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  • Cited by 4
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    李, 梦楠 2016. Emotion Regulation and Attachment —Based on the Perspective of Development. Advances in Psychology, Vol. 06, Issue. 04, p. 512.

    Boyle, Gregory J. Helmes, Edward Matthews, Gerald and Izard, Carroll E. 2015. Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs.

    Kim, M. J. Cho, M. E. and Kim, J. T. 2015. Measures of Emotion in Interaction for Health Smart Home. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, Issue. 4, p. 343.

    Klann-Delius, Gisela 2015. Emotion in Language.


Levels of emotion and levels of consciousness

  • Carroll Izard (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2007

Merker makes a strong case for the upper brain stem as being the neural home of primary or phenomenal consciousness. Though less emphasized, he makes an equally strong and empirically supported argument for the critical role of the mesodiencephalon in basic emotion processes. His evidence and argument on the functions of brainstem systems in primary consciousness and basic emotion processes present a strong challenge to prevailing assumptions about the primacy of cognition in emotion-cognition-behavior relations.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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