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No reliable gender differences in attachment across the lifespan

  • Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (a1) and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn (a1)

In middle childhood, boys show more avoidant attachments and girls more ambivalent attachments as a prelude to gender differentiation in reproductive strategies. However, we have failed to find systematic and method-independent gender differences in middle or late childhood attachments, nor in adult attachment representations. We conclude that Del Giudice's model rests on a brittle empirical basis.

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M. H. Van IJzendoorn & M. J Bakermans-Kranenburg . (1996) Attachment representations in mothers, fathers, adolescents, and clinical groups: A meta-analytic search for normative data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64:821.

M. H. Van IJzendoorn , C. M. J. L. Vereijken , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg & J. M. A Riksen-Walraven . (2004) Is the Attachment Q-Sort a valid measure of attachment security in young children? Child Development 75:11881213.

K. Verschueren & A Marcoen . (1999) Representation of self and socioemotional competence in kindergartners: Differential and combined effects of attachment to mother and to father. Child Development 70:183201.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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