This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
A. Abzhanov , W. P. Kuo , C. Hartmann , B. R. Grant , P. R. Grant & C. J. Tabin (2006) The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin's finches. Nature 442:563–67.
A. Abzhanov , M. Protas , B. R. Grant , P. R. Grant & C. J. Tabin (2004) Bmp4 and morphological variation of beaks in Darwin's finches. Science 305:1462–65.
M. A. Arbib (2005) From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(2):105–24.
M. C. Baker (2001) The atoms of language: The mind's hidden rules of grammar. Basic Books.
M. C. Baker (2003) Language differences and language design. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:349–53.
J. M. Baldwin (1896) A new factor in evolution. American Naturalist 30:441–51.
A. Beja-Pereira , G. Luikart , P. R. England , D. G. Bradley , O. C. Jann , G. Bertorelle , A. T. Chamberlain , T. P. Nunes , S. Metodiev , N. Ferrand & G. Erhardt (2003) Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes. Nature Genetics 35:311–13.
D. Bickerton (2003) Symbol and structure: A comprehensive framework for language evolution. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 77–93. Oxford University Press.
P. Bloom (2001) Précis of How children learn the meanings of words. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24(6):1095–103.
E. J. Briscoe (2003) Grammatical assimilation. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 295–316. Oxford University Press.
P. J. Brooks , M. D. S. Braine , L. Catalano , R. E. Brody & V. Sudhalter (1993) Acquisition of gender-like noun subclasses in an artificial language: The contribution of phonological markers to learning. Journal of Memory and Language 32:76–95.
J. L. Bybee (2002) Sequentiality as the basis of constituent structure. In: The evolution of language out of pre-language, ed. T. Givón & B. Malle , pp. 107–32. John Benjamins.
J. L. Bybee (2007) Frequency of use and the organization of language. Oxford University Press.
W. H. Calvin (1994) The emergence of intelligence. Scientific American 271:100–107.
L. L. Cavalli-Sforza & M. W. Feldman (2003) The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution. Nature Genetics 33:266–75.
N. Chater & P. Vitányi (2007) “Ideal learning” of natural language: Positive results about learning from positive evidence. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 51:135–63.
N. Chomsky (2005b) Three factors in language design. Linguistic Inquiry 36:1–22.
C. M. Conway & M. H. Christiansen (2001) Sequential learning in non-human primates. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5:539–46.
C. M. Conway , J. Karpicke & D. B. Pisoni (2007) Contribution of implicit sequence learning to spoken language processing: Some preliminary findings with hearing adults. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 12:317–34.
M. C. Corballis (1992) On the evolution of language and generativity. Cognition 44:197–226.
M. C. Corballis (2003) From hand to mouth: The gestural origins of language. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 201–18. Oxford University Press.
S. Crain , T. Goro & R. Thornton (2006) Language acquisition is language change. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 35:31–49.
S. Crain & P. Pietroski (2001) Nature, nurture and universal grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy 24:139–85.
S. Crain & P. Pietroski (2006) Is Generative Grammar deceptively simple or simply deceptive? Lingua 116:64–68.
W. Croft (2001) Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford University Press.
P. W. Culicover & R. Jackendoff (2005) Simpler syntax. Oxford University Press.
S. Curtin , T. H. Mintz & M. H. Christiansen (2005) Stress changes the representational landscape: Evidence from word segmentation. Cognition 96:233–62.
A. Cutler , J. Mehler , D. Norris & J. Segui (1986) The syllable's differing role in the segmentation of French and English. Journal of Memory and Language 25:385–400.
E. Dabrowska (1997) The LAD goes to school: A cautionary tale for nativists. Linguistics 35:735–66.
C. Darwin (1874) The descent of man and selection in relation to sex, 2nd edition.John Murray.
I. Davidson (2003) The archaeological evidence of language origins: States of art. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 140–57. Oxford University Press.
D. Dediu & D. R. Ladd (2007) Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes. ASPM and microcephalin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:10944–49.
() . :–.M. S. Dryer 1992 The Greenbergian word order correlations Language 68 81138
R. I. M. Dunbar (2003) The origin and subsequent evolution of language. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 219–34. Oxford University Press.
S. T. Emlen (1970) Celestial rotation: Its importance in the development of migratory orientation. Science 170:1198–1201.
W. Enard , M. Przeworski , S. E. Fisher , C. S. L. Lai , V. Wiebe , T. Kitano , A. P. Monaco & S. Pääbo (2002) Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 418:869–72.
D. L. Everett (2005) Cultural constraints on grammar and cognition in Pirahã. Current Anthropology 46:621–46.
T. A. Farmer , M. H. Christiansen & P. Monaghan (2006) Phonological typicality influences on-line sentence comprehension. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103:12203–208.
