Skip to main content
×
Home

The nature of nurture: Genetic influence on “environmental” measures

  • Robert Plomin (a1) and C. S. Bergeman (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

Evidence for genetic influence on environmental measures will emerge in quantitative genetic analyses if genetically influenced characteristics of individuals are assessed by these environmental measures. Recent twin and adoption studies indicate substantial genetic influence when measures of the environment are treated as phenotypes in genetic analyses. Genetic influence has been documented for measures as diverse as videotaped observations of parental behavior toward their children, ratings by parents and children of their family environment, and ratings of peer groups, social support, and life events. Evidence for genetic influence on environmental measures includes some of the most widely used measures of environment – the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment, the Family Environment Scales, and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale of life events, for example. The goal of this article is to document and discuss these findings and to elicit commentary that might help to shape the course of research on this topic, which has far-reaching implications for the behavioral and brain sciences.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Aneshensel C. S., Estrada A. L., Hansell M. J. & Clark V. A. (1987) Social psychological aspects of reporting behavior: Lifetime depressive episode reports. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 28:232–46. [LW]
Arsenian J. & Arsenian J. M. (1948) Tough and easy cultures. Psychiatry 11:377–85. [AC]
Bachman J. G. (1970) The impact of family background and intelligence on tenth grade boys. Youth in transition, vol. 2. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. [RCJ]
Bachman J. G., O'Malley P. M. & Johnston J. (1978) Adolescence to adulthood: Change and stability in the lives of young men. Youth in transition, vol. 6. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. [RCJ]
Baker L. A. & Daniels D. (1990) Nonshared environmental influences and personality differences in adult twins. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58:103–10. [aRP]
Bell R. Q. (1968) A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in socialization. Psychological Review 75:8195. [aRP, DCR, IDW]
Bem D. J. (1983) Constructing a theory of the triple typology: Some (second) thoughts on nomothetic and idiographic approaches to personality. Journal of Personality 52:566–77. [AC]
Bem D. J. & Funder D. C. (1978) Predicting more of the people more of the time: Assessing the personality of situations. Psychological Review 85:485501. [AC]
Bergeman C. S. & Plomin R. (1988) Parental mediators of the genetic relationship between the home environment and infant mental development. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 6:1119. [aRP, IDW]
Bergeman C. S., Plomin R., Pedersen N. L., McClearn G. E. & Nesselroade J. R. (1990) Genetic and environmental influences on social support: The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). Journal of Gerontology 45:101–06. [aRP]
Billy J. O. G. & Udry J. R. (1985) Patterns of adolescent friendship and effects on sexual behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly 48:2741. [AC]
Block J. & Block J. H. (1981) Studying situatiorial dimensions: A grand perspective and some limited empiricism. In: Toward a psychology of situations, ed. Magnusson D.. Erlbaum. [rRP, AC]
Bock R. D. & Zimowski M. F. (1987) Contributions of the biometrical approach to individual differences in personality measures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:17. [PHS]
Bonner J. T. (1987) The next big problem in developmental biology. American Zoologist 27:715–23. [RS]
Bouchard P. R. & Lynch C. B. (1989) Burrowing behavior in wild house mice: Variation within and between populations. Behavior Genetics 19:447–57. [MD]
Bouchard T. J. Jr. & McGue M. (1990) Genetic and rearing environmental influences on adult personality: An analysis of adopted twins reared apart. Journal of Personality 58:263–92. [rRP, MM, LW]
Bouchard T. J. Jr., Lykken D. T., McGue M., Segal N. L. & Tellegen A. (1990) Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science 250:223–28. [rRP, MM, AT]
