptation in a peephole: A texton theory of preattentive vision. In: Sensory experience, adaptation and perception (Festschrift for lvo Kohler), ed. Spillman, L. & Wooten, B. R.. Erlbaum Associates. [BJ]
Julesz, B. & Bergen, J. R. (in press) Textons, the fundamental elements in preattentive vision and perception of textures. Bell System Technical journal. [BJ]
Julesz, B. & Chiarucci, H. (1973) Short-term memory for stroboscopic movement perception. Perception 2:249260. [BJ]
Julesz, B. & Guttman, N. (1963) Auditory memory. journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35:1895. [BJ]
Kahneman, D. (1966) Time intensity reciprocity under various conditiomss of adaptation and backward masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71:543–49. [taRNH]
Kanizsa, G. (1979) Organization in vision. Praeger. [WMM]
Kaplan, G. (1969) Kinetic disruption of optical texture: The perception of depth at an edge. Perception and Psychophysics 6:193198. [WMM]
Kaufman, J. (1978) Visual repetition detection. Ph. D. thesis, Department of Psychology, New York University. [GS]
Kelly, D. H. (1971) Theory of flicker and transient responses: II. Counterphase gratings. Journal of Optical Society of America 61:632640. [EHA]
Klatzky, R. L. (1980) Human memory: Structures and processes. W. H. Freeman.
Kline, D. W. & Orme-Rogers, C. (1978) Examinations of stimulus persistence as the basis for superior visual identification performance among older adults. Journal of Gerontology 33:7681. [GML]
Külpe, O. (1904) Versuche uber Abstraktion. In: Bericht über den erste Kongress für experimentelle Psychologie. Barth. [GS]
Latour, P. L. (1962) Visual threshold during eye movements. Vision Research 2:261262. [taRNH]
Lee, D. N. (1971) Binocular stereopsis without spatial disparity. Perception and Psychophysics 9:216218. [WMM]
Lee, D. N. & Reddish, P. (1981) Plummeting gannets: A paradigm of ecological optics. Nature 293:293294. [WMM]
Lefton, L. A. (1973) Metacontrast: A review. Perception and Psychophysics 13:161171. [taRNH]
Lefton, L. A. & Haber, R. N. (1974) Information extraction from different retinal locations. journal of Experimental Psychology 102:975980. [taRNH]
Long, G. M. (1979) Comment on Hawkins and Shulman's Type I and Type II visual persistence. Perception and Psychophysics 26:412414. [GML]
Long, G. M. (1980) Iconic memory: A review and critique of the study of short-term visual storage. Psychological Bulletin 88:785820. [SC, tarRNH, DHH, GML, GS]
Long, G. M. (in press) Receptor interactions and visual persistence. Vision Research. [GML]
Long, G. M. & Beaton, R. J. (1982) The case for peripheral persistence: Effects of target and background luminance on a partial-report task. journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 8:383391. [GML, DJKM]
Long, G. M. & Gildea, T. J. (1981) Latency for the perceived offset of brief target gratings. Vision Research 21:13951399. [GML]
Long, G. M. & McCarthy, P. H. (1982) Target energy effects on Type 1 and Type 2 visual persistence. Bulletin of time Psychonomic Society 19:219221. [GML]
Long, G. M. & McCarthy, P. H. (in press) Rod persistence on a partial-report task with scotopic and photopic backgrounds. American journal of Psychology. [GML]
Long, G. M. & Sakitt, B. (1981) Differences between flicker and non-flicker persistence tasks: The cycles in a grating target. Vision Research 21:13871393. [GML]
Lovegrove, W. J., Bowling, A., Badcock, D. & Blackwood, M. (1980) Specific reading disability: Differences in contrast sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. Science 210:439440. [GEM]
Lovegrove, W. J., Heddle, M. & Slaghuis, W. L. (1980) Reading disability: Spatial frequency specific deficits in visual information store. Neuropsychologia 18:111115. [GEM]
Lupker, S. J. & Massaro, D. W. (1979) Selective perception without confounding contributions of decision and memory. Perception and Psychophysics 25:6069. [DWM]
