Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1520
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Aasen, Ida Emilia and Brunner, Jan Ferenc 2016. Modulation of ERP components by task instructions in a cued go/no-go task. Psychophysiology, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. 171.

    Ait Oumeziane, Belel and Foti, Dan 2016. Reward-related neural dysfunction across depression and impulsivity: A dimensional approach. Psychophysiology, Vol. 53, Issue. 8, p. 1174.

    Antonova, Ingrida van Swam, Claudia Hubl, Daniela Dierks, Thomas Griskova-Bulanova, Inga and Koenig, Thomas 2016. Reaction Time in a Visual 4-Choice Reaction Time Task: ERP Effects of Motor Preparation and Hemispheric Involvement. Brain Topography, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 491.

    Arjona, Antonio Escudero, Miguel and Gómez, Carlos M. 2016. Cue validity probability influences neural processing of targets. Biological Psychology, Vol. 119, p. 171.

    Berchicci, M. Spinelli, D. and Russo, F.Di 2016. New insights into old waves. Matching stimulus- and response-locked ERPs on the same time-window. Biological Psychology, Vol. 117, p. 202.

    Bergmann, Katharina Schubert, Anna-Lena Hagemann, Dirk and Schankin, Andrea 2016. Age-related differences in the P3 amplitude in change blindness. Psychological Research, Vol. 80, Issue. 4, p. 660.

    Berti, Stefan 2016. Switching Attention Within Working Memory is Reflected in the P3a Component of the Human Event-Related Brain Potential. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 9,

    Christoffersen, Gert R.J. and Schachtman, Todd R. 2016. Electrophysiological CNS-processes related to associative learning in humans. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 296, p. 211.

    Cosman, Joshua D. Arita, Jason T. Ianni, Julianna D. and Woodman, Geoffrey F. 2016. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search. Psychophysiology, Vol. 53, Issue. 4, p. 535.

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin and Heath, Matthew 2016. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 10,

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel Wilkie, Gianna and Kuperberg, Gina 2016. Vivid: How valence and arousal influence word processing under different task demands. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 415.

    Di Giorgio Silva, Luiza Wanick Cartier, Consuelo Cheniaux, Elie Novis, Fernanda Silveira, Luciana Angélica Cavaco, Paola Anaquim de Assis da Silva, Rafael Batista, Washington Adolfo Tanaka, Guaraci Ken Gongora, Mariana Bittencourt, Juliana Teixeira, Silmar Basile, Luis Fernando Budde, Henning Cagy, Mauricio Ribeiro, Pedro and Velasques, Bruna 2016. Electrical mapping in bipolar disorder patients during the oddball paradigm. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 72, p. 64.

    Diamond, Erin and Zhang, Yang 2016. Cortical processing of phonetic and emotional information in speech: A cross-modal priming study. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 82, p. 110.

    Donaldson, Kayla R. Ait Oumeziane, Belel Hélie, Sebastien and Foti, Dan 2016. The temporal dynamics of reversal learning: P3 amplitude predicts valence-specific behavioral adjustment. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 161, p. 24.

    Earls, Holly A. Curran, Tim and Mittal, Vijay 2016. A Meta-analytic Review of Auditory Event-Related Potential Components as Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia: Perspectives From First-Degree Relatives. Schizophrenia Bulletin, p. sbw047.

    Eichele, Heike Eichele, Tom Bjelland, Ingvar Høvik, Marie F. Sørensen, Lin van Wageningen, Heidi Worren, Marius Kalsås Hugdahl, Kenneth and Plessen, Kerstin J. 2016. Performance Monitoring in Medication-Naïve Children with Tourette Syndrome. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 10,

    Ferdinand, Nicola K. Becker, Aljoscha M.W. Kray, Jutta and Gehring, William J. 2016. Feedback processing in children and adolescents: Is there a sensitivity for processing rewarding feedback?. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 82, p. 31.

    Fields, Eric C. and Kuperberg, Gina R. 2016. Dynamic Effects of Self-Relevance and Task on the Neural Processing of Emotional Words in Context. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,

    Fölster, Mara and Werheid, Katja 2016. ERP evidence for own-age effects on late stages of processing sad faces. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 635.

    Freunberger, Dominik and Roehm, Dietmar 2016. Semantic prediction in language comprehension: evidence from brain potentials. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, p. 1.


Is the P300 component a manifestation of context updating?

  • Emanuel Donchin (a1) and Michael G. H. Coles (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2010

To understand the endogenous components of the event-related brain potential (ERP), we must use data about the components' antecedent conditions to form hypotheses about the information-processing function of the underlying brain activity. These hypotheses, in turn, generate testable predictions about the consequences of the component. We review the application of this approach to the analysis of the P300 component. The amplitude of the P300 is controlled multiplicatively by the subjective probability and the task relevance of the eliciting events, whereas its latency depends on the duration of stimulus evaluation. These and other factors suggest that the P300 is a manifestation of activity occurring whenever one's model of the environment must be revised. Tests of three predictions based on this “context updating” model are reviewed. Verleger's critique is based on a misconstrual of the model as well as a partial and misleading reading of the relevant literature.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

N. Adam & G. I. Collins (1978) Late components of the visual evoked potential to search in short-term memory. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 44:147–56.

I. O. Aleksandrov & N. E. Maksimova (1985) P300 and psychophysiological analysis of the structure of behavior. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 61:548–58.

K. Alho , P. Paavilainen , K. Reinikainen , M. Sams & R. Naatanen (1986) Separability of different negative components of the event-related potential associated with auditory stimulus processing. Psychophysiology 23:613–23.

I. Altafullah , E. Halgren , J. M. Stapleton & P. H. Crandall (1986) Interictal spike-wave complexes in the human medial temporal lobe: Typical topography and comparisons with cognitive potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 63:503–16.

J. P. Banquet , B. Renault & N. Lesevre (1981) Effect of task and stimulus probability on evoked potentials. Biological Psychology 13:203–14.