S. E. Fisher (2006) Tangled webs: Tracing the connections between genes and cognition. Cognition 101:270–97.
M. R. Frean & E. R. Abraham (2004) Adaptation and enslavement in endosymbiont-host associations. Physical Review E 69:051913.
A. D. Friederici , J. Bahlmann , S. Heim , R. I. Schibotz & A. Anwander (2006) The brain differentiates human and non-human grammars: Functional localization and structural connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103:2458–63.
A. D. Friederici , K. Steinhauer & E. Pfeifer (2002) Brain signatures of artificial language processing: Evidence challenging the critical period hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:529–34.
L. Frigo & J. L. McDonald (1998) Properties of phonological markers that affect the acquisition of gender-like subclasses. Journal of Memory and Language 39:218–45.
T. Givón (1998) On the co-evolution of language, mind and brain. Evolution of Communication 2:45–116.
T. Givón & B. F. Malle , eds. (2002) The evolution of language out of pre-language. John Benjamins.
R. M. Golinkoff , K. Hirsh-Pasek , L. Bloom , L. Smith , A. Woodward , N. Akhtar , M. Tomasello & G. Hollich , eds. (2000) Becoming a word learner: A debate on lexical acquisition. Oxford University Press.
R. L. Gómez (2002) Variability and detection of invariant structure. Psychological Science 13:431–36.
R. L. Gómez & L. A. Gerken (2000) Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:178–86.
S. J. Gould & R. C. Lewontin (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Series B) 205:581–98.
R. D. Gray & Q. D. Atkinson (2003) Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature 426:435–39.
T. R. G. Green (1979) Necessity of syntax markers: Two experiments with artificial languages. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18:481–96.
O. Gruber (2002) The co-evolution of language and working memory capacity in the human brain. In: Mirror neurons and the evolution of brain and language, ed. M. I. Stamenov & V. Gallese , pp. 77–86. John Benjamins.
W. D. Hamilton (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1–52.
M. Hare & J. L. Elman (1995) Learning and morphological change. Cognition 56:61–98.
M. D. Hauser , N. Chomsky & W. T. Fitch (2002) The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 298(5598):1569–79.
M. D. Hauser & W. T. Fitch (2003) What are the uniquely human components of the language faculty? in: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 158–81. Oxford University Press.
J. A. Hawkins (2004) Efficiency and complexity in grammars. Oxford University Press.
J. D. Hawks , K. Hunley , S-H. Lee & M. Wolpoff (2000) Population bottlenecks and Pleistocene human evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17:2–22.
C. L. Hudson Kam & E. L. Newport (2005) Regularizing unpredictable variation: The roles of adult and child learners in language formation and change. Language Learning and Development 1:151–95.
J. R. Hurford (1991) The evolution of the critical period for language learning. Cognition 40:159–201.
J. R. Hurford (2003) The language mosaic and its evolution. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 38–57. Oxford University Press.
E. Jablonka & M. J. Lamb (1989) The inheritance of acquired epigenetic variations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 139:69–83.
R. Jackendoff (2002) Foundations of language: Brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford University Press.
S. Johansson (2006) Working backwards from modern language to proto-grammar. In: The evolution of language, ed. A. Cangelosi , A. D. M. Smith & K. Smith , pp. 160–67. World Scientific.
C. Juliano & M. K. Tanenhaus (1994) A constraint-based lexicalist account of the subject/object attachment preference. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 23:459–71.
Y. Kamide , G. T. M. Altmann & S. Haywood (2003) The time-course of prediction in incremental sentence processing: Evidence from anticipatory eye-movements. Journal of Memory and Language 49:133–59.
M. P. Kaschak & A. M. Glenberg (2004) This construction needs learned. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133:450–67.
S. Kirby , M. Dowman & T. Griffiths (2007) Innateness and culture in the evolution of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:5241–45.
S. Kirby & J. Hurford (2002) The emergence of linguistic structure: An overview of the iterated learning model. In: Simulating the evolution of language, ed. A. Cangelosi & D. Parisi , pp. 121–48. Springer Verlag.
V. Kvasnicka & J. Pospichal (1999) An emergence of coordinated communication in populations of agents. Artificial Life 5:318–42.
C. S. L. Lai , S. E. Fisher , J. A. Hurst , F. Vargha-Khadem & A. P. Monaco (2001) A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature 413:519–23.
C. S. L. Lai , D. Gerrelli , A. P. Monaco , S. E. Fisher & A. J. Copp (2003) FOXP2 expression during brain development coincides with adult sites of pathology in a severe speech and language disorder. Brain 126:2455–62.
S. J. Lanyon (2006) A saltationist approach for the evolution of human cognition and language. In: The evolution of language, ed. A. Cangelosi , A. D. M. Smith & K. Smith , pp. 176–83. World Scientific.