Lupp, U., Hauske, G. & Wolf, W. (1976) Perceptual latencies to sinusoidal gratings. Vision Research 16:969972. [GH, AV]
Lupp, U., Hauske, G. & Wolf, W. (1978) Different systems for the visual detection of high and low spatial frequencies. Photographic Science and Engineering 22:8084. [GH]
Maas, J. B., producer. (1970) Motion perception: 1. Two-dimensional motion perception. Houghton Mufflin. (Film). [GJ]
Maas, J. B., (1971) Motion perception: 2. Three-dimensional motion perception. Houghton Mufflin. (Film). [GJ]
McConkie, G. W. & Rayner, K. (1976) Identifying the span of the effective stimulus in reading: Literature review and theories of reading. In: Theoretical models and processes of reading, ed. Singer, H. & Ruddell, R. B., pp. 137162. International Reading Assocition. [KR]
McConkie, G. W. & Zola, D. (1979) Is visual information integrated across successive fixations in reading? Perception and Psychophysics 25:221224. [KR]
McConkie, G. W., Zola, D. & Wolverton, G. S. (1980) How precise is eye guidance in reading? Paper presented at the American Educatiotsal Research Association, Boston, Mass., 04, 1980. [KR]
McEwen, W. K. (1962) Secretion of tears and blinking. In: The Eye: 3 Muscular mechanisms, ed. Davson, H., pp. 271305. Academic Press. [taRNH]
Mack, A. (1970) An investigation of the relationship between eye and retinal image movement in the perception of movement. Perception and Psychophysics 8:291298. [BB]
MacKay, D. M. (1976) Perceptual conflict between visual motion and change of location. Vision Research 16:557558. [WMM]
Marr, D. (1976) Early processing of visual information. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, B 275:483524. [JA]
Marr, D. (1980) Visual information processing: The structure and creation of visual representations. In: The psychology of vision, ed. Longuet-Higgins, H. C. & Sutherland, N. S.. Royal Society. [MC]
Marr, D. & Poggio, T. (1979) A computational theory of human stereo vision. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, B 204:301329. [JA]
Massaro, D. W. (1975) Experimental psychology and information processing. Rand McNally. [DWM]
Massaro, D. W. (1979) Reading and listening (tutorial paper). In: Processing of visible language, ed. Kolers, P. A., Wrolstad, M. & Bouma, H., vol. 1, pp. 331354. Plenum Press. [DWM]
Mays, L. E. & Sparks, D. L. (1980) Dissociation of visual and saccade-related responses in superior colliculus neurons. journal of Neurophysiology 43:207232. [MEG]
Merikle, P. M. (1980) Selection from visual persistence by perceptual groups and category membership. journal of Experimental Psychology: General 109:279295. [DJKM, GEM]
Metelli, F. (1974) The perception of transparency. Scientific American 230 (04):9098. [WMM]
Mewhort, D. J. K. (1967) Familiarity of letter sequences, response uncertainty and the tachistoscopic recognition experiment. Canadian journal of Psychology 21:309321.
(Also in: Information-processing approaches to visual perception, ed. Haber, R. N., pp. 353361. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1968. [DJKM]
Mewhort, D. J. K. & Campbell, A. J. (1978) Processing spatial information and the selective-masking effect. Perception and Psychophysics 24:93100. [DJKM]
Mewhort, D. J. K. & Campbell, A. J. (1981) Toward a model of skilled reading: An analysis of performance in tachistoscopic tasks. In: Reading research: Advances in theory and practice, vol. 3, ed. MacKinnon, G. E. & Waller, T. C., pp. 39118. Academic Press. [DJKM]
Mewhort, D. J. K., Campbell, A. J., Marchetti, F. M. & Campbell, J. I. D. (1981) Identification, localization, and “iconic memory”: An evaluation of the bar-probe task. Memory and Cognition 9:5067. [RLK, DJKM]
Mewhort, D. J. K., Marchetti, F. M., Gurnsey, R. & Campbell, A. J. (1982) Information persistence: A dual-buffer model for initial visual processing. Tenth International Symposium on Attention and Performance, Venlo, The Netherlands.