J. Baribeau-Braun , T. Picton & J. Y. Gosselin (1983) Schizophrenia: A neurophysiological evaluation of abnormal information processing. Science 219:874–76.

J. Beatty (1986) Computation, control and energetics: A biological perspective. In: Energetics and human information processing, ed. M. G. H. Coles . Martinus Nijhoff. NATO ASI series.

D. E. Becker & D. Shapiro (1980) Directing attention toward stimuli affects the P300 but not the orienting response. Psychophysiology 17:385–89.

H. Begleiter , B. Porjesz , C. L. Chou & J. I. Aunon (1983) P3 and stimulus incentive value. Psychophysiology 20:95101.

A. S. Bernstein (1969) To what does the orienting response respond? Psychophysiology 6:338–50.

M. Besson & F. Macar (1987) An event-related potential analysis of incongruity in music and other non-linguistic contexts. Psychophysiology 24:1425.

T. V. P. Bliss , G. V. Goddard & M. Riives (1983) Reduction of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the rat following selective depletion of monoamines. Journal of Physiology 334:475–91.

V. Braitenberg (1978) Cell assemblies in the cerebral cortex. In: Theoretical approaches to complex systems, ed. R. Heim & G. Palm . Springer.

D. Brandeis & D. Lehmann (1986) Event-related potentials of the brain and cognitive processes: Approaches and applications. Neuropsychologia 24:151–68.

K. A. Brookhuis , G. Mulder , L. J. M. Mulder , A. B. M. Gloerich (1983) The P3 complex as an index of information processing: The effects of response probability. Biological Psychology 17:277–96.

K. A. Brookhuis , G. Mulder , L. J. M. Mulder , A. B. M. Gloerich , H. J. Van Dellen , J. J. Van Der Meere & H. Ellermann (1981) Late positive components and stimulus evaluation time. Biological Psychology 13:107–24.

E. Callaway (1983) The pharmacology of human information processing. Psychophysiology 20:359–70.

K. B. Campbell , E. Courchesne , T. W. Picton & K. C. Squires (1979) Evoked potential correlates of human information processing. Biological Psychology 8:4568.

R. M. Chapman (1973) Evoked potentials of the brain related to thinking. In: Psychophysiology of thinking, ed. F. J. McGuigan & R. Schoonover . Academic Press.

R. M. Chapman & H. R. Bragdon (1964) Evoked responses to numerical and non-numerical visual stimuli while problem solving. Nature 203:1155–57.

R. M. Chapman , J. W. McCrary & J. A. Chapman (1978) Short-term memory: The “storage” component of human brain responses predicts recall. Science 202:1211–14.

R. M. Chapman , J. W. McCrary & J. A. Chapman (1981) Memory processes and evoked potentials. Canadian Journal of Psychology 35:201–12.

J. Cohen (1969) Very slow brain potentials relating to expectancy: The CNV. In: Average evoked potentials: Methods, results, and evaluations (NASA SP-191), ed. E. Donchin & D. B. Lindsley . U.S. Government Printing Office.

M. C. H. Coles & G. Gratton (1986) Cognitive psychophysiology and the study of states and processes. In: Energetics and human information processing, ed. G. R. J. Hockey , A. W. K. Gaillard & M. G. H. Coles . Martinus Nijhof.

E. Courchesne (1977) Event-related brain potentials: Comparison between children and adults. Science 197:589–92.

E. Courchesne (1978a) Neurophysiological correlates of cognitive development: Changes in long-latency event-related potentials from childhood to adulthood. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 45:468–82.

E. Courchesne (1978b) Changes in P3 waves with event repetition: Long term effects on scalp distribution and amplitude. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 45:754–66.

E. Courchesne , R. Y. Courchesne & S. A. Hillyard (1978) The effect of stimulus deviation on P3 waves to easily recognized stimuli. Neuropsychologia 16:189–99.

E. Courchesne , S. A. Hillyard & R. Y. Courchesne (1977) P3 waves to the discrimination of targets in homogeneous and heterogeneous stimulus sequences. Psychophysiology 14:590–97.

E. Courchesne , S. A. Hillyard & R. Galambos (1975) Stimulus novelty, task relevance, and the visual evoked potential in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 39:131–43.

E. Courchesne , B. A. Kilman , R. Galambos & A. J. Lincoln (1984) Autism: Processing of novel auditory information assessed by event-related brain potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 59:238–48.

S. A. Deadwyler , M. O. West , E. P. Christian , R. E. Hampson & T. C. Foster (1985) Sequence-related changes in sensory-evoked potentials in the dentate gyrus: A mechanism for item-specific short-term information storage in the hippocampus. Behavioral and Neural Biology 44:201–12.

L. Deecke , B. Grozinger & H. H. Kornhuber (1976) Voluntary finger movement in man: Cerebral potentials and theory. Biological Cybernetics 23:99119.

J. E. Desmedt & J. Debecker (1979b) Slow potential shifts and decision P350 interactions in tasks with random sequences of near-threshold clicks and finger stimuli delivered at regular intervals. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 47:671–79.

M. W. Donald (1983) Neural selectivity in auditory attention: Sketch of a theory. In: Tutorials in event-related potential research: Endogenous components, ed. A. W. K. Gaillard & W. Ritter . North-Holland.

M. W. Donald & W. R. Goff (1971) Attention-related increases in cortical responsitivity dissociated from the contingent negative variation. Science 172:1163–66.

M. W. Donald & R. Little (1981) The analysis of stimulus probability inside and outside of the focus of attention, as reflected by the auditory Nl and P3 components. Canadian Journal of Psychology 35:175–87.

M. W. Donald & M. J. Young (1982) A time-course analysis of attentional tuning of the auditory evoked response. Experimental Brain Research 46:357–67.

E. Donchin (1968) Average evoked potentials and uncertainty resolution. Psychonomic Science 12:103.

E. Donchin & L. Cohen (1967) Average evoked potentials and intramodality selective attention. Electroencephalography O Clinical Neurophysiology 22:537–46.

