Skip to main content

Negative affects are parts of the addiction syndrome

  • Michel Le Moal (a1)

Decision-making is a complex activity for which emotions and affects are essential. Maladaptive choices depend on negative affects. Vulnerabilities to drug or non-drug objects depend on previous psychopathological comorbidities. Premorbid individual characteristics allow us to understand why some individuals – and not others – enter into the addiction cycle. Moreover, plasticity of reward neurocircuitry is, at least in past, responsible for these vulnerabilities leading to compulsive drug use.

Hide All
al'Absi M. (2007) Stress and addiction: Biological and psychological mechanisms. Academic.
Anthony J. C., Warner L. A. & Kessler R. C. (1994) Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2:244–68.
Baumeister R. F., Heatherton T. F. & Tice D. M. (1994) Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation. Academic Press.
Baumeister R. F. & Vohs K. D. (2004) Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications. Guilford Press.
Bechara A. (2005) Decision making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: A neurocognitive perspective. Nature Neuroscience 8(11):1458–63.
Bechara A., Damasio H. & Damasio A. R. (2000) Emotion, decision-making, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex 10:295307.
Bechara A., Damasio H., Tranel D. & Anderson S. W. (1998) Dissociation of working memory from decision making within the human prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 18:428–37.
Damasio A. R., Grabowski T. J., Bechara A., Damasio H., Ponto L. L., Parvizi J. & Hichwa R. D. (2000) Subcortical and cortical brain activity during the feeling of self-generated emotions. Nature Neuroscience 3:1049–56.
Everitt B. J. & Wolf M. E. (2002) Psychomotor stimulant addiction: A neural systems perspective. Journal of Neuroscience 22(9):3312–20.
Goldstein R. Z. & Volkow N. D. (2002) Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: Neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1642–52.
Goodman A. (1990) Addiction: Definition and implications. British Journal of Addiction 85:1403–408.
Goodman A. (2008) Neurobiology of addiction: An integrative review. Biochemical Pharmacology 75:266322.
Hyman S. E. & Malenka R. C. (2001) Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2:695703.
Kahneman D. (2003) A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist 58:697720.
Kalivas P. W. & McFarland K. (2003) Brain circuitry and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Psychopharmacology 168:4456.
Koob G. F. & Le Moal M. (1997) Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science 278(5335):5258.
Koob G. F. & Le Moal M. (2001) Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology 24(2):97129.
Koob G. F. & Le Moal M. (2005) Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the ‘dark side’ of drug addiction. Nature Neuroscience 8(11):1442–44.
Koob G. F. & Le Moal M. (2006) Neurobiology of addiction. Elsevier Academic.
Koob G. F. & Le Moal M. (2007) Drug addiction: Pathways to the disease and pathophysiological perspectives. European Neuropsychopharmacology 17:377–93.
Koob G. F. & Le Moal M. (2008) Addiction and the brain anti-reward system. Annual Review of Psychology 59:2953.
Piazza P. V., Deminière J. M., Le Moal M. & Simon H. (1989) Factors that predict individual vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration. Science 245:1511–13.
Piazza P. V. & Le Moal M. (1996) Pathophysiological basis of vulnerability to drug abuse: Role of an interaction between stress, glucocorticoids, and dopaminergic neurons. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36:359–78.
See R. E., Fuchs R. A., Ledford C. C. & McLaughlin J. (2003) Drug addiction, relapse and the amygdala. In: The amygdala in brain function: Basic and clinical approaches, ed. Shinnick-Gallagher P., Pitkanen A., Shekhar A. & Cahill L., pp. 294307. (Series title: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 985). New York Academy of Sciences.
Shaffer H. J., LaPlante D. A., LaBrie R. A., Kidman R. C., Donato A. N. & Stanton M. V. (2004) Toward a syndrome model of addiction: Multiple expressions, common etiology. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 12:367–74.
Substance Abuse and Mental Heath Services Administration. (2003) Results from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Rockville, MD.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 26 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 105 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.