Braungart J. M., Plomin R., DeFries J. C. & Fulker D. W. (in press) Genetics of the environment during infancy: A sibling adoption study. Behavior Genetics (abstract). [aRP]
Bronfenbrenner U. (1975) Nature with nurture: A reinterpretation of the evidence. In: Race and IQ, ed. Montague A.. Oxford University Press (New York). [UB]
Bronfenbrenner U. (1979) The ecology of human development. Harvard University Press. [UB]
Bronfenbrenner U. (1986) Ecology of the family as a context for human development. Developmental Psychology 22:723–42. [UB, TDW]
Bronfenbrenner U. (1989) Ecological systems theory. In: Six theories of child development, ed. Vasta R.. Jai Press. [UB]
Bronfenbrenner U. (in press) The ecology of cognitive development. In: Thinking in contexts, ed. Fischer K. W. & Wozniak R.. Erlbaum. [UB]
Bronfenbrenner U. & Crouter A. C. (1983) The evolution of environmental models in developmental research. In: History, theory, and methods, ed. Kessen W. & Mussen P. H., vol. 1 of Handbook of child psychology, 4th ed. Wiley. [UB]
Brown G. G. & Harris T. (1978) Social origins of depression. A study of psychiatric disorder in women. Tavistock. [FS]
Brown G. W. & Rutter M. (1966) The measurement of family activities and relationships. Human Relations 19:241–63. [RG]
Bryant J., ed. (1990) Television and the American family. Erlbaum. [aRP]
Buss D. M. (1984) Toward a psychology of person-environment correspondence: The role of spouse selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47:361–77. [AC]
Bussey K. & Bandura A. (1984) Influence of gender constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47:12921302. [DCR]
Cairns J., Overbaugh J. & Miller S. (1988) The origin of mutants. Nature 335:142–54. [RS]
Cairns R. B., Cairns B. D., Neckerrnan H. J., Gest S. D. & Gariepy J.-L. (1988) Social networks and aggressive behavior: Peer support or peer rejection? Developmental Psychology 24:815–23. [AC]
Caldwell B. H. & Bradley R. H. (1978) Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. University of Arkansas Press. [aRP]
Capron C. & Duyme M. (1989) Assessment of effects of socioeconomic status on IQ in a full cross-fostering study. Nature 340:552–54. [MD]
Capron C. & Duyme M. (in press) Is IQ a relevant trait for genetic analysis? Abstracts of the 20th Behavior Genetic Association Meeting. Behavior Genetics. [JH]
Caspi A. & Bern D. J. (1990) Personality continuity and change across the life course. In: Handbook of personality theory and research, ed. Pervin L.. Guilford. [AC]
Caspi A., Bern D. J. & Elder G. H. Jr., (1989) Continuities and consequences of interactional styles across the life course. Journal of Personality 57:375406. [AC]
Caspi A., Elder G. H. Jr. & Bern D. J. (1987) Moving against the world: Life-course patterns of explosive children. Developmental Psychology 23:308–13. [AC]
Cattell R. B. (1982) The inheritance of personality and ability: Research methods and findings. Academic Press. [MM]
Chipuer H. M., Plomin R., Pedersen N. L., McClearn G. E. & Nesselroade J. R. (submitted) Genetic influence on family environment: The role of personality. [rRP]
Clarke A. M. & Clarke A. D. B. (1976) Early experience: Myth and evidence. Free Press. [DCR]
Cohen D. J., Dibble E. & Grawe J. M. (1977) Fathers' and mothers' perceptions of children's personality. Archives of General Psychiatry 38:861–69. [aRP]
Coon H., Fulker D. W., DeFries J. C. & Plomin R. (1990) Home environment and cognitive ability of 7-year-old children in the Colorado Adoption Project: Genetic and environmental etiologies. Developmental Psychology 26:459–68. [aRP, DIB, HL]
Cullis C. A. (1975) Environmentally induced DNA differences in flax. In: Modification of the information content of plant cells, ed. Markham R., Davis D. R., Hopwood D. A. & Home W. R.. North Holland. [RS]
Daniels D. & Plomin R. (1985) Differential experience of siblings in the same family. Developmental Psychology 2(1):747–60. [aRP]
Dawkins R. (1982) The extended phenotype: The gene as the unit of selection. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [KSK]
De Candolle A. (1873) Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siécles. George. [DKS]
DeFries J. C. & Fulker D. W. (1985) Multiple regression of twin data. Behavior Genetics 15:467–73. [IDW]