E. Donchin & L. Cohen (1969) Anticipation of relevant stimuli and evoked potentials: A reply to Naatanen. Perceptual and Motor Skills 29:115–17.

E. Donchin , L. K. Cerbrandt , L. Leifer & L. Tucker (1972) Is the contingent negative variation contingent on a motor response? Psychophysiology 9:17888.

E. Donchin , M. Kubovy , M. Kutas , R. Johnson Jr, & R. I. Herning (1973) Graded changes in evoked response (P300) amplitude as a function of cognitive activity. Perception & Psychophysics 14:319–24.

E. Donchin , D. Otto , L. K. Gerbrandt & K. H. Pribram (1971) While a monkey waits: Electrocortical events recorded during the foreperiod of a reaction time study. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 31:115–27.

E. Donchin & D. B. D. Smith (1970) The contingent negative variation and the late positive wave of the average evoked potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 29:201–3.

E. Donchin , P. Tueting , W. Ritter , M. Kutas & E. Heffley (1975) On the independence of the CNV and the P300 components of the human averaged evoked potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 38:449–61.

C. C. Duncan-Johnson & E. Donchin (1977) On quantifying surprise: The variation of event-related potentials with subjective probability. Psychophysiology 14(5):456–67.

C. C. Duncan-Johnson & E. Donchin (1982) The P300 component of the event-related brain potential as an index of information processing. Biological Psychology 14:152.

C. C. Duncan-Johnson & B. S. Kopell (1981) The Stroop effect: Brain potentials localize the source of interference. Science 214:938–40.

R. G. Eason , M. R. Harter & C. T. White (1969) Effects of attention and arousal on visually evoked cortical potentials and reaction time in man. Physiological Behavior 4:283–89.

H. J. Einhorn & R. M. Hogarth (1981) Behavioral decision theory: Processes of judgment and choice. Annual Review of Psychology 32:5388.

B. A. Eriksen , M. G. H. Coles , L. R. Morris & W. P. Ohara (1985) An electromyographic examination of response competition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23:165–68.

B. A. Eriksen & C. W. Eriksen (1974) Effects of noise letters upon the identification of target letter in a non-search task. Perception & Psychophysics 16:143–49.

M. Fabiani , D. Karis & E. Donchin (1986) P300 and recall in an incidental memory paradigm. Psychophysiolog 23:298308.

J. C. Falmagne (1965) Stochastic models for choice reaction time with applications to experimental results. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 2:77124.

I. Fischler , P. A. Bloom , D. G. Childers A. A. Arroyo & N. W. Perry (1984) Brain potentials during sentence verification: Late negativity and long-term memory strength. Neuropsychologia 22:559–68.

I. Fischler , P. A. Bloom , D. G. Childers , S. E. Roucos & N. W. Perry (1983) Brain potentials related to stages of sentence verification. Psychophysiology 20:400409.

I. Fischler , D. G. Childers , T. Achariyapaopan & N. W. Perry (1985) Brain potentials during sentence verification: Automatic aspects of comprehension. Biological Psychology 21:83105.

P. G. Fitzgerald & T. W. Picton (1981) Temporal and sequential probability in evoked potential studies. Canadian Journal of Psychology 35:188200.

J. M. Ford , C. C. Duncan-Johnson , A. Pfefferbaum & B. S. Kopell (1982) Expectancy for events in old age: Stimulus sequence effects on P300 and reaction time. Journal of Gerontology 37:696704.

J. M. Ford , A. Pfefferbaum , J. A. Tinkleberg & B. S. Kopell (1982) Effects of perceptual and cognitive difficulty on P3 and RT in young and old adults. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 54:311–21.

J. M. Ford , W. T. Roth , S. J. Dirks & B. S. Kopell (1973) Evoked potential correlates of signal recognition between and within modalities. Science 181:465–66.

J. M. Ford , W. T. Roth , R. C. Mohs , W. F. Hopkins & B. S. Kopell (1979) Event-related potentials recorded from young and old adults during a memory retrieval task. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 47:450–59.

T. C. Foster , E. P. Christian , R. E. Hampson , K. A. Campbell & S. A. Deadwyler (1987) Sequential dependencies regulate sensory evoked responses of single units in the rat hippocampus. Brain Research 408:8696.

P. Fraisse (1984) Perception and estimation of time. Annual Review of Psychology 35:136.

D. Friedman , C. Brown , H. G. Vaughan Jr, B. Cornblatt & L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling (1984) Cognitive brain potential components in adolescents. Psychophysiology 21:8396.

D. Friedman , G. Hakerem , S. Sutton & J. L. Fleiss (1973) Effect of stimulus uncertainty on the pupillary dilation response and the vertex evoked potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 34:475–84.

D. Friedman , R. Simson , W. Ritter & I. Rapin (1975) The late positive component (P300) and information processing in sentences. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 38:255–62.

D. Friedman , R. Simson , W. Ritter & I. Rapin (1975a) Cortical evoked potentials elicited by real speech words and human sounds. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 38:1319.

D. Friedman , H. G. Vaughan Jr, & L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling (1981) Multiple late positive potentials in two visual discrimination tasks. Psychophysiology 18:635–49.

V. Gadenne (1985) Theoretische Begriffe und die Prufbarkeit von Theorien. Zeitschrift fur allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 16:1924

A. W. K. Gaillard (1977) The late CNV wave: Preparation versus expectancy. Psychophysiology 14(6):563–68.

J. M. Gardiner , F. I. M. Craik & J. Birtwistle (1972) Retrieval cues and release from proactive inhibition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11:778–83.

D. S. Goodin , K. C. Squires , B. H. Henderson & A. Starr (1978) Agerelated variations in evoked potentials to auditory stimuli in normal human subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 44:447–58.

D. S. Goodin , K. C. Squires & A. Starr (1978) Long latency event-related components of the auditory evoked potential in dementia. Brain 101:635–48.