S. C. Levinson (1987b) Minimization and conversational inference. In: The pragmatic perspective: Proceedings of the International Conference on Pragmatics at Viareggio, ed. M. Papi & J. Verschueren , pp. 61–129. John Benjamins.
M. Li & P. Vitányi (1997) An introduction to Kolmogorov complexity theory and its applications, 2nd edition.Springer.
P. Lieberman (2003) Motor control, speech, and the evolution of human language. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 255–71. Oxford University Press.
J. L. Locke & B. Bogin (2006) Language and life history: A new perspective on the development and evolution of human language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29:259–80.
K. D. MacDermot , E. Bonora , N. Sykes , A. M. Coupe , C. S. L. Lai , S. C. Vernes , F. Vargha-Khadem , F. McKenzie , R. L. Smith , A. P. Monaco & S. E. Fisher (2005) Identification of FOXP2 truncation as a novel cause of developmental speech and language deficits. American Journal of Human Genetics 76:1074–80.
M. C. MacDonald & M. H. Christiansen (2002) Reassessing working memory: A comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996). Psychological Review 109:35–54.
M. C. MacDonald , N. J. Pearlmutter & M. S. Seidenberg (1994) The lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution. Psychological Review 101:676–703.
P. F. MacNeilage (1998) The frame/content theory of evolution of speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:499–511.
B. F. Malle (2002) The relation between language and theory of mind in development and evolution. In: The evolution of language out of pre-language, ed. T. Givón & B. Malle , pp. 265–84. John Benjamins.
J. Maynard-Smith (1978) Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:31–56.
B. McClintock (1950) The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 36:344–55.
P. Monaghan , N. Chater & M. H. Christiansen (2005) The differential role of phonological and distributional cues in grammatical categorisation. Cognition 96:143–82.
J. L. Morgan , R. P. Meier & E. L. Newport (1987) Structural packaging in the input to language learning: Contributions of prosodic and morphological marking of phrases to the acquisition of language. Cognitive Psychology 19:498–550.
S. Munroe & A. Cangelosi (2002) Learning and the evolution of language: the role of cultural variation and learning cost in the Baldwin Effect. Artificial Life 8:311–39.
B. Nerlich (1989) The evolution of the concept of “linguistic evolution” in the 19th and 20th century. Lingua 77:101–12.
D. Nettle & R. I. M. Dunbar (1997) Social markers and the evolution of reciprocal exchange. Current Anthropology 38:93–99.
F. J. Newmeyer (1991) Functional explanation in linguistics and the origins of language. Language and Communication 11:3–28.
F. J. Newmeyer (2003) What can the field of linguistics tell us about the origin of language? in: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 58–76. Oxford University Press.
E. L. Newport & R. N. Aslin (2004) Learning at a distance: I. Statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies. Cognitive Psychology 48:127–62.
M. A. Nowak , N. L. Komarova & P. Niyogi (2001) Evolution of universal grammar. Science 291:114–18.
L. Onnis , P. Monaghan , N. Chater & K. Richmond (2005) Phonology impacts segmentation in speech processing. Journal of Memory and Language 53:225–37.
T. Otake , G. Hatano , A. Cutler & J. Mehler (1993) Mora or syllable? Speech segmentation in Japanese. Journal of Memory and Language 32:258–78.
M. Packard & B. Knowlton (2002) Learning and memory functions of the basal ganglia. Annual Review of Neuroscience 25:563–93.
A. D. Patel , E. Gibson , J. Ratner , M. Besson & P. J. Holcomb (1998) Processing syntactic relations in language and music: An event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 10:717–33.
N. J. Pearlmutter & M. C. MacDonald (1995) Individual differences and probabilistic constraints in syntactic ambiguity resolution. Journal of Memory and Language 34:521–42.
M. Peña , L. Bonnatti , M. Nespor & J. Mehler (2002) Signal-driven computations in speech processing. Science 298:604–607.
E. Pennisi (2004) The first language? Science 303:1319–20.
K. M. Petersson , C. Forkstam & M. Ingvar (2004) Artificial syntactic violations activate Broca's region. Cognitive Science 28:383–407.
M. Piattelli-Palmarini (1989) Evolution, selection and cognition: From “learning” to parameter setting in biology and in the study of language. Cognition 31(1):1–44.
M. Piattelli-Palmarini (1994) Ever since language and learning: Afterthoughts on the Piaget-Chomsky debate. Cognition 50:315–46.
S. Pinker (2003) Language as an adaptation to the cognitive niche. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 16–37. Oxford University Press.
S. Pinker & R. Jackendoff (2005) The faculty of language: What's special about it? Cognition 95(2):201–36.
E. Plante , R. L. Gómez & L. A. Gerken (2002) Sensitivity to word order cues by normal and language/learning disabled adults. Journal of Communication Disorders 35:453–62.