DeFries J. C., Gervais M. C. & Thomas E. A. (1978) Response to 30 generations of selection for open-field activity in laboratory mice. Behavior Genetics 8:313. [rRP]
Dunn J. F. & Plomin R. (1986) Determinants of maternal behavior towards infant siblings. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 4:127–37. [aRP]
Dunn J. F., Plomin R. & Daniels D. (1986) Consistency and change in mothers' behavior towards young siblings. Child Development 57:348–56. [aRP]
Dunn J. F., Plomin R. & Nettles M. (1985) Consistency of mothers' behavior towards infant siblings. Developmental Psychology 21:1188–95. [aRP]
Edelman G. M. (1987) Neural Darwinism: The theory of neuronal group selection. Basic Books. [ETh]
Edelman G. M. (1988) Topobiology: An introduction to molecular embryology. Basic Books. [ETh]
Feldman D. (1986) Nature's gambit. Basic Books. [DKS]
Finkel D. & McGue M. (submitted) Twenty-five year follow-up of child-rearing style: An investigation of retrospective data. [MM]
Folstein S., Franz M. I., Jensen B. A., Chase G. A. & Folstein M. F. (1983) Conduct disorder and affective disorder among the offspring of patients with Huntington's chorea. Psychological Medicine 13:4552. [MR]
Freud S. (1964) Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood (trans. Tyson A.). Norton (orig. pub. 1910). [DKS]
Fulker D. W. & Eysenck H. J. (1979) Nature and nurture: Heredity. In: The structure and measurement of intelligence, ed. Eysenck H. J.. Springer-Verlag. [aRP]
Galton F. (1869) Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences. Macmillan. [PHS, DKS, MD]
Galton F. (1888) Co-relations and their measurement, chiefly from anthropological data. Proceedings of the Royal Society 45:135–45. [DKS]
Goodman R. & Stevenson J. (1989) A twin study of hyperactivity: II. The aetiological role of genes, family relationships, and perinatal adversity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30:691709. [RG]
Gottesman I. I. & Shields J. (1982) Schizophrenia: The epigenetic puzzle. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [MM]
Graham P. & Stevenson J. (1985) A twin study of genetic influences on behavioural deviance. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 24:3341. [RG]
Haken H. (1983) Synergetics: An introduction. Springer-Verlag. [ETh]
Heath A. C., Neale M. C., Hewitt J. K., Eaves L. J. & Fulker D. W. (1989) Testing structural equal models for twin data using LISREL-VI. Behavior Genetics 19:935. [JKH]
Henderson N. D. (1982) Human behavior genetics. Annual Review of Psychology 33:403–40. [PHS]
Henderson S., Duncan-Jones P., Byrne D. G. & Scott R. (1980) Measuring social relationships: The interview schedule for social interaction. Psychological Medicine 10:723–34. [aRP]
Hirsch J. (1981) To “unfrock the charlatans.” SAGE Race Relations Abstracts 6(2):165. Sage Publications, Ltd. [JH]
Hirsch J. (1990) A nemesis for heritability estimation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:137–38. [JH]
Hofer M. (1981) The roots of human behavior: An introduction to the psychobiology of early development. W. H. Freeman. [RS]
Holden G. & Edwards L. (1989) Parental attitudes toward childrearing: Instruments, issues and implications. Psychological Bulletin 106:2958. [TDW]
Holmes T. H. (1979) Development and application of a quantitative measure of life change magnitude. In: Stress and mental disorder, ed. Barrett J. E.. Raven. [aRP]
Holmes T. H. & Rahe R. H. (1967) The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 11:213–18. [aRP]
Horn J. M., Loehlin J. C. & Willerman L. (1979) Intellectual resemblance among adoptive and biological relatives: The Texas adoption project. Behavior Genetics 9:177207. [MD]
House J. (1981) Social structure and personality. In: Social psychology: Sociological perspectives, ed. Rosenberg M. & Turner R. H.. Basic Books. [AC]
Jenkins P. F. (1977) Cultural transmission of song patterns and dialect development in a free-living bird population. Animal Behaviour 25:5078. [RS]
Jensen A. R. (1980) Bias in mental testing. Free Press. [aRP]
Jinks J. L. & Fulker D. W. (1970) Comparison of the biometrical, genetical, MAVA, and classical approaches to the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin 73:311–49. [PHS]