D. S. Goodin , K. C. Squires & A. Starr (1983) Variations in early and late event-related components of the auditory evoked potential with task difficulty. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 55:680–86.

D. S. Goodin , A. Starr , T. Chippendale & K. C. Squires (1983) Sequential changes in the P3 component of the auditory evoked potential in confusional states and dementing illnesses. Neurology 33:1215–18.

S. Grossberg (1980) How does a brain build a cognitive code? Psychological Review 87:151.

S. Grossberg (1982) Processing of expected and unexpected events during conditioning and attention: A psychophysiological theory. Psychological Review 89:529–72.

S. Grossberg (1982a) Studies of mind and brain. Reidel.

S. Grossberg (1987) Competitive learning: From interactive activation to adaptive resonance. Cognitive Science 11:2363.

G. Grünewald , E. Grünewald-Zuberbier , J. Netz , V. Hömberg & G. Sander (1979) Relationships between the late component of the contingent negative variation and the Bereitschaftspotential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 46:538–45.

M. Haider , P. Spong & D. B. Lindsley (1964) Attention, vigilance, and cortical evoked-potentials in humans. Science 145:180–82.

E. Halgren , N. K. Squires , C. L. Wilson , J. W. Rohrbaugh , T. L. Babb & P. H. Crandall (1980) Endogenous potentials generated in the human hippocampal formation and amygdala by infrequent events. Science 210:803–5.

E. Halgren , C. L. Wilson & J. M. Stapleton (1985) Human medial temporal lobe stimulation disrupts both formation and retrieval of recent memories. Brain and Cognition 4:287–95.

T. J. Harbin , G. R. Marsh & M. T. Harvey (1984) Differences in the late components of the event-related potential due to age and to semantic and non-semantic tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 59:489–96.

J. B. Harrison , J. S. Buchwald , K. Kaga , N. J. Woolf & L. L. Butcher (1988) ‘Cat P300’ disappears after septial lesions. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 69:5564.

A. J. P. Hendrikx (1984) Effects of grouping on recall latency. Ada Psychologica 55:118.

M. Hermanutz , R. Cohen & W. Sommer (1981) The effects of serial order in long sequences on event-related potentials. Psychophysiology 18:415–23.

S. A. Hillyard , E. Courchesne , H. I. Krausz & T. W. Picton (1976) Scalp topography of the P3 wave in different auditory decision tasks. In: The responsive brain, ed. W. C. McCallum & J. R. Knott . John Wright.

S. A. Hillyard & M. Kutas (1983) Electrophysiology of cognitive processing. Annual Review of Psychology 34:3361.

S. A. Hillyard , K. C. Squires , J. W. Bauer & P. H. Lindsay (1971) Evoked potential correlates of auditory signal detection. Science 172:1357–60.

R. F. Hink , S. A. Hillyard & P. J. Benson (1978) Event-related brain potentials and selective attention to acoustic and phonetic cues. Biological Psychology 6:116.

J. E. Hoffman , R. F. Simons & M. R. Houck (1983) Event-related potentials during controlled and automatic target detection. Psychophysiology 20:625–32.

P. J. Holcomb , P. T. Ackerman & R. A. Dykman (1985) Cognitive eventrelated brain potentials in children with attention and reading deficits. Psychophysiology 22:65667.

J. J. Hopfield & D. W. Tank (1986) Computing with neural circuits: A model. Science 233:625–33.

W. F. Hopkins & D. Johnston (1984) Frequency-dependent noradrenergic modulation of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Science 226:350–52.

R. L. Horst , R. Johnson Jr, & E. Donchin (1980) Event-related brain potentials and subjective probability in a learning task. Memory and cognition 8:476–88.

J. B. Isreal , G. L. Chesney , C. D. Wickens & E. Donchin (1980) P300 and tracking difficulty: Evidence for multiple resources in dual-task performance. Psychophysiology 17:259–73.

D. Jenness (1972) Auditory evoked-response differentiation with discrimination learning in humans. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 80:7590.

R. Johnson Jr, (1986) A triarchic model of P300 amplitude. Psychophysiology 23:367–84.

R. Johnson Jr, & E. Donchin (1978) On how P300 amplitude varies with the utility of the eliciting stimuli. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 44:424–37.

R. Johnson Jr, & E. Donchin (1980) P300 and stimulus categorization: Two plus one is not so different from one plus one. Psychophysiology 17:167–78.

R. Johnson Jr, & E. Donchin (1982) Sequential expectancies and decision making in a changing environment: An electrophysiological approach. Psychophysiology 19:183200.

R. Johnson Jr, & E. Donchin (1985) Second thoughts: Multiple P300s elicited by a single stimulus. Psychophysiology 22:182–94.

R. Johnson Jr, A. Pfefferbaum & B. S. Kopell (1985) P300 and long-term memory: Latency predicts recognition performance. Psychophysiology 22:497507.

V. S. Johnston & P. J. Holcomb (1980) Probability learning and the P3 component of the visual evoked potential in man. Psychophysiology 17:396400.

V. S. Johnston , D. R. Miller & M. H. Burleson (1986) Multiple P3s to emotional stimuli and their theoretical significance. Psychophysiology 23:684–94.

G. V. Jones (1983) Structure of the recall process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series B) 302:373–85.

M. R. Jones (1971) From probability learning to sequential processing: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin 76:153–85.

M. R. Jones (1976) Time, our lost dimension: Toward a new theory of perception, attention and memory. Psychological Review 83:323–55.

M. R. Jones (1985) Structural organization of events in time: A review. In: Time, mind and behavior, ed. J. A. Michon & J. Jackson-Roy . Springer.

F. De Jong or A. F. Sanders (1986) Relative signal frequency imbalance does not affect perceptual encoding in choice reactions. Acta Psychologica 62:211–23.

D. Kahneman & A. Tversky (1982) Variants of uncertainty. Cognition 11:143–57.

D. Karis , G. L. Chesney & E. Donchin (1983) “…'twas ten to one; And yet we ventured… ”: P300 and decision making. Psychophysiology 20:260–68.