Mewhort, D. J. K., Merikle, P. M. & Bryden, M. P. (1969) On the transfer from iconic to short-term memory. journal of Experimental Psychology 81:8994. [DJKM]
Meyer, G. E. & Maguire, W. M. (1977) Spatial frequency and the mediation of short-term visual storage. Science 198:524525. [GML, GEM]
Michaels, C. F. & Carello, C. (1981) Direct perception. Prentice-Hall. [BGB, VDL]
Michaels, C. F. & Turvey, M. T. (1979) Central sources of visual masking: Indexing structures supporting seeing at a single, brief glance. Psychological Research 41:161. [BGB]
Michotte, A., Thinès, G. & Crabbé, G. (1964) Les compléments amodaux des structures perceptives. In: Studia Psychologica. Publications de I'Université de Louvain. [WMM]
Miller, G. A. (1956) The magical number, plus or minus two: Somne limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63:8197. [BJ]
Mitov, D. (1976) Spatial frequency and recognition time. In: Information processing in visual system: Proceedings of the IV symposium on sensory system physiology, ed. Glezer, V. D., pp. 142146. Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Scientific Council of Combined Problems of Physiology of Man and Animals, I. P. Pavlov Institute. In Russian. [AV]
Mitov, D. (1982) Temporal characteristics of complex grating discrimination. Perception 11:A25. [AV]
Morgan, M. J. (1977) Differential visual persistence between the two eyes: A model for the Fertsch-Pulfrich effect. journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 3:484495. [GML]
Naylor, H. (1980) Reading disability and lateral asymnmetry: An information- processing analysis. Psychological Bulletin 87:531545. [GEM]
Neisser, U. (1967) Cognitive psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [tarRN H, GJ, JJ, BJ, RLK, DJKM, UN, GS]
Neisser, U. (1976) Cognition and reality. Freeman. [BGB, taRNH, JJ, UN]
Neisser, U. (1981) Personal communication. [taRNH]
Neisser, U. & Becklen, R. (1975) Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events. Cognitive Psychology 7:480494. [SC]
O'Regan, J. K. (1981) The convenient viewing position hypothesis. In: Eye movements: Cognition and visual perception, ed. Fisher, D. F., Monty, R. A. & Senders, J. W.. Erlbaum. [KR]
Phillips, W. A. (1974) On the distinction between sensory storage and short-term visual memory. Perception and Psychophysics 16:283290. [WAP]
Phillips, W. A. & Singer, W. (1974) Function and interaction of on and off transients in vision: 1. Psychophysics. Experimental Brain Research 19:493506. [WAP, JTLW]
Podvigin, N. F. & Shelepin, Yu. E. (1981) Visual illusions induced by moving patterns. Sechenov Physiological Journal of the U.S.S.R., 67:223227. [AV]
Posner, M. I. & Shulman, C. L. (1979) Cognitive science. In: The first century of experimental psychology, ed. Hearst, E.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taRNH]
Rayner, K., Inhoff, A. W., Morrison, P. E., Slowiaczek, M. L. & Bertera, J. H. (1981) Masking of foveal and parafoveal vision during eye fixations in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology 7:167–79. [MC]
Rayner, K., McConkie, G. W. & Ehrlich, S. (1978) Eye movements and integrating information across fixations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 4:529544. [KR]
Raýner, K., McConkie, G. W. & Zola, D. (1980) Integrating information across eye movements. Cognitive Psychology 12:206226. [DJKM, KR]
Riggs, L. A. (1976) Saccadic suppression of phosphenes: Proof of neural basis for saccadic suppression. In: Eye Movements and Psychological Processes, ed. Monty, R. A. & Senders, J. W., pp. 85100. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taRNH]
Ritter, M. (1976) Evidence for visual persistence during saccadic movcmncnts. Psychological Research 39:6785. [BGB, JJ]
Robinson, D. L., Goldberg, M. E. & Stanton, G. B. (1978) Parietal association cortex in the primate: Sensory mechanisms and behavioral modulations. journal of Neurophysiology 41:910932. [MEG]
Ross, J. & Hogben, J. H. (1974) Short-term memory in stereopsis. Vision Research 14:11951201. [BJ]
Rumelhart, D. W. (1970) A multicomponent theory of the perception of briefly-exposed visual displays. journal of Mathematical Psychology 7:191218. [DWM]
Sakata, H., Shibutani, H. & Kawano, K. (1980) Spatial properties of visual fixation neurons in posterior parietal association cortex of the monkey. journal of Neurophysiology 43:16541672. [MEG]
Sakitt, B. (1975) Locus of short-term visual storage. Science 190:395403. [WPB, taRNH]
Sakitt, B. (1976) Iconic memory. Psychological Review 83:257276. [WPB, SC, taRNH, GS]
Saucer, R. T. (1953) The nature of perceptual processes. Science 117:556558. [WMM]
Saucer, R. T. (1954) Processes of motion perception. Science 120:806807. [WMM]
Schlag, J., Schlag-Rey, M., Peck, C. K. & Joseph, J. P. (1980) Visual responses of thalamic neurons depending on the direction of gaze and the position of targets in space. Experimental Brain Research 40:170184. [MEG]
Schultz, D. W. & Eriksen, C. W. (1977) Do noise masks terminate target processing? Memory and Cognition 5:9096. [GSW]