G. Raddick (2002) Darwin on language and selection. Selection 3:7–16.
F. Reali & M. H. Christiansen (2007) Processing of relative clauses is made easier by frequency of occurrence. Journal of Memory and Language 57:1–23.
J. R. Saffran (2001) The use of predictive dependencies in language learning. Journal of Memory and Language 44:493–515.
J. R. Saffran (2002) Constraints on statistical language learning. Journal of Memory and Language 47:172–96.
J. R. Saffran (2003) Statistical language learning: Mechanisms and constraints. Current Directions in Psychological Science 12:110–14.
J. R. Saffran , R. N. Aslin & E. L. Newport (1996a) Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science 274:1926–28.
J. R. Saffran , E. L. Newport & R. N. Aslin (1996b) Word segmentation: The role of distributional cues. Journal of Memory and Language 35:606–21.
W. Sandler , I. Meir , C. Padden & M. Aronoff (2005) The emergence of grammar: Systematic structure in a new language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102(7):2661–65.
P. T. Schoenemann (1999) Syntax as an emergent characteristic of the evolution of semantic complexity. Minds and Machines 9:309–46.
M. S. Seidenberg (1985) The time course of phonological code activation in two writing systems. Cognition 19:1–30.
M. S. Seidenberg (1997) Language acquisition and use: Learning and applying probabilistic constraints. Science 275:1599–1604.
A. Senghas , S. Kita & A. Özyürek (2004) Children creating core properties of language: Evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. Science 305(5691):1779–82.
M. I. Sereno (1991) Four analogies between biological and cultural/linguistic evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 151:467–507.
E. P. Simoncelli & B. A. Olshausen (2001) Natural image statistics as neural representation. Annual Review of Neuroscience 24:1193–1215.
D. I. Slobin & T. G. Bever (1982) Children use canonical sentence schemas: A crosslinguistic study of word order and inflections. Cognition 12:229–65.
K. Smith (2002) Natural selection and cultural selection in the evolution of communication. Adaptive Behavior 10:25–44.
K. Smith (2004) The evolution of vocabulary. Journal of Theoretical Biology 228:127–42.
K. Smith , H. Brighton & S. Kirby (2003a) Complex systems in language evolution: The cultural emergence of compositional structure. Advances in Complex Systems 6:537–58.
L. Stallings , M. MacDonald & P. O'Seaghdha (1998) Phrasal ordering constraints in sentence production: phrase length and verb disposition in heavy-NP shift. Journal of Memory and Language 39:392–417.
R. D. Stevick (1963) The biological model and historical linguistics. Language 39:159–69.
M. Studdert-Kennedy & L. Goldstein (2003) Launching language: The gestural origin of discrete infinity. In: Language evolution, ed. M. H. Christiansen & S. Kirby , pp. 235–54. Oxford University Press.
M. Syvanen (1985) Cross-species gene transfer: Implications for a new theory of evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 112:333–43.
M. K. Tanenhaus , M. J. Spivey-Knowlton , K. M. Eberhard & J. E. Sedivy (1995) Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science 268:1632–34.
M. Tomasello (2000a) Do young children have adult syntactic competence? Cognition 74:209–53.
M. Tomasello (2000b) The item-based nature of children's early syntactic development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:156–63.
M. Tomasello , M. Carpenter , J. Call , T. Behne & H. Moll (2005) Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28:675–91.
J. B. Tomblin , M. E. Mainela-Arnold & X. Zhang (2007) Procedural learning in adolescents with and without specific language impairment. Language Learning and Development 3:269–93.
M. T. Ullman (2004) Contributions of memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition 92:231–70.
B. F. Voight , S. Kudaravalli , X. Wen & J. K. Pritchard (2006) A map of recent positive selection in the human genome. PloS Biology 4:e72.
A. Vouloumanos & J. F. Werker (2007) Listening to language at birth: Evidence for a bias for speech in neonates. Developmental Science 10:159–64.
C. H. Waddington (1942) Canalization of development and the inheritance of acquired characters. Nature 150:563–65.
& , eds. () . .J. Weissenborn B. Höhle 2001 Approaches to bootstrapping: Phonological, lexical, syntactic and neurophysiological aspects of early language acquisition John Benjamins
W. K. Wilkins & J. Wakefield (1995) Brain evolution and neurolinguistic preconditions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:161–82.
H. Yamashita & F. Chang (2001) “Long before short” preference in the production of a head-final language. Cognition 81:B45–B55.
H. Zeevat (2006) Grammaticalisation and evolution. In: The evolution of language, ed. A. Cangelosi , A. D. M. Smith & K. Smith , pp. 372–78. World Scientific.