D. Karis , M. Fabiani , & E. Donchin (1984) “P300” and memory: Individual differences in the von Restorff effect. Cognitive Psychology 16:177216.

L. Karlin (1970) Cognition, preparation, and sensory evoked potentials. Psychological Bulletin 73:122–36.

J. L. Kenemans , M. N. Verbaten , W. Sjouw & J. L. Slangen (1988) Effects of task-relevance on habituation of visual single-trial ERPs and the skin conductance orienting reaction. International Journal of Psychophysiology 6:5163.

M. Klein , M. G. H. Coles & E. Donchin (1984) People with absolute pitch process tones without producing a P300. Science 223:1306–09.

R. Klorman , L. F. Salzman , L. O. Bauer , H. W. Coons , A. D. Borgstedt & W. I. Halpem (1983) Effects of two doses of methylphenidate on cross-situational and borderline hyperactive children's evoked potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 56:169–85.

R. T. Knight (1984) Decreased response to novel stimuli after prefrontal lesions in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 59:920.

A. Kok (1978) The effect of warning stimulus novelty on the P300 and components of the contingent negative variation. Biological Psychology 6:219–33.

A. Kok (1986) Effects of degradation of visual stimuli on components of the eventrelated potential (ERP) in go/no go reaction tasks. Biological Psychology 23:2138.

A. Kok & H. L. de Jong (1980) Components of the event-related potential following degraded and undegraded visual stimuli. Biological Psychology 11:117–33.

A. Kok & H. L. de Jong (1980a) The effect of repetition of infrequent familiar and unfamiliar visual patterns on components of the event-related brain potential. Biological Psychology 10:167–88.

H. H. Kornhuber & L. Deecke (1965) Hirnpotentialanderungen bei Willkfirbewegungen und passiven Bewegungen des Menschen: Bereitschaftspotential und reafferente Potentiale. Pflügers Archie 284:117.

K. Kotovsky & H. A. Simon (1973) Empirical tests of a theory of human acquisition of concepts for sequential patterns. Cognitive Psychology 4:399424.

A. Kramer , W. Schneider , A. Fisk & E. Donchin (1986) The effect of practice and task structure on components of the event-related brain potential. Psychophysiology 23:3347.

M. Kutas & E. Donchin (1980) Preparation to respond as manifested by movement-related brain potentials. Brain Research 202:95115.

M. Kutas & S. A. Hillyard (1980a) Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science 207:203–5.

M. Kutas & S. A. Hillyard (1980b) Event related brain potentials to semantically inappropriate and surprisingly large words. Biological Psychology 11:99116.

M. Kutas & S. A. Hillyard (1983) Event-related brain potentials in grammatical errors and semantic anomalies. Memory and Cognition 11:539–50.

M. Kutas & S. A. Hillyard (1984b) Brain potentials during reading reflect word expectancy and semantic association. Nature 307:161–63.

M. Kutas G. McCarthy & E. Donchin (1977) Augmenting mental chronometry: The P300 as a measure of stimulus evaluation time. Science 197:792–95.

G. R. Lockhead & R. Byrd (1981) Practically perfect pitch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 70:387–89.

A. Magliero , T. R. Bashore , M. G. H. Coles & E. Donchin (1984) On the dependence of P300 latency on stimulus evaluation processes. Psychophysiology 21(2):171–86.

G. Mandler (1980) The judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review 87:252–71.

S. Mäntysalo & R. Näätänen (1987) The duration of a neuronal trace of an auditory stimulus as indicated by event-related potentials. Biological Psychology 24:183–95.

M. Marton , J. Szirtes , N. Donauer & P. Breuer (1985) Saccade-related brain potentials in semantic categorization tasks. Biological Psychology 20:163–84.

W. C. McCallum , S. H. Curry , R. Cooper , P. V. Pocock & D. Papakostopoulos (1983) Brain event-related potentials as indicators of early selective processes in auditory target localization. Psychophysiology 20:117.

W. C McCallum , S. F. Fanner & P. V. Pocock (1984) The effects of physical and semantic incongruities on auditory event-related potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 59:477–88.

G. McCarthy & E. Donchin (1978) Brain potentials associated with structural and functional visual matching. Neuropsychologia 16:571–85.

G. McCarthy & E. Donchin (1981) A metric for thought: A comparison of P300 latency and reaction time. Science 211:7779.

K. J. Meador , E. J. Hammond , D. W. Loring , M. Allen , D. Bowers & K. M. Heilman (1987) Cognitive evoked potentials and disorders of recent memory. Neurology 37:526–29.

A. L. Megela & T. J. Teyler (1979) Habituation and the human evoked potential. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 93:1154–70.

J. Mehler , J. Morton & P. W. Jusczyk (1984) On reducing language to biology. Cognitive Neuropsychology 1:83116.

M. M. Mesulam (1981) A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect. Annals of Neurology 10:309–25.

J. Möcks (1986) The influence of latency jitter in principal component analysis of event-related potentials. Psychophysiology 23:480–84.

J. Möcks , T. Gasser , W. Köhler & J. P. C. de Weerd (1986) Does filtering and smoothing of average evoked potentials really pay? A statistical comparison. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 64:469–80.

J. Möcks & R. Verleger (1986) Principal component analysis of event-related potentials: A note on misalloeation of variance. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 65:393–98.

R. Munson , D. S. Ruchkin , W. Ritter , S. Sutton & N. K. Squires (1984) The relation of P3b to prior events and future behavior. Biological Psychology 19:129.

R. Näätänen (1969) Anticipation of relevant stimuli and evoked potentials: A comment on Donchin's and Cohen's “Averaged evoked potentials and intramodality selective attention.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 28:639–46.

R. Näätänen (1970) Evoked potential, EEG an d slow potential correlates of selective attention. Acta Psychologica Supplement 33:178–92.

R. Näätänen (1975) Selective attention and evoked potentials in humans — a critical review. Biological Psychology 2:237307.