John O. (1990) The “Big Five” factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and in questionnaires. In: Handbook of personality theory and research, ed. Pervin L.. Guilford. [AC]
Johnston T. (1987) The persistence of dichotomies in the study of behavioral development. Developmental Review 7:149–82. [RHB]
Johnston T. (1988) Developmental explanation and the ontogeny of birdsong: Nature/nurture redux. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:617–63. [RS]
Jones J. S. (1980) Can genes choose habitats? Nature 286:757–58. [aRP]
Kamin L. J. (1974) The science and politics of lQ. Erlbaum. [DAH]
Kandel D. B. (1978) Homophily, selection and socialization in adolescent friendships. American Journal of Sociology 84:427–36. [AC]
Kempthorne O. (1990) How does one apply statistical analysis to our understanding of the development of human relationships? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:138–39. [JH]
King J. C. (1981) The biology of race. University of California Press. [PHS]
Kohn M. & Schooler C. (1983) Work and personality: An inquiry into social stratification. Ablex. [AC]
Lehtovaara A. (1938) Psychologis'che Zwillingsuntersuchungen. Finnish Academy of Science. [aRP]
Levins R. & Lewonton R. (1985) The dialectical biologist. Harvard University Press. [DB]
Lewin B. (1987) Genes. Wiley. [MD]
Lewin K. (1935) A dynamic theory of personality. McGraw-Hill. [AC, UB]
Lichtenstein P. & Pedersen N. L. (in press) Genetic analyses of socioeconomic status in twins reared apart and twins reared together. Behavior Genetics (abstract). [aRP]
Lidz T., Fleck S. & Cornelison A. (1965) Schizophrenia and the family. International University Press. [FS]
Locurto C. (in press) The malleability of IQ as judged from adoption studies. Intelligence. [rRP]
Loehlin J. C. (1982) Are personality traits differentially heritable? Behavior Genetics 12:417–28. [aRP]
Loehlin J. C. & Nichols R. C. (1976) Heredity, environment and personality. University of Texas Press. [aRP, DAH, PHS]
Luce R. D. & Tukey J. W. (1964) Simultaneous conjoint measurement: A new type of fundamental measurement. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 1:127. [FLB]
Lumsden C. J. (1989) Does culture need genes? Ethology and Sociobiology 10:1128. [aRP]
Lykken D. T., Bouchard T. J., McGue M. & Tellegen A. (1990) The Minnesota twin family registry: Some initial findings. Ada Geneticae Medicae and Gemellologiae 36:3570. [ETu]
Lyle J. & Hoffman H. R. (1972) Children's use of television and other media. In: Television in day-to-day life: Patterns of use, ed. Rubinstein E. A., Comstock G. A. & Murray J. P.. U.S. Government Printing Office. [aRP]
Lytton H. (1977) Do parents create or respond to differences in twins? Developmental Psychology 13:456–59. [aRP, IDW]
Lytton H. (1980) Parent-child interaction: The socialization process observed in twin and singleton families. Plenum. [aRP; HL]
Lytton H. (1990) Child and parent effects in boys' conduct disorder: A reinterpretation. Developmental Psychology 26:683–97. [HL]
Lytton H., Watts D. & Dunn B. E. (1986) Stability and predictability of cognitive and social characteristics from age 2 to age 9. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 112:361–98. [HL]
Lytton H., Watts D. & Dunn B. E. (1988) Stability of genetic determination from age 2 to age 9: A longitudinal twin study. Social Biology 35:6273. [HL]
Main M., Kaplan N. & Cassidy J. (1985) Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In: Growing points of attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial No. 209, ed. Bretherton I. & Waters E.. 50:66104. [aRP]
Martin N. G., Boomsma D. I. & Neale M. C. (1989) Genetic analysis of twin and family data: Structural modeling using LISREL. Forward. Behavior Genetics 19:57. [DAH, JKH]
Martin N. G., Eaves L. J., Kearsey M. J. & Davies P. (1978) The power of the classical twin study. Heredity 40:97116. [DAH]
Martin N. G., Eaves L. J., Heath A. C., Jardine R., Feingold L. M. & Eysenck H. J. (1986) Transmission of social attitudes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 83:4364–368. [RCJ, ETu]
Maynard Smith J. & Vida G., eds. (1990) Organizational constraints on the dynamics of evolution. Manchester Press. [RS]
McClearn G. E., Pedersen N. L., Plomin R., Nesselroade J. R., Friberg L. & DeFaire U. (submitted) Age and gender effects for individual differences in behavioral aging: The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. [aRP]