Schulz, T. (1980) Iconic memory – an artifact of perceptual reconstruction processes? Psychological Research 42:275294. [GEM]
Seyler, A. J. & Budrikis, Z. L. (1959) Measurement of temporal adaptation to detail vision. Nature 184:12151217. [GH, AV]
Shaw, R. E. & Pittenger, J. (1978) Perceiving change. in: Modes of perceiving, ed. Pick, H. & Saltzman, E.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, [WMM]
Shepard, R. N. & Zare, S. L. (1982) Path-guided apparent motion. Submitted for publication. [RAF]
Singer, W. & Phillips, W. A. (1974) Function and interaction of on and off transients in vision: 2. Neurophysiology. Experimental Brain Research 19:507521. [WAP]
Sperling, G. (1960) The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs 74, no. 11 (whole no. 498). [JA, MC, taRNH, BJ, CML, DJKM, WRU, GS]
Sperling, G. (1963) A model for visual memory tasks. Human Factors 5:1931. [taRNH, GS]
Sperling, G. (1967) Successive approximations to a model for short-term memory. Acta Psychologica 27:285292. [tarRNH, GS]
Sperling, G. & Kaufman, J. (1978) Three kinds of visual short-term memory. Unpublished talk presented at Eighth International Symposium on Attention and Performance, Princeton, N.J. [GS]
Sperling, G. & Speelman, R. G. (1970) Acoustic similarity and auditory short- term memory: Experiments and a model. In: Models of human memory, ed. Norman, D. A.. Academic Press. [GS]
Steinman, R. M. (1976) Role of eye movements in maintaining a phenomenally clear and stable world. In: Eye movements and psychological processes, ed. Monty, B. A. & Senders, J. W., pp. 121150. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taRNH]
Steinman, R. M. & Collewijn, H. (1980) Binocular retinal image motion during active head rotation. Vision Research 20:415429. [EHA]
Sternberg, S. (1969) The discovery of processing stages: Extensions of Donder's method. Acta Psychologica 30:276315. [GS]
Todd, J. (1981) Visual information about moving objects. journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 7:795810. [WMM]
Treisman, A., Russell, R. & Green, J. (1975) Brief visual storage of shape and movement. In: Attention and performance, vol. 5, ed. Rabbitt, P. M. A. & Dornic, S., pp. 699721. Academic Press. [taRNH, WAP, JTLW]
Turvey, M. T. (1973) On peripheral and central processes in vision:Inferences from an information processing analysis of masking with patterned stimuli. Psychological Review 80:152. [DWM]
Turvey, M. T. (1977a) Contrasting orientations to a theory of visual information processing. Psychological Review 84:6788. [WPB, BGB, taRNH]
Turvey, M. T. (1977b) Preliminaries to a theory of action with reference to vision. In:Perceiving, acting, and knowing, ed. Shaw, R. E. & Bransford, J.. Erlbaum. [VDL]
Turvey, M. T. (1978) Visual processing and short-term memory. In: Handbook of learning and cognitive processes, vol. 5, ed. Estes, W. K.. Erlbaum. [VDL]
Tyler, C. W. (1973) Temporal characteristics in apparent movement. Quarterly journal of Experimental Psychology 25:182192. [WMM]
Tynan, P. & Sekuler, R. (1975) Moving visual phantoms: A new contour completion effect. Science 188:951952. [WMM]
Vassilev, A. & Mitov, D. (1976) Perception time and spatial frequency. Vision Research 16:8992. [AV]
Volkmann, F. C., Riggs, L. A. & Moore, R. K. (1980) Eyeblinks and visual suppression. Science 207:900–02. [taRNH]
von, Wright J. M. (1968) Selections in visual immediate memory. Quarterly journal of Experimental Psychology 20:6268. [DJKM]
von, Wright J. M. (1970) On selection in visual immediate memory. Acta Psychologia 33:280292. [DJKM]
Wagner, H. (1982) Flow-field variables trigger landing in flies. Nature 297:147148. [WMM]
Weisstein, N. & Harris, C. (1980) Masking and the unmasking of distributed representations in the visual system. In: Visual coding and adaptability, ed. Harris, C. S.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [WMM]
White, C. W.Visual masking during pursuit eye movements. (1976) journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2:469478. [WPB, BGB]
Wilson, J. T. L. (1981) Visual persistence at both onset and offset of stimulation. Perception and Psychophysics 30:353356. [WAP, JTLW]
Wilson, J. T. L. & Phillips, W. A. (1980) Event perception as a function for visual sensory storage. Paper presented at the Third European conference on Visual Perception, Brighton. [WAP]
Wingfield, A. & Byrnes, D. L. (1981) The psychology of human memory. Academic Press. [GEM]
Wolf, W., Hauske, G. & Lupp, U. (1978) How presaccadic gratings modify postsaccadic modulation transfer function. Vision Research 18:11731179. [GH, JJ]
Wolf, W., Hauske, G. & Lupp, U. (1980) Interaction of pre- and postsaccadic patterns having the same coordinates in space. Vision Research 20:117125. [GH, JJ, KR]
Zeki, S. M. (1978) Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in the rhesus monkey prestriate cortex. journal of Physiology (London) 277:227244. [MEG]
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 43 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 301 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.