R. Näätänen , A. W. K. Gaillard & C. A. Varey (1981) Attention effects on auditory EPs as a function of inter-stimulus interval. Biological Psychology 13:173–88.

R. Näätänen & T. Picton (1987) The Nl wave of the human electric and magnetic response to sound: A review and an analysis of the component structure. Psychophysiology 24:375425.

R. Näätänen , M. Simpson & N. E. Loveless (1982) Stimulus deviance and evoked potentials. Biological Psychology 14:5398.

H. J. Neville , M. Kutas , G. Chesney & A. L. Schmidt (1986) Event-related brain potentials during initial encoding and recognition memory of congruous an d incongruous words. Journal of Memory and Language 25:7592.

D. A. Norman & T. Shallice (1986) Attention to action. In: Consciousness and self-regulation, ed. R. A. Davidson , G. E. Schwartz & D. Shapiro . Plenum Press.

Y. C. Okada , L. Kaufman & S. J. Williamson (1983) The hippocampal formation as a source of th e slow endogenous potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 55:417–26.

J. O'Keefe (1979) A review of the hippocampal place cells. Progress in Neurobiology 13:419–39.

T. Okita (1981) Slow negative shifts of the human event-related potential associated with selective information processing. Biological Psychology 12:6376.

T. Okita , K. Konishi & R. Inamori (1983) Attention-related negative brain potential for speech words and pure tones. Biological Psychology 16:2947.

T. Okita , A. A. Wijers , G. Mulder & L. J. M. Mulder (1985) Memory search and visual spatial attention: An event-related brain potential analysis. Acta Psychologica 60:263–92.

K. A. Paller , M. Kutas & A. R. Mayes (1987) Neural correlates of encoding n an incidental learning paradigm. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 67:360–71.

G. Palm (1982) Neural assemblies: An alternative approach to artificial intelligence. Springer.

D. D. Paul & S. Sutton (1972) Evoked potential correlates of response criterion in auditory signal detection. Science 177:362–64.

J. Perdok & A. W. K. Gaillard (1979) The terminal CNV and stimulus discriminability in motor and sensory tasks. Biological Psychology 8:213–23.

J. F. Peters , T. W. Billinger & J. R. Knott (1977) Event related potentials of brain (CNV and P300) in a paired associate learning paradigm. Psychophysiology 14:579–85.

A. Pfefferbaum , C. Christensen , J. M. Ford & B. S. Kopell (1986) Apparent response incompatibility effects on P3 latency depend on the task. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 64:424–37.

A. Pfefferbaum , J. Ford , R. Johnson Jr, B. Wenegrat & B. S. Kopell (1983) Manipulation of P3 latency: Spee d vs. accuracy instructions. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 55:188–97.

A. Pfefferbaum , J. M. Ford , B. J. Weller & B. S. Kopell (1985) ERPs to response production and inhibition. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 60:423–34.

A. Pfefferbaum , J. M. Ford , B. G. Wenegrat , W. T. Roth & B. S. Kopell (1984) Clinical application of the P3 component of event-related potentials. I. Normal aging. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 59:85103.

T. W. Picton & S. A. Hillyard (1974) Human auditory evoked potentials. II: Effects of attention. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 36:191200.

T. W. Picton & M. D. Low (1971) The CNV and semantic content of stimuli in the experimental paradigm: Effects of feedback. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 31:451–56.

T. W. Picton , D. T. Stuss , S. C. Champagne & R. F. Nelson (1984) The effects of age on human event-related potentials. Psychophysiology 21:312–25.

J. Polich (1985a) Semantic categorization and event-related potentials. Brain and Language 26:304–21.

J. Polich (1985b) N400s from sentences, semantic categories, number and letter strings? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23:361–64.

J. Polich (1986) Normal variation of P300 from auditory stimuli. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 65:236–40.

J. Polich (1987) Comparison of P300 from a passive tone sequence paradigm and an active discrimination task. Psychophysiology 24:4146.

J. Polich & T. Burns (1987) P300 from identical twins. Neuropsychologia 25:299304.

J. Polich , C. McCarthy , W. S. Wang & E. Donchin (1983) When words collide: Orthographic and phonological interference during word processing. Biological Psychology 16:155–80.

L. W. Poon , L. W. Thompson , R. B. Williams Jr, & G. R. Marsh (1974) Changes of antero-posterior distribution of CNV and late positive component as a function of information processing demands. Psychophysiology 11:660–73.

M. I. Posner , R. Klein , J. Summers & S. Buggie (1973) On the selection of signals. Memory and Cognition 1:212.

K. H. Pribram & D. McCuinness (1975) Arousal, activation, and effort in the control of attention. Psychological Review 82:116–49.

W. S. Pritchard (1981) Psychophysiology of P300. Psychological Bulletin 89:506–40.

P. M. A. Rabbitt (1966) Errors and error-correction in choice response tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71:264–72.

P. M. A. Rabbitt (1968) Three kinds of error-signalling responses in a serial choice task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 20:232–40.

P. M. A. Rabbitt & B. Rogers (1977) What does a man do after he makes an error? An analysis of response programming. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 29:727–43.

R. Ragot (1984) Perceptual and motor space representation: An event-related potential study. Psychophysiology 21:159–70.

R. Ragot & B. Renault (1981) P300 as a function of S-R compatibility and motor programming. Biological Psychology 13:289–94.

R. Ragot & B. Renault (1985) P300 and S-R compatibility: A Reply to Magliero et al. Psychophysiology 22:349–52.

R. J. Remington (1969) Analysis of sequential effects in choice reaction times. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82:250–57.

F. Restle (1970) Theory of serial pattern learning: Structural trees. Psychological Review 77:481–95.

W. Ritter , R. Simson & H. C. Vaughan Jr, (1972) Association cortex potentials and reaction time in auditory discrimination. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 33:547–55.

W. Ritter & H. G. Vaughan Jr, (1969) Averaged evoked responses in vigilance and discrimination: A reassessment. Science 164:326–28.