McClintock B. (1951) Chromosome organization and genie expression. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 16:1347. [RS]
McClintock B. (1978) Mechanisms that rapidly reorganize the genome. Stadler Genetics Symposia 10:2548. [RS]
McGuffin P., Katz R. & Bebbington P. (1988) The Camberwell Collaborative Depression Study. III. Depression and adversity in the relatives of depressed probands. British Journal of Psychiatry 152:775–182. [rRP]
Mednick S. A. & McNeil T. F. (1968) Current methodology in research on the etiology of schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin 70:681–93. [FS]
Moos E. H. (1973) Conceptualizations of human environments. American Psychologist 28:652–65. [rRP, AC]
Moos R. H. & Moos B. S. (1981) Family Environment Scale manual. Consulting Psychologists Press. [aRP]
Mortimore P., Sammons P., Stoll L., Lewis D. & Ecob R. (1988) School matters: The junior years. Open Books. [MR]
Morton N. E. (1974) Analysis of family resemblance. I. Introduction. American Journal of Human Genetics 26:318–30. [DB]
Mosteller M., Meyer J. M., Eaves L. J., Hewitt J. K. & Schieken R. M. (1990) The covariate in genetic analyses: A comparison of residuals analysis and the bivariate common factor model approach. Behavior Genetics 20:275–76. [JKH]
Moster M. (1990) Stressful life events: Genetic and environmental components arid their relationship to affective symptomatology. Unpub. Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. [rRP, MM]
Newcomb T. M. (1961) The acquaintance process. Wiley. [AC]
Nichols R. C. (1965) The national merit twin study. In: Methods and goals in human behavior genetics. Academic Press. [PHS]
Osborne T. (1980) Twins: Black and white. Foundation for Human Understanding. [PHS]
Oyama S. (1985) The ontogeny of information: Developmental systems and evolution. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [rRP, RHB RS, ETh]
Paykel E. S. (1983) Methodological aspects of life events research. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 27:341–52. [aRP]
Pearl D., Bouthilet L. & Lazar J., eds. (1982) Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the'eighties, vol. 1. U.S. Government Printing Office. [aRP]
Pedersen N. L., McClearn G. E., Plomin R., Nesselroade J. R., Berg S. & DeFaire U. (in press) The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study on Aging: An update. Ada Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae. [aRP]
Perry D. G. & Bussey K. (1979) The social learning theory of sex differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:16991712. [DCR]
Persson G. (1980) Prevalence of mental disorders in a 70-year-old urban population. Ada Psychiatrica Scandinavica 62:112–18. [aRP]
Plomin R. (1986) Development, genetics, and psychology. Erlbaum. [aRP]
Plomin R. (1990a) The role of inheritance in behavior. Science 248:183–88. [rRP]
Plomin R. (1990b) Trying to shoot the messenger for his message. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:144. [JH]
Plomin R. & Daniels D. (1987) Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:116. [arRP, DIB, UB, AC, RCJ, DCR, PHS, SS, ETh]
Plomin R. & Nesselroade J. R. (1990) Behavioral genetics and personality change. Journal of Personality 58:191220. [aRP]
Plomin R., Chipuer H. M., & Loehlin J. C. (1990) Behavioral genetics and personality. In: Handbook of personality theory and research, ed. Pervin L. A.. Guilford. [aRP]
Plomin R., Corley R., DeFries J. C. & Fulker D. W. (1990) Individual differences in television viewing in early childhood: Nature as well as nurture. Psychological Science 1:371–77. [aRP, ETu]
Plomin R., DeFries J. C. & Fulker D. W. (1988) Nature and nurture during infancy and early childhood. Cambridge University Press. [aRP, IDW]
Plomin R., DeFries J. C., & Loehlin J. C. (1977) Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin 84:309–22. [rRP, MM, ETu]
Plomin R., DeFries J. C. & McClearn G. E. (1990) Behavioral genetics: A primer, 2nd ed. W. H. Freeman. [arRP, FLB]
Plomin R., Lichtenstein P., Pedersen N. L., McClearn G. E. & Nesselroade J. R. (1990) Genetic inluence on life events during the last half of the life span. Psychology and Aging 5:2530. [arRP, MM]
Plomin R., Loehlin J. C. & DeFries J. C. (1985) Genetic and environmental components of “environmental” influences. Developmental Psychology 21:391402. [aRP, DIB]
Plomin R., McClearn G. E., Pedersen N. L., Nesselroade J. R. & Bergeman C. S. (1988) Genetic influence on childhood family environment perceived retrospectively from the last half of the life span. Developmental Psychology 24:738–45. [arRP, PHS, LW]
Plomin R., McClearn G. E., Pedersen N. L., Nesselroade J. R. & Bergeman C. S. (1989) Genetic influence on adults' ratings of their current family environment. Journal of Marriage and the Family 51:791803. [arRP, DAH]
Plomin R., Pedersen N. L., McClearn G. E., Nesselroade J. R. & Bergeman C. S. (1988) EAS temperaments during the last half of the life span: Twins reared apart and twins reared together. Psychology and Aging 3:450. [aRP, PHS]
Pollard J. W. (1987) The moveable genome: Weismann's doctrine and new models for speciation. Revista di BiologialBiology Forum 80:1154. [RS]
Quinton D. & Rutter M. (1988) Parenting breakdown: The making and breaking of inter-generational links. Aldershot: Avebury. [MR]
Ramey C. T., Bryant D. M. & Suarez T. M. (1985) Preschool compensatory education and the modifiability of intelligence: A critical review. In: Current topics in human intelligence, ed. Detterman D.. Ablex. [SS]
Rice T., Fulker D. W., DeFries J. C. & Plomin R. (1988) Path analysis of IQ during infancy and early childhood and an index of the home environment in the Colorado Adoption Project. Intelligence 12:2745. [aRP]
Richardson L. F. (1913) The measurement of mental “nature” and the study of adopted children. Eugenic Review 4:391–94. [MD]
Richman N., Stevenson J. & Graham P. J. (1982) Preschool to school: A behavioural study. Academic Press. [RG]
Roberts R. C. (1967) Some concepts and methods in quantitative genetics. In: Behavior-genetic analysis, ed. Hirsch J.. McGraw-Hill. [rRP, ETu]
Robins L. (1966) Deviant children grown up. Williams & Wilkins. [MR]
Roe A. (1953) The making of a scientist. Dodd, Mead. [DKS]
Rosambeau M. (1987) How twins grow up. The Bodley Head. [DAH]
Roubertoux P. L. & Capron C. (1990) Are intelligence differences hereditarily transmitted? Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology 10:555–94. [MD, JH]
Roubertoux P. L., Nosten-Bertrand M. & Carlier M. (1990) Additive and interactive effects between genotype and maternal environments, concepts and facts. Advances in the Study of Behavior 19:205–47. [MD]
Rowe D. C. (1981) Environmental and genetic influences on dimensions of perceived parenting: A twin study. Developmental Psychology 17:203–08. [aRP, DB, DAH, HL]
Rowe D. C. (1983) A biometrical analysis of perceptions of family environment: A study of twin and singleton sibling kinships. Child Development 54:416–23. [aRP, DAH, HL]
Rowe D. C. (1990) As the twig is bent? The myth of childrearing influences on personality development. Journal of Counseling and Development 68:606–11. [DCR]
Rowe D. C. & Osgood D. W. (1984) Heredity and sociological theories of delinquency. American Sociological Review 49:526–40. [AC]
Rowe D. C. & Plomin R. (1981) The importance of nonshared (E1) environmental influences in behavioral development. Developmental Psychology 17:517–31. [DCR]
Rushton P. (1988) Epigenic rules in moral development: Distal-proximal approaches to altruism and aggression. Aggressive Behavior 14:3550. [MM]
Rutter M. (1978) Family, area and school influences in the genesis of conduct disorders. In: Aggression and antisocial behavior in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Book series 1, ed. Hersov L., Berger M. & Shaffer D.. Pergamon. [MR]
Rutter M. & Brown G. W. (1966) The reliability and validity of measures of family life and relationships in families containing a psychiatric patient. Social Psychiatry, 1:3853. [RG]
Rutter M., Maughan B., Mortimore P. & Ouston J., & Smith A. (1979) Fifteen thousand hours: Secondary schools and their effects on children. Open Books (Harvard University Press, 1980). [MR]
Scandalios J. H. (1990) Genomic responses to environmental stress. Cambridge University Press. [rRP]
Scarr S. (1968) Environmental bias in twin studies. Eugenics Quarterly 15:3440. [aRP, RG]
Scarr S. (1987) Distinctive environments depend on genotypes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:3839. [IDW]
Scarr S. & Carter-Saltzman L. (1979) Twin method: Defense of a critical assumption. Behavior Genetics 9:527–42. [aRP, RG]
Scarr S. & McCartney K. (1983) How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype → environment effects. Child Development 54:424–35. [arRP, RHB, AC, MM, SS, TDW]
Scarr S. & Weinberg R. A. (1978) The influence of “family background” on intellectual attainment. American Sociological Review 43:674–92. [SS]
Scarr S. & Weinberg R. A. (1983) The Minnesota adoption studies: Genetic differences and malleability. Child Development 54:260–67. [SS]
Schaefer E. S. (1965) Children's reports of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development 36:413–24. [aRP]
Schonemann P. H. (1989) New questions about old heritability estimates. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27:175–78. [PHS]
Schonemann P. H. (1990) Environmental versus genetic variance component models for identical twins: A critique of Jinks and Fulker's reanalysis of the Shields data. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive (European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology) 10:451–73. [PHS]
Schonemann P. H. & Schonemann R. D. (1988) Environmental versus genetic models for Osborne's personality data on identical and fraternal twins (Technical Report No. 88&6). Purdue Mathematical Psychology Program. [PHS]
Scott J. P. (1987) Why does human twin research not produce results consistent with those from nonhuman animals? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:39. [PHS]
Shields J. (1962) Monotypic twins brought up apart and brought up together. Oxford University Press. [PHS]
Simonton D. K. (1984) Genius, creativity and leadership. Harvard University Press. [DKS]
Simonton D. K. (1987) Developmental antecedents of achieved eminence. Annals of Child Development 5:131–69. [DKS]
Simonton D. K. (1988) Scientific genius: A psychology of science. Cambridge University Press. [rRP]
Smith R. T. (1965). A comparison of socio-environmental factors in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, testing an assumption. In: Methods and goals in human behavior genetics, ed. Vandenberg S. G.. Academic Press. [aRP]
Smith D. J. & Tomlinson S. (1989) The school effect: A study of multi-racial comprehensives. Policy Studies Institute. [MR]
Snyderman M. & Rothman S. (1988) The IQ controversy, the media and public policy. Transaction Books. [rRP]
Snyderman M. & Rothman S. (1990) The IQ controversy, the media and public policy. Transaction Publishers. [RCJ]
Socha R. (1990a) Beyond genocentric concept of heredity. In: Evolutionary biology: Theory and practice, Part 2, ed. Leonovičová V. V., Novák V. J. A., Slipka J. & Zemek K.. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Praha. [RS]
Socha R. (1990b) From genocentric to multilevel concept of heredity: Implications for the evolutionary theory. Rivista di Biologial Biology Forum 83(2/3) (in press). [RS]
Socha R. (in preparation) Developmental context of different reactions to the same environmental signal in the laboratory strain of Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera). [RS]
Socha R. & Zemek K. (1978) Some aspects of genotype-phenotype relationship during evolution from the point of view principle of natural selection. In: Natural selection, ed. Novák V. J. A., Leonovicova V. V. & Pacltová B.. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Praha. [RS]
Socha R. & Zemek K. (1982) Phylogenetic heredity: Role of changes in ontogenetic pattern not directly coded in the gametic DNA. In: Evolution and environment, ed. Novák V. J. A. & Mlikovský J.. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Praha. [RS]
Socha R. & Zemek K. (1990) Memory systems in organisms: Genocentric versus multilevel dynamic concept. In: Evolutionary biology: Theory and practice, Part II, ed. Leonovičová V. V., Novák V. J. A., Slipka J. & Zemek K.. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Praha. [RS]
Stattin H. & Magnusson D. (1990) Pubertal maturation in female development. Erlbaum. [AC]
Stevenson J. & Graham P. (1988) Behavioral deviance in 13-year-old twins: An item analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 27:791–97. [RG]
Tambs K., Sundet J. M., Magnus P. & Berg K. (1989) Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between occupational status, educational attainment and IQ: A study of twins. Behavior Genetics 19:209–22. [aRP]
Taubman P. (1976) The determinants of earnings: Genetics, family and other environments: A study of white male twins. American Economic Review 66:858–70. [aRP]
Taylor H. F. (1980) The IQ game. Rutgers University Press. [ETu]
Teasdale T. W. (1979) Social class correlations among adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents. Behavior Genetics 9:103–14. [aRP]
Teasdale T. W. & Owen D. R. (1981) Social class correlations among separately adopted siblings and unrelated individuals adopted together. Behavior Genetics 11:577–88. [aRP, MD]
Tellegen A., Lykken D. T., Bouchard T. J. Jr., Wilcox K. J., Segal N. L. & Rich S. (1988) Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:1031–39. [AT]
Thelen E. (1989) Self-organization in developmental processes: Can systems approaches work? In: Systems and development: The Minnesota symposia on child psychology, vol. 22, ed. Gunnar M. & Thelen E.. Erlbaum. [ETh]
Thelen E. (1990) Dynamical systems and the generation of individual differences. In: Individual differences in infancy: Reliability, stability, prediction, ed. Colombo J. & Fagen J.. Erlbaum. [ETh]
Thelen E., Kelso J. A. S. & Fogel A. (1987) Self-organizing systems and infant motor development. Developmental Review 7:3965. [RS, ETh]
Thoits P. A. (1983). Dimensions of life events that influence psychological distress: An evaluation and synthesis of the literature. In: Psychosocial stress: Trends in theory and research, ed. Kaplan H. A.. Academic Press. [aRP]
Thomas W. I. & Thomas D. (1928) The child in America. Knopf. [AC]
Thompson L. A. (1990) Genetic contributions to early individual differences. In: Individual differences in infancy: Reliability, stability, prediction, ed. Colombo J. & Fagen J.. Erlbaum. [ET]
Thompson L. A., Fulker D. W., DeFries J. C. & Plomin R. (1986) Multivariate genetic analysis of “environmental” influences on infant cognitive development. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 4:347–53. [aRP]
Tomioka K. & Chiba Y. (1989) Light cycle during post-embryonic development affects adult circadian parameters of the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) optic lobe pacemaker. Journal of Insect Physiology 35:273–76. [RS]
Vogel F. & Motulsky M. D. (1986) Human genetics. Springer- Verlag. [MD]
Wachs T. D. (1983) The use and abuse of environment in behavior genetic research. Child Development 54:396407. [IDW]
Wachs T. D. (1987) Short term stability of aggregated and non-aggregated measures of parent behavior. Child Development 58:796–97. [TDW]
Wachs T. D. (1988) Environmental assessment of developmentally disabled infants and preschoolers. In: Assessment of young developmentally disabled children, ed. Wachs T. D. & Sheehan R.. Plenum. [TDW]
Wachs T. D. (in press) Environmental considerations in the study of organism-environment interaction with non-extreme groups. In: Conceptualization and measurement of organism-environment interaction, ed. Wachs T. D. & Plomin R.. American Psychological Association. [TDW]
Wachs T. D. & Gruen G. (1982) Early experience and human development. Plenum. [aRP, RS]
Wahlsten D. (1990) Insensitivity of the analysis of variance to heredity-environment interaction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:109–61. [FLB, JH]
Whowell K. & Hay D. A. (in preparation) Vocational choice in late adolescent twins. [DAH]
Will C. M. (1986) Was Einstein right? Putting general relativity to the test. Basic Books. [FLB]
Wilson P. T. (1934) A study of twins with special reference to heredity as a factor determining differences in environment. Human Biology 6:324–54. [aRP]
Yarrow M., Campbell J. & Burton R. (1970) Recollections of childhood: A study of the retrospective method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 35. [TDW]
Zazzo R. (1960) Les jumeaux, le couple et la personne. Presses Universitaires de France. [aRP]
Zemek K., Mlikovsky J. & Socha R. (1985) Multilevel system of heredity and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic consequences. In: Evolution and morphogenesis, ed. Mlikovsky J. & Novák V. J. A.. Academia, Praha. [RS]
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 346 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3574 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.