W. Ritter , H. G. Vaughan Jr, & L. D. Costa (1968) Orienting and habituation to auditory stimuli: A study of short-term changes in average evoked responses. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 25:550–56.

F. Rösier (1983) Endogenous ERPs and cognition: Probes, prospects, and pitfalls in matching pieces of the mind-body puzzle. In: Tutorials in event related potential research: Endogenous components, ed. A. W. K. Gaillard & W. Ritter . North-Holland.

W. T. Roth (1973) Auditory evoked responses to unpredictable stimuli. Psychophysiology 10:125–38.

W. T. Roth (1983) A comparison of P300 and the skin conductance response. In: Tutorials in ERP research — Endogenous components, ed. A. W. K. Gaillard & W. Ritter . North-Holland.

W. T. Roth , G. H. Blowers , C. Doyle & B. S. Kopell (1982) Auditory stimulus intensity effects on components of the late positive complex. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 54:132–46.

W. T. Roth , K. H. Dorato & B. S. Kopell (1984) Intensity and task effects on evoked physiological responses to noise bursts. Psychophysiology 21:466–81.

W. T. Roth , J. M. Ford & B. S. Kopell (1978) Long-latency evoked potentials and reaction time. Psychophysiology 15(1):1723.

D. S. Ruchkin , R. Munson & S. Sutton (1982) P300 and slow wave in a message consisting of two events. Psychophysiology 19:629–42.

D. S. Ruchkin , S. Sutton & D. Mahaffey (1987) Functional differences between members of the P300 complex: P3e and P3b. Psychophysiology 24:87103.

D. S. Ruchkin , S. Sutton , D. Mahaffey & J. Glaser (1986) Terminal CNV in the absence of motor response. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 63:445–63.

D. S. Ruchkin , S. Sutton , R. Munson , K. Silver & F. Macar (1981) P300 and feedback provide d by absence of the stimulus. Psychophysiology 18:271–82.

M. D. Rugg (1984) Event-related potentials and the phonological processing of words and non-words. Neuropsychologia 22:435–43.

M. Sams , K. Alho & R. Näätänen (1983) Sequential effects on the ERP in discriminating two stimuli. Biological Psychology 17:4158.

M. Sams , K. Alho & R. Näätänen (1984) Short-term habituation and dishabituation of the mismatch negativity of the ERP. Psychophysiology 21:434–41.

A. F. Sanders (1983) Towards a model of stress and human performance. Acta Psychologica 53:6197.

T. F. Sanquist , J. W. Rohrbaugh , K. Syndulko & D. B. Lindsley (1980) Electrocortical signs of levels of processing: Perceptual analysis and recognition memory. Psychophysiology 17:568–76.

R. W. Schvaneveldt & W. G. Chase (1969) Sequential effects in choice reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80:18.

R. W. Scholz (1987) Cognitive strategies in stochastic thinking. Reidel.

G. C. Sheatz & R. M. Chapman (1969) Task relevance and auditory evoked responses. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 26:468–75.

V. B. Shvyrkov (1985) Towards a psychophysiological theory of behavior. In: Psychophysiological approach to human information processing, ed. F. Klix , R. Näätänen & K. Zimmer . Elsevier.

J. A. Siegel (1974) Sensory and verbal coding strategies in subjects with absolute pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103:3744.

J. A. Siegel & W. Siegel (1977) Absolute identification of notes and intervals by musicians. Perception & Psychophysics 21:143–52.

R. F. Simons , J. E. Hoffman & F. W. Macmillan III, (1983) The component structure of event-related slow potentials: Task, ISI, and warning stimulus effects on the ‘E’ wave. Biological Psychology 17:193219.

R. F. Simons , A. ähman & P. J. Lang (1979) Anticipation and response set: Cortical, cardiac and electrodermal correlates. Psychophysiology 16:222–33.

R. Simson , H. G. Vaughan Jr, & W. Ritter (1977) The scalp topography of potentials in auditory and visual go/no go tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 43:864–75.

W. Singer (1986) The brain as a self-organizing system. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences 236:49.

D. B. Smith , E. Donchin , L. Cohen & A. Starr (1970) Auditory averaged evoked potentials in man during selective binaural listening. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 28:146–52.

M. E. Smith , J. M. Stapleton & E. Halgren (1986) Human medial temporal lobe potentials evoked in memory and language tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 63:145–59.

E. Snyder & S. A. Hillyard (1976) Long latency evoked potentials to irrelevant, deviant stimuli. Behavioral Biology 16:319–31.

K. C. Squires , E. Donchin , R. I. Herning & G. McCarthy (1977b) On the influence of task relevance and stimulus probability on event-related potential components. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 42:114.

K. C Squires , S. A. Hillyard & P. H. Lindsay (1973) Cortical potentials evoked by confirming and disconfirming feedback following an auditory discrimination. Perception & Psychophysics 13:2531.

K. C. Squires , S. Petuchowski , C. Wickens & E. Donchin (1977a) The effects of stimulus sequence on event related potentials: A comparison of visual and auditory sequences. Perception & Psychophysics 22(1):3140.

K. C. Squires , C. D. Wickens , N. K. Squires & E. Donchin (1976) The effect of stimulus sequence on the waveform of the cortical event-related potential. Science 193:1142–46.

N. K. Squires , K. C. Squires & S. A. Hillyard (1975) Two varieties of long-latency positive waves evoked by unpredictable auditory stimuli in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 38:387401.

J. M. Stapleton & E. Halgren (1987) Endogenous potentials evoked in simple cognitive tasks: Depth components and task correlates. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 67:4452.

J. M. Stapleton , E. Halgren & K. A. Moreno (1987) Endogenous potentials after interior temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychologia 25:549–57.

J. M. Stapleton , T. O'Reilly & E. Halgren (1987) Endogenous potentials in simple cognitive tasks: Scalp topography. International Journal of Neurosdence 36:7588.

J. A. Stern , L. C. Walrath & R. Goldstein (1984) The endogenous eyeblink. Psychophysiology 21:2233.

J. Strauss , J. L. Lewis , R. Klorman , L.-J. Peloquin , R. A. Perlmutter & L. F. Salzman (1984) Effects of methylphenidate on young adults' performance and event-related potentials in a vigilance and a paired-associates learning test. Psychophysiology 21:609–21.

D. T. Stuss & T. W. Picton (1978) Neurophysiological correlates of human concept formation. Behavioral Biology 23:135–62.

D. T. Stuss , T. W. Picton & A. M. Cerri (1986) Searching for the names of pictures: An event-related potential study. Psychophysiology 23:215–23.

S. Sutton (1969) The specification of psychological variables in an average evoked potential experiment. In: Average evoked potentials: Methods, results and evaluations, ed. E. Donchin & D. B. Lindsley (NASA SP–191). U.S. Government Printing Office.

S. Sutton (1979) P300 — thirteen years later. In: Evoked brain potentials and behavior, ed. H. Begleiter . Plenum Press.

S. Sutton , M. Braren , J. Zubin & E. R. John (1965) Evoked-potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 150:1187–88.

S. Sutton , P. Tueting , J. Zubin & E. R. John (1967) Information delivery and the sensory evoked potential. Science 155:1436–39.

J. H. de Swart , A. Kok & E. A. Das-Smaal (1981) P300 and uncertainty reduction in a concept identification task. Psychophysiology 18:619–29.

M. J. Taylor (1978) Bereitschaftspotential during the acquisition of a skilled motor task. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 45:568–76.

D. M. Tucker & P. A. Williamson (1984) Asymmetric neural control systems in human self-regulation. Psychological Review 91:185215.

P. Tueting , S. Sutton & J. Zubin (1970) Quantitative evoked potential correlates of the probability of events. Psychophysiology 7:385–94.

R. Ulrich (1987) Threshold models of temporal-order judgments evaluated by a ternary response task. Perception & Psychophysics 42:224–39.

C. Van Petten & M. Kutas (1987) Ambiguous words in context: An event-related potential analysis of the time course of meaning activation. Journal of Memory and Language 26:188208.

M. Velasco , F. Velasco , A. L. Velasco , X. Almanza & A. Olivera (1986) Subcortical correlates of the P300 potential complex in man to auditory stimuli. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 64:199210.

M. N. Verbaten , J. W. Roelofs , W. Sjouw & J. L. Slangen (1986a) Habituation of early and late visual ERP components and the orienting reaction: The effect of stimulus information. International Journal of Psychophysiology 3:287–98.

M. N. Verbaten , J. W. Roelofs , W. Sjouw & J. L. Slangen (1986b) Different effects of uncertainty and complexity on single trial visual ERPs and the SCR-OR in non-signal conditions. Psychophysiology 23:254–62.

R. Verleger , T. Gasser & J. Möcks (1985) Short-term changes of event-related potentials during concept learning. Biological Psychology 20:116.

K. R. Vervaeck & L. C. Boer (1980) Sequential effects in two-choice reaction time: Subjective expectancy and automatic aftereffect at short response-stimulus intervals. Acta Psychologica 44:175–90.

H. von Restorff (1933) Über die Wirkung von Bereichsbildungen im Spurenfeld. Psychologische Forschung 18:299342.

W. G. Walter , R. Cooper , V. J. Aldridge , W. C. McCallum & A. L. Winter (1964) Contingent negative variation: An electric sign of sensorimotor association and expectancy in the human brain. Nature (London) 203:380–84.

W. D. Ward & E. M. Burns (1982) Absolute pitch. In: The psychology of music, ed. D. Deutsch . Academic Press.

L. R. Warren (1980) Evoked potential correlates of recognition memory. Biological Psychology 11:2135.

M. O. West , E. Christian , J. H. Robinson & S. A. Deadwyler (1982) Evoked potentials in the dentate gyrus reflect the retention of past sensory events. Neuroscience Letters 28:319–24.

C. D. Wickens , A. Kramer , L. Vanasse & E. Donchin (1983) Performance of concurrent tasks: A psychophysiological analysis of th e reciprocity of information-processing resources. Science 221:1080–82.

R. T. Wilkinson (1980) Evoked potentials and signal detection: The influence of slow potentials. In: Evoked potentials, ed. C. Barber . MTP Press.

R. T. Wilkinson & S. M. Ashby (1974) Selective attention, contingent negative variation and the evoke d potential. Biological Psychology 1:167–79.

R. T. Wilkinson & D. M. Seales (1978) EEG event-related potentials and signal detection. Biological Psychology 7:1328.

R. T. Wilkinson & M. T. Spence (1973) Determinants of the post-stimulus resolution of contingent negative variation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 35:503–9.

L. E. Wilson , M. R. Harter & H. H. Wells (1973) Evoked cortical potentials and discrimination problem-solving in humans. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 34:1522.

J. C. Woestenburg , M. N. Verbaten & J. L. Slangen (1981) The influence of information on habituation of the “Wiener” filtered visual event related potential and the skin conductance reaction. Biological Psychology 13:189201.

J. C. Woestenburg , M. N. Verbaten & J. L. Slangen (1983) Stimulus information and habituation of the visual event related potential and the skin conductance reaction under task-relevance conditions. Biological Psychology 16:225–40.

C. C. Wood & G. McCarthy (1984) Principal component analysis of event-related potentials: Simulation studies demonstrate misallocation of variance across components. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 59:249–60.

C. C. Wood , G. McCarthy , N. K. Squires , H. G. Vaughan , D. L. Woods & W. C. McCallum (1984) Anatomical an d physiological substrates of event-related potentials: Two case studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 425:681721.

R. S. Wyer Jr, & T. K. Srull (1986) Human cognition in its social context. Psychological Review 93:322–59.

C. D. Yingling & Y. Hosobuchi (1984) A subcortical correlate of P300 in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 59:7276.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *