Skip to main content Accesibility Help

The origin and use of positional frames of reference in motor control

  • Anatol G. Feldman (a1) and Mindy F. Levin (a2)

A hypothesis about sensorimotor integration (the λ model) is described and applied to movement control and kinesthesia. The central idea is that the nervous system organizes positional frames of reference for the sensorimotor apparatus and produces active movements by shifting the frames in terms of spatial coordinates. Kinematic and electromyographic patterns are not programmed, but emerge from the dynamic interaction among the system s components, including external forces within the designated frame of reference. Motoneuronal threshold properties and proprioceptive inputs to motoneurons may be cardinal components of the physiological mechanism that produces positional frames of reference. The hypothesis that intentional movements are produced by shifting the frame of reference is extended to multi-muscle and multi-degrees-of-freedom systems with a solution of the redundancy problem that allows the control of a joint alone or in combination with other joints to produce any desired limb configuration and movement trajectory. The model also implies that for each motor behavior, the nervous system uses a strategy that minimizes the number of changeable control variables and keeps the parameters of these changes invariant. Examples are provided of simulated kinematic and electromyographic signals from single- and multi-joint arm movements produced by suggested patterns of control variables. Empirical support is provided and additional tests of the model are suggested. The model is contrasted with others based on the ideas of programming of motoneuronal activity, muscle forces, stiffness, or movement kinematics.

Hide All
Abdusamatov, R. M., Adamovich, S. V., Berkinblit, M. B., Chemavsky, A. V. & Feldman, A. G. (1988) Rapid one-joint movements: A qualitative model and its experimental verification. In: Stance and motion: Facts and concepts, ed. Gurfinkel, V. S., Ioffe, M. E., Massion, J.Roll, J. P.. Plenum. [aAGF]
Abdusamatov, R. M., Adamovich, S. V. & Feldman, A. G. (1987) A model for one-joint motor control in man. In: Motor control, ed. Gatchev, G. N., Dimitrov, B.Gatev, P.. Plenum. [aAGF, SRG]
Abend, W., Bizzi, E. & Morasso, P. (1982) Human arm trajectory formation. Brain 105:331–48. [SRG]
Abraham, R. H. & Shaw, C. D. (1992) Dynamics: The geometry of behavior. Addison-Wesley. [TGF]
Ackermann, E. (1990) Circular reactions and sensori-motor intelligence: When Piaget's theory meets cognitive models. Archives de Psychologie 58:6578. [PM]
Adamovich, S. V. (1992) How does the nervous system control the equilibrium trajectory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:704–5. [aAGF]
Adamovich, S. V., Burlachkova, N. I. & Feldman, A. G. (1984) Wave nature of the central process of formation of the trajectories of change in the joint angle in man. Biophysics 29:130–34. [aAGF]
Adamovich, S. V., Levin, M. F. & Feldman, A. G. (1993) Merging different motor patterns: Coordination between rhythmical and discrete single-joint movements. Experimental Brain Research 99:325–37. [rAGF]
Agarwal, G. C. (1992) Movement control hypothesis: A lesson from history. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:705–6. [aAGF]
Akamatsu, N., Hannaford, B. & Stark, L. (1986) An intrinsic mechanism for the oscillatory contraction of muscle. Biological Cybernetics 52:219–27. [REAvE]
Alexander, G. E., DeLong, M. R. & Crutcher, M. D. (1992) Do cortical and basal ganglionic motor areas use “motor programs” to control movement? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:656–65. [aAGF, SS]
Alexandrov, A., Frolov, A. & Massion, J. (1994) Voluntary forward bending in humans: A principal component analysis of axial synergies. In: Vestibular and neural front, ed. Taguchi, K., Igarashi, M. & Mori, S.. Elsevier. [AA]
Amis, A., Prochazka, A., Short, D., Trend, P. StJ. & Ward, A. (1987) Relative displacements in muscle and tendon during human arm movements. Journal of Physiology 389:3744. [RMcNA]
An, K. N., Hui, F. C., Morrey, B. F., Linsscheid, R. L. & Chao, E. Y. (1981) Muscles across the elbow joint: A biomechanical analysis. Journal of Biomechanics 14:659–69. [RMcNA]
Andersson, O. & Grillner, S. (1981). Peripheral control of the cat's step cycle: 2. Phase-dependent effects of the ramp-movements of the hip during “fictive locomotion.” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 113:89101. [TMH]
Andersson, O. & Grillner, S. (1983) Peripheral control of the cat's step cycle: 2. Entrainment of the central pattern generators for locomotion by sinusoidal hip movements during “fictive locomotion.” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 118:229–39. [NGH]
Andersson, O., Grillner, S., Lindquist, M. & Zomlefer, M. (1978) Peripheral control of the spinal pattern generators for locomotion in cat. Brain Research 150:625–30. [TMH]
Andronov, A. A., Witt, A. A. & Haiken, S. E. (1959) Theory of oscillations. Moscow: Physmat (in Russian). [aAGF]
Angel, R. W. (1973) Spasticity and tremor. Effects on the silent period and the after-volley. In: New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology, vol. 3, ed. Desmedt, J. E.. Karger. [aAGF]
Appelberg, B., Johansson, H. & Sojka, P. (1986) Fusimotor reflexes in triceps surae muscle elicited by stretch of muscles in the contralateral hind limb of the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 373:419–41. [aAGF]
Arshavsky, Y. I., Gelfand, I. M. & Orlovsky, G. N. (1985) The cerebellum and control of rhythmical movements. In: The motor system in neurobiology, ed. Evarts, E. V., Wise, S. P. & Bousfield, D.. Elsevier. [aAGF]
Asatryan, D. G. & Feldman, A. G. (1965) Functional tuning of the nervous system with control of movement or maintenance of a steady posture: 1. Mechanographic analysis of the work of the limb on execution of a postural task. Biophysics 10:925–35. [arAGF]
Atkeson, C. G. & Hollerbach, J. M. (1985) Kinematic features of unrestrained vertical arm movements. Journal of Neuroscience 5:2318–30. [PH]
Babinski, J. (1899) De l'asynergie cérébelleuse. Revue Neurologique 7:806–16. [AA]
Bayev, K. V. (1978) Central locomotor program, for the cat's hindlimb. Neuroscience 3:1081–92. [TMH]
Becker, W. & Jurgens, R. (1979) An analysis of the saccadic system by means of double step stimuli. Vision Research 19:967–83. [MD]
Beek, P. J. & Van Wieringen, P. C. W. (1994) Introduction. Human Movement Science 3/4:297300. [RI]
Belen'kii, V. E., Curfinkel, V. S. & Pal'tsev, E. I. (1967) On the elements of control of voluntary movement. Biofizica 12:135–41 (in Russian). [JRF]
Bennett, D. J., Hollerbach, J. M., Xu, Y. & Hunter, I. W. (1992) Time-varying stiffness of human elbow joint during cyclic voluntary movement. Experimental Brain Research 88:433–42. [aAGF, PM]
Bennett, M. B., Ker, R. F., Dimery, N. J. & Alexander, R. McN. (1986) Mechanical properties of various mammalian tendons. Journal of Zoology A 209:537–48. [RMcNA]
Berkinblit, M. B., Feldman, A. G. & Fukson, O. I. (1986) Adaptability of innate motor patterns and motor control mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:585638. [arAGF, SG, MLL]
Berkinblit, M. B., Gelfand, I. M. & Feldman, A. G. (1986) A model for the control of multi-joint movements. Bioflzika 31:728–38. [SRG]
Bernstein, N. A. (1935) The problem of interrelation between coordination and localization. Archives of Biological Science 38:135 (in Russian). [arACF, MLL, KHP]
Bernstein, N. A. (1947) On the construction of movements. Moscow: Medgiz (in Russian). [rAGF]
Bernstein, N. A. (1967) The coordination and regulation of movements. Pergamon. [arAGF]
Bilodeau, M., Arsenault, A. B., Gravel, D. & Bourbonnais, D. (1990) The influence of an increase in the level of force on the EMG power spectrum of elbow extensors. European Journal of Applied Physiology 61:461–66. [aAGF]
Bingham, G. P., Schmidt, R. C. & Rosenblum, L. D. (1989) Hefting for a maximum distance throw: A smart perceptual mechanism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 15:507–28. [CCP]
Bizzi, E., Accornero, N., Chappie, W. & Hogan, N. (1984) Posture control and trajectory formation during arm movements. Journal of Neurosdence 4:2738–44. [aAGF]
Bizzi, E., Dev, P., Morasso, P. & Polit, A. (1978) Effect of load disturbances during centrally initiated movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 39:435–44. [LDP]
Bizzi, E., Hogan, N., Miissa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Gistzer, S. (1992) Does the nervous system use equalibrium-point control to guide single and multiple joint movements? Behavioral ami Brain Sciences 15:603–13. [aAGF, MD, TGF, LDP]
Bizzi, E., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Giszter, S. F. (1991) Computations underlying the execution of movement: A novel biological perspective. Science 253:287–91. [SG]
Bloedel, J. R. (1992) Functional heterogeneity with structural homogeneity: How does the cerebellum operate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:666–78. [aAGF]
Blouin, J., Bard, C., Teasdale, N., Paillard, J., Fleury, M., Forget, R. & Lamare, Y. (1993) Reference systems for coding spatial information in normal subject and a deafferented patient. Experimental Brain Research 93:324–31. [arAGF, FL]
Bock, O. (1990) Load compensation in human goal-directed arm movements. Behavioural & Brain Research 41:167–77. [aAGF]
Bock, O. & Arnold, K. (1993) Error accumulation and error correction in sequential pointing movements. Experimental Brain Research 95:111–17. [aAGF]
Boff, K. R. & Lincoln, J. E. (1988) Vibration and display perception. Engineering Data Compendium: Human Percejition and Performance 20642133. [PVMcD]
Bouisset, S. & Zattara, M. (1987) Biomechanical study of the programming of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement. journal of Biomechanics 20:735–42. [JRF]
Boyd, I. A., Gladden, M. I., McWilliam, P. N. & Ward, J. (1977) Control of dynamic and static nuclear bag fibres and nuclear chain fibres by gamma and beta-axons in isolated cat muscle spindles. Journal of Physiology (London) 265:133–62. [aAGF]
Brooks, V. B., Horvath, F., Atkin, A., Kozlovskaya, I. & Uno, M. (1969) Reversible changes in voluntary movement during cooling of sub-cerebellar nucleus. Federation Proceedings 28:396. [KHP]
Brown, T. G. (1911) The intrinsic factors in the act of progression in the mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 84:30819. [TMH, rAGF]
Brown, T. G. (1914) On the nature of the fundamental activity of the nervous centres: Together with an analysis of the conditioning of rhythmic activity in progression, and a theory of the evolution of function in the nervous system. Journal of Physiology (London) 48:1846. [aAGF]
Bruce, E. N. & Ackerson, L. M. (1986) High-frequency oscillations in human electromyograms during voluntary contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology 56:542–53. [TMH]
Brunn, D. E. & Dean, J. (1994) Intersegmental and local intemeurons in the metathorax of the stick insect Carausius morosus which monitor middle leg position. Journal of Neurophysiology 72:1208–19. [JD]
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1988) Neural dynamics of planned arm movements: Emergent invariants and speed-accuracy properties during trajectory formation. Psychological Reviews 95:4990. [aAGF]
Burgess, P. R. (1992) Equilibrium points and sensory templates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:720–22. [aAGF]
Burström, L. & Lundström, R. (1994) Absorption of vibration energy in the human hand and arm. Ergonomics 37:879–90. [PVMcD]
Busemeyer, J. R. & Townsend, J. T. (1993) Decision field theory: A dynamic cognitive approach to decision making in an uncertain environment. Psychological Review 100:432–59. [TGF]
Caminiti, R., Johnson, P. B. & Urbano, A. (1990) Making arm movements within different parts of space: Dynamic aspects in the primate motor cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 10:2039–58. [aAGF]
Capaday, C. (1994) The effects of a tonic increase of presynaptic inhibition of muscle spindle afferents on the stretch reflex parameters of the cat. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 20:1583. [rAGF]
Capaday, C. & Stein, R. B. (1986) Amplitude modulation of the soleus H-reflex in the human during walking and standing. Journal of Neuroscience 6:1308–13. [aAGF]
Cavalleri, P. & Catz, R. (1989) Pattern of projections of group la afferents from forearm muscles to motoneurones supplying biceps and triceps muscles in man. Experimental Brain Research 78:465–78. [JBJS]
Cheney, P. D. & Fetz, E. E. (1984) Corticomotoneuronal cells contribute to long-latency stretch reflexes in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Physiology 349:249–72. [SS]
Christakos, C. N., Cohen, M. I., Barnhardt, R. & Shaw, C.-F. (1991) Fast rhythms in phrenic motoneuron and nerve discharges. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:674–87. [TMH]
Clement, G., Gurfinkel, V. S., Lestienne, F. G., Lipshits, M. I. & Popov, K. E. (1984) Adaptation of postural control to weightlessness. Experimental Brain Research 57:6172. [FL]
Clement, G., Gurfinkel, V. S., Lestienne, F. G., Lipshits, M. I. & Popov, K. E. (1985) Changes of posture during transient perturbations in microgravity. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 56:666–71. [FL]
Cole, K. J., Gracco, V. L. & Abbs, J. H. (1984) Autogenic and nonautogenic sensorimotor actions in the control of multiartieulate hand movements. Experimental Brain Research 56:582–85. [GEL]
Conway, B. A., Hultborn, H. & Kiehn, O. (1987). Proprioceptive input resets central locomotor rhythm in the spinal cat. Experimental Brain Research 68:643–56. [NGH, TMH]
Cope, T. C. & Clark, B. D. (in press) Are there important exceptions to the size principle of alpha motoneurone recruitment? In: Alpha and gamma motor systems, ed. Taylor, A., Gladden, M. F. & Durbaba, R.. Plenum. [TRN]
Corbridge, C. & Griffin, M. J. (1991) Effects of vertical vibration on passenger activities—writing and drinking. Ergonomics 34:1313–32. [PVMcD]
Cordo, P. & Harnad, S., eds. (1994) Movement control. Cambridge University Press. [DMC]
Crago, P. E., Houk, J. C. & Hasan, Z. (1976) Regulatory action of human stretch reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology 39:925–35. [rAGF]
Creed, R. S., Denny Brown, D., Eccles, J. C., Liddell, E. G. T. & Sherrington, C. S. (1932) Tlie reflex activity of the spinal cord. Oxford University Press. [LDP, rAGF]
Crenna, P., Frigo, C., Massion, J. & Pedotti, A. (1987) Forward and backward axial synergies in man. Experimental Brain Research 65:538–48. [AA]
Cruse, H. (1986). Constraints for joint angle control of the human arm. Biological Cybernetics 54:125–32. [CEW]
Cruse, H. & Bruwer, M. (1987) The human arm as a redundant manipulator: The control of path and joint angles. Biological Cybernetics 57:137–44. [JD]
Cruse, H., Bruwer, M. & Dean, J. (1993) The control of the movement of a 3-joint and a 41-joint redundant manipulator. Journal of Motor Behavior 25:131–39. [JD]
Cruse, H., Wishmeyer, E., Bruwer, M., Brockfeld, P. & Dress, A. (1990) On the cost functions for the control of the human arm movement. Biological Cybernetics 62:519–28. [MD]
Cults, A., Alexander, R. McN. & Ker, R. F. (1991) Ratios of cross-sectional areas of muscles and their tendons in a healthy human forearm. Journal of Anatomy 176:133–37. [RMcNA]
Davis, W. R. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1982) Analysis of “invariant characteristics” in the motor control of Down's syndrome and normal subjects. Journal of Motor Behavior 14:194212. [aAGF]
Day, B. L. & Marsden, C. D. (1982) Accurate repositioning of the human thumb against unpredictable dynamic loads is dependent upon peripheral feedback. Journal of Physiology (London) 327:393407. [aAGF]
de Graaf, J. B., Sittig, A. C. & Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1991) Misdirections in slow goal-directed arm movements and pointer-setting tasks. Experimental Brain Research 84:434–38. [aAGF]
Dean, J. (1990) Coding proprioceptive information to control movement to a target: Simulation with a simple neural network. Biological Cybernetics 63:115–20. [JD]
Dean, J. & Bruwer, M. (1994) Control of human arm movements in two dimensions: Paths and joint control in avoiding simple linear obstacles. Experimental Brain Research 97:497514. [JD]
DeLuca, C. J. & Mambrito, B. (1987) Voluntary control of motor units in human antagonist muscles: Coactivation and reciprocal activation. Journal of Neurophysiology 58:525–42. [aAGF]
Denier van der Gon, J. J., Tax, T., Gielen, S. & Erkelens, C. (1991) Synergism in the control of force and movement in the forearm. Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, vol. 118. Springer-Verlag. [aAGF]
DeSerres, S. J. & Milner, T. E. (1991) Wrist muscle activation patterns and stiffness associated with stable and unstable mechanical loads. Experimental Brain Research 86:451–58. [aAGF]
Desmurget, M., Paulignan, Y., Urquizar, C. & Prablanc, C. (1994) Aspects on multi-joint flexibility in a power grip task. Paper presented at the 17th annual meeting of the European Neuroscience Association, Vienna. [MD]
Desmurget, M., Prablanc, C.Rossetti, Y., Arzi, M.Paulignan, Y. & Urquizar, C. (in press) Postural and synergic control for three dimensional movements of reaching and grasping. Journal of Neurophysiology.
Doemges, F. & Rack, P. M. H. (1992) Changes in the stretch reflex of the human 1st dorsal interosseous muscle during different tasks. Journal of Physiology (London) 447:563–73. [aAGF]
Douglas, R. J. & Martin, K. A. C. (1991) Opening the grey box. Trends in Neurosciences 14:286–92. [aAGF]
Drew, T. (1991) The role of the motor cortex in the control of gait modifications in the cat. In: New biological basis of human locomotion, ed. Shimamura, M., Grillner, S.Edgerton, E. R.. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Press. [rAGF]
Drew, T. & Rossignol, S. (1987) A kinematic and electromyographic study of cutaneous reflexes evoked from the forelimb of unrestrained walking cats. Journal of Neurophysiology 57:1160–84. [aAGF]
Dum, R. P. & Strick, P. L. (1991) The origin of corticospinal projections from the premotor areas in the frontal lobe. Journal of Neuroscience 11:667–89. [SS]
Duysens, J. & Pearson, K. G. (1980) Inhibition of flexor burst generation by loading ankle extensor muscles in walking cats. Brain Research 187:321–32. [TMH]
Edelman, G. (1992) Bright air, brilliant fire. Penguin. [RI]
Eltze, J. (1994) Biologisch orientierte Entwicklung einer sechsbeinigen Laufmachine. Springer-Verlag. [JD]
Evarts, E. V. (1966) Pyramidal tract activity associated with a conditioned hand movement in the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 29:1011–27. [KHP]
Evarts, E. V.(1967) Represenation of movements and muscles by pyramidal tract neurons of the precentral motor cortex. In: Neurophysiological basis of normal and abnormal motor activities, ed. Yahr, M. D. & Purpura, D. P.. Raven. [KHP]
Evarts, E. V. (1968) Relation of pyramidal tract activity to force exerted during voluntary movement. Journal of Neurophysiology 31:1427. [KHP]
Evarts, E. V. (1969) Activity of pyramidal tract neurons during postural fixation. Journal of Neurophysiology 32:375–85. [KHP]
Farmer, S. F., Bremner, F. D., Halliday, D. M., Rosenberg, J. R. & Stephens, J. A. (1993) The frequency content of common synaptic inputs to motoneurones studied during voluntary isometric contraction in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 470:127–55. [TMH]
Feldman, A. G. (1966a) Functional tuning of the nervous system with control of movement or maintenance of a steady posture: 2. Controllable parameters of the muscle. Biophysics 11:565–78. [aAGF, MB, LDP]
Feldman, A. G. (1966b) Functional tuning of the nervous sytem with control of movement or maintenance of a steady posture: 3. Mechanomyographic analysis of execution by man of the simplest motor task. Biophysics 11:667–75. [aAGF, TGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1979) Central and reflex mechanisms in the control of movement. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian). [arAGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1980a) Superposition of motor programs: 1. Rhythmic forearm movements in man. Neuroscience 5:8190. [aAGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1980b) Superposition of motor programs: 2. Rapid forearm flexion in man. Neuroscience 5:9195. [aAGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1986) Once more on the equilibrium point hypothesis (λ-model) for motor control. Journal of Motor Behavior 18:1754. [TGF, rAGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1992) Fundamentals of motor control, kinesthesia and spinal neurons: In search of a theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:735–37. [aAGF]
Feldman, A. G. (1993) The coactivation command for antagonist muscles involving Ib intemeurons in mammalian motor control systems: An electrophysiologically testable model. Neuroscience Letters 155:167–70. [arAGF]
Feldman, A. G., Adamovich, S. V., Ostry, D. J. & Flanagan, J. R. (1990) The origin of electromyograms—Explanations based on the equilibrium point hypothesis. In: Multiple muscle systems: Biomechanics and movement organization, ed. Winters, J. M. & Woo, S. L.-Y.. Springer-Verlag. [JMW, UW, rAGF]
Feldman, A. G. & Latash, M. L. (1982) Interaction of afferent and efferent signals underlying joint position sense: Empirical and theoretical approaches. Journal of Motor Behavior 14:174–93. [aAGF]
Feldman, A. G. & Levin, M. L. (1993) Control variables and related concepts in motor control. Concepts in Neuroscience 4:2551. [aAGF]
Feldman, A. G. & Orlovsky, G. N. (1972) The influence of different descending systems on the tonic stretch reflex in the cat. Experimental Neurology 37:481–94. [arAGF]
Fetz, E. E. (1992) Are movement parameters recognizably coded in the activity of single neurons? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:679–90. [aAGF]
Fetz, E. E. & Cheney, P. D. (1980) Postspike facilitation of forelimb muscle activity by primate corticomotoneuronal cells. Journal of Neurophysiology 44:751–72. [SS]
Fidelman, U. & Gilad, I. (1992) Three styles of hand movements: A possible relation to three kinds of familial handedness. Cybernetica 35:1749. [UF]
Fitts, P. M. (1954) The information capacity of discrete motor responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67:381–91. [aAGF]
Flanagan, J. R., Feldman, A. G. & Ostry, D. J. (1992) Equilibrium trajectories underlying rapid target-directed arm movements. In: Tutorials in motor behavior II, eds. Stelmach, G. E. & Requin, J.. North Holland. [aAGF]
Flanagan, J. R., Ostry, D. J. & Feldman, A. G. (1990) Control of human jaw and multi-joint arm movements. In: Cerebral control of speech and limb movements, ed. Hammond, G.. Springer-Verlag. [aAGF]
Flanagan, J. R., Ostry, D. J. & Feldman, A. G. (1993) Control of trajectory modifications in target-directed reaching. Journal of Motor Behavior 25:140–52. [aAGF, SRC, JBJS]
Flanagan, J. R. & Tresilian, J. R. (1994) Grip-load force coupling: A general control strategy for transporting objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 20:944–57. [JRF]
Flanagan, J. R., Tresilian, J. R. & Wing, A. M. (1993) Coupling of grip force and load force during arm movements with grasped objects. Neuroscience Letters 152:5356. [JRF, rAGF]
Flanagan, J. R. & Wing, A. M. (1993) Modulation of grip force with load force during point-to-point movements. Experimental Brain Research 95:131–43. [JRF]
Flanders, M., Tillery, S. I. H. & Soechting, J. F. (1992) Early stages in a sensorimotor transformation. Beliavioral and Brain Sciences 15:309–62. [aAGF, MD]
Flash, T. & Henis, E. (1991) Arm trajectory modifications during reaching towards visual targets. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 3:220–30. [aAGF]
Flash, T. & Hogan, N. (1985) The coordination of arm movements: An experimentally confirmed mathematical model. Journal of Neuroscience 5:16881703. [MD]
Folkins, J. W. & Abbs, J. H. (1975) Lip and jaw motor control during speech: Responses to resistive loading of the jaw. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 18:207–20. [TGF]
Forget, R. & Lamarre, Y. (1987) Rapid elbow flexion in the absence of proprioceptive and cutaneous feedback. Human Neurobiology 6:2737. [aAGF]
Forssberg, H. (1985) Ontogeny of human locomotor control: 1. Infant stepping, supported locomotion, and transition to independent locomotion. Experimental Brain Research 57:480–93. [ET]
Fortier, P. A., Smith, A. M. & Kalaska, J. F. (1993) Comparison of cerebellar and motor cortex activity during reaching: Directional tuning and response variability. Journal of Neurophysiology 69:1136–49. [rAGF]
Friedli, W. G., Cohen, L., Hallett, M., Stanhope, S. & Simon, S. R. (1988) Postural adjustments associated with rapid arm movements: 2. Biomechanical analysis. Journal of Neurological and Neurosurgical Psychiatry 51:232–43. [JRF]
Frolov, A. A., Roschin, V. Y. & Biryukova, E. V. (1994) Adaptive neural network model of multi-joint movement control of by working point velocity. Neural Network World 2:141–56. [AA]
Fukson, O. I., Berkinblit, M. B. & Feldman, A. G. (1980) The spinal frog takes into account the scheme of its body during the wiping reflex. Science 209:1261–63. [SG]
Fuller, J., Maldonado, H. & Schlag, J. (1983) Vestibular-oculomotor interaction in cat eye-head movements. Brain Research 271:241–50. [MD]
Gandevia, S. C. & Burke, D. (1992) Does the nervous system depend on kinesthetic information to control natural limb movements? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:614–32. [aAGF]
Gelfand, I. M. & Tsetlin, M. L. (1971) On mathematical modeling of mechanisms of central nervous system. In: Models of the structural-functional organization of certain biological systems, ed. Gelfand, I. M., Gurfinkel, V. S., Fomin, S. V. & Tsetlin, M. L.. MIT Press. [arACF]
Georgopoulos, A. P. (1991) Higher order motor control. Annual Review of Neuroscience 14:361–77. [GEL]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Ashe, J., Smyrnis, N. & Taira, M. (1992) The motor cortex and die coding of force. Science 233:1416–19. [arACF, KHP]
Georgopoulos, A. P. & Grillner, S. (1989) Visuomotor coordination in reaching and locomotion. Science 245:1209–10. [AEP]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Kalaska, J. F., Caminiti, R. & Massey, J. T. (1983) Interruption of motor cortical discharge subserving aimed arm movements. Experimental Brain Research 49:327–40. [aAGF]
Georgopoulos, A. P., Schwartz, A. B. & Kettner, R. F. (1986) Neuronal population coding of movement direction. Science 233:1416–19. [aAGF]
Gerilovsky, L., Struppler, A., Velho, F. & Niehage, O. (1990) Discharge pattern of tonically activated motor units during unloading. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology 30:459–67. [aAGF]
Ghez, C., Gordon, J., Ghilardi, M. F., Christakos, C. M. & Cooper, S. E. (1990) Roles of proprioceptive input in the programing of arm trajectories. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia in Quantitative Biology 55:837–47. [aAGF, CCP]
Ghez, C., Gordon, J., Ghilardi, M. F. & Sainberg, R. (1995) Contributions of vision and proprioception to accuracy in limb movements. In: The cognitive neurosdences, ed. Gazzaniga, M. S.. Bradford/MIT. [CCP]
Gibson, J. J. (1979) The ecologic approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin. [PVMcD, REAvE]
Gielen, C. C. A. M., van der Heuvel, P. J. M. & Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1984) Modification of muscle activation patterns during fast goal-directed movements. Journal of Motor Behavior 16:219. [aAGF]
Gielen, C. C. A. M. & van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1992) The constrained control of force and position in multi-link manipulators. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 22:1214–19. [CCAMG]
Gielen, C. C. A. M. & van Zuylen, E. J. (1986) Coordination of arm muscles during flexion and supination application of the tensor analysis approach. Neuroscience 17:527–39. [aAGF]
Gilad, I. & Fidelman, U. (1990) The motoric role of the right cerebral hemisphere: Performance analysis of micromovements. Cybernetica 33:151–78. [UF]
Giszter, S. F. (1994) Combination of primitive force-generating motor elements during reflex behaviors. Proceedings of the 16th Annual IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference (on CD-ROM; ISBN 0–7803–9974–9). [SC]
Giszter, S. F., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Bizzi, E. (1992) Movement primitives in the frog spinal cord. In: Neural systems, vol. 2, ed. Eeckman, F. H.. Kluwer. [SG]
Giszter, S. F., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Bizzi, E. (1993) Convergent force fields organized in the frog spinal cord. Journal of Neuroscience 13:467–91. [SC]
Glansdorff, P. & Prigogine, I. (1971) Thermodynamic theory of structure, stability and fluctuations. Wiley. [aAGF]
Goldberger, M. E. & Murray, M. (1974) Restitution of function and collateral sprouting in the cat spinal cord: The deafferented animal. Journal of Comparative Neurology 158:3754. [aAGF]
Gomi, H., Koike, Y. & Kawato, M. (1992) Human hand stiffness during discrete point-to-point multi-joint movements. Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Paris, 10 29–11 1, 1992). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Service Center. [PM]
Goodin, D. S., Aminoff, M. J. & Shih, P.-Y. (1990) Evidence that the longlatency stretch responses of the human wrist extensor muscle involve a transcerebral pathway. Brain 113:1075–91. [aAGF]
Goodman, S. R. & Gottlieb, G. L. (1995) Analysis of kinematic variables of multi-joint reaching movement. Biological Cybernetics. [SRG]
Gossard, J.-P., Brownstone, R. M., Barajon, I. & Hultborn, H. (1994). Transmission in a locomotor-related group Ib pathway from hindlimb extensor muscles in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 98:213–28. [TMH]
Gottlieb, G. L. (1992) Kinematics is only a (good) start. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:749–50. [GLG]
Gottlieb, G. L. (1993) A computational model of the simplest motor program. Journal of Motor Beliavior 25(3):153–61. [GLG]
Gottlieb, G. L. (1994) The generation of the efferent command and the importance of joint compliance in fast elbow movements. Experimental Brain Research 97:545–50. [GLG, rAGF]
Gottlieb, G. L. (1995a) Relations between joint torque, motion and EMG patterns at the human elbow. Experimental Brain Research 103:164–67. [GLG]
Gottlieb, G. L. (1995b) On the voluntary movement of compliant loads. Submitted. [GLG]
Gottlieb, G. L. & Agarwal, G. C. (1988) Compliance of single joints: Elastic and plastic characteristics. Journal of Neurophysiology 59:937–51. [arAGF, SS]
Gottlieb, G. L., Corcos, D. M. & Agarwal, G. C. (1989a) Strategies for the control of voluntary movements with one mechanical degree of freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:189250. [aAGF, GLG]
Gottlieb, G. L., Corcos, D. M. & Agarwal, G. C. (1989b) Organizing principles for single joint movements: 1. A speed insensitive strategy. Journal of Neurophysiology 62:342–57. [DMC, GLG]
Gottlieb, G. L., Corcos, D. M. & Agarwal, G. C. (1992) Bioelectrical and biomechanical correlates of rapid human elbow movement. In: Tutorials in Motor Behavior II, ed. Stelmach, G. E. & Requin, J.. Elsevier. [GLG]
Gracco, V. L. & Abbs, J. H. (1985) Dynamic control of the perioral systems during speech: Kinematic analyses of autogenic and nonautogenic sensorimotor processes. Journal of Neurophysiology 54:418–32. [GEL]
Granit, R. (1970) The basis of motor control. Academic Press. [aAGF]
Granit, R., Kernell, D. & Lamarre, Y. (1966) Synaptic stimulation superimposed on motoneurones firing in the secondary range to injected current. Journal of Physiology (Lonilon) 187:401–15. [aAGF]
Grillner, S. (1969) Supraspinal and segmental control of static and dynamic g-motoneurones in the cat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica [Suppl.] 327:134. [aAGF]
Grillner, S. (1972) The role of muscle stiffness in meeting the changing postural and locomotor requirements for force development by the ankle extensors. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 86:92108. [PVMcD]
Grillner, S. (1975) Locomotion in vertebrates: Central mechanisms and reflex interactions. Physiological Reviews 55:247304. [aAGF]
Grillner, S. (1981). Control of locomotion in bipeds, tetrapods, and fish. In: Handbook of physiology: sec. 1, vol. 2, pt. 2. The nervous system: Motor control, ed. Brooks, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [TMH]
Grillner, S. & Rossignol, S. (1978). On the initiation of the swing phase of locomotion in chronic spinal cats. Brain Research 146:269–77. [TMH]
Grillner, S. & Zangger, P. (1979). On the central generation of locomotion in the low spinal cat. Experimental Brain Research 34:241–61. [TMH]
Grillner, S. & Zangger, P. (1984) The effect of dorsal root transection on the efferent motor pattern in the cat's hindlimb during locomotion. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 120:393405. [TMH]
Grossberg, S. & Kuperstein, M. (1989) Neural dynamics of adaptive sensory motor control. Pergamon. [aAGF]
Guiard, Y., Diaz, C. & Beaubaton, D. (1983) Left-hand advantage in right-handers for spatial constant error: Preliminary evidence in a unilateral ballistic aimed movement. Neuropsychologia 21:111–15. [UF]
Guitton, D. & Volle, M. (1987) Gaze control in humans: Eye-head coordination during orienting movements to targets within and beyond the oculomotor range. Journal of Neurophysiology 58:427–59. [MD]
Gurfinkel, V. S., Lestienne, F. G., Levik, Yu. S., Popov, K. W. & Lefort, L. (1993) Egocentric references and human spatial orientationin microgravity: 2. Body-centered coordinates in the task of drawing ellipses with prescribed orientation. Experimental Brain Research 95:343–48. [FL]
Gurfinkel, V. S., Lipshits, M. I. & Popov, K. E. (1981) Stabilization of body position as the main task of postural regulation. Fiziologya Cheloveka 7:104–8. [FL]
Gutman, A. (1994) Gelfand-Tsetlin principle of minimal afferentation and bistability of dendrites. International Journal of Neural Systems 5:8386. [rAGF]
Gutman, A. M. (1991) Bistability of dendrites. International Journal of Neural Systems 1:291304. [aAGF]
Gutman, S. R & Gottlieb, G. L. (1992) Basic functions of variability of simple pre-planned movements. Biological Cybernetics 68:6373. [SRG]
Haggard, P., Hutchinson, K. & Stein, J. F. (1995) Patterns of coordinated multi-joint movement. Submitted. [PH]
Haken, H. (1977) Synergetics: An introduction: Nonequilibrium phase transitions and self-organizations in physics, chemistry, and biology. Springer-Verlag. [REAvE]
Haken, H. (1990) Synergetics as a tool for the conceptualization and mathematization of cognition and behaviour: How far can we go? In: Synergetics of cognition, eds. Haken, H.Stadeler, M.. Springer-Verlag. [RI]
Hale, J. & Kocak, H. (1991) Dynamics and bifurcations. Springer-Verlag. [TGF]
Hasan, Z. (1986) Optimized movement trajectories and joint stiffness in unperturbed, inertially loaded movements. Biological Cybernetics 53:373–82. [aAGF]
Hasan, Z. (1991) Biomechanics and the study of multijoint movements. In: Motor control: Concepts and issues, ed. Humphrey, D. R. & Freund, H.-J.. Wiley. [arAGF, UW]
Hasan, Z. (1992) Is stiffness the mainspring of posture and movement? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:756–58. [aAGF]
Hasan, Z. & Karst, G. M. (1989) Muscle activity for initiation of planar two-joint arm movements in different directions. Experimental Brain Research 76:651–55. [aAGF]
Hatsopoulos, N. G. (1994) Is a virtual trajectory necessary in reaching movements? Biological Cybernetics 70:541–51. [MD]
Hatsopoulos, N. G. & Warren, W. H. (in press). Resonance tuning in rhythmic arm movements. Journal of Motor Behavior. [NGH]
Hatsopoulos, N. G., Warren, W. H. & Sanes, J. N. (1992) A neural pattern generator that tunes into the physical dynamics of the limb system. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Baltimore, MD) 1:104–9. [NGH]
Hellgren, J. & Kellerth, J.-O. (1989) A physiological study of the monosynaptic reflex responses of cat spinal a-motoneurons after partial lumbosacral deafferentation. Brain Research 488:149–62. [aAGF]
Henneman, E. (1981) Recruitment of motoneurons: The size principle. In: Progress in clinical neurophysiology: vol. 9. Motor unit types, recruitment and plasticity in health and disease, ed. Desmedt, J. E.. Karger. [aAGF]
Henneman, E., Somjen, G. & Carpenter, D. O. (1965) Excitability and inhibitability of motoneurones of different sizes. Journal of Neurophysiology 28:599620. [MLL]
Hirsch, M. W. & Smale, S. (1974) Differential equations, dynamical systems, and linear algebra. Academic Press. [TGF]
Hodgson, A. J. (1994) Inferring central motor plans from attractor trajectory measurements. PhD dissertation. Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard University—Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. [AH]
Hoff, B. & Arbib, M. A. (1992) A model of the effects of speed, accuracy, and perturbation on visually guided reaching. Experimental Brain Research 22:285306. [MD]
Hoffer, J. A. & Andreassen, S. (1981) Regulation of soleus muscle stiffness and viscosity in premammillary cats: Mechanical and reflex components. Journal of Neurophysiology 45:267–85. [aAGF]
Hoffman, D. S. & Strick, P. L. (1993) Step-tracking movements of the wrist: 3. Influence of changes in load on patterns of muscle activity. Journal of Neuroscience 13:5212–27. [DMC]
Hogan, N. (1984) An organizing principle for a class of voluntary movements. Journal of Neuroscience 4:2745–54. [arAGF, AH, PH]
Hogan, N. (1985) The mechanics of multi-joint posture and movement control. Biological Cybernetics 52:315–31. [AH]
Hogan, N. & Flash, T. (1987) Moving gracefully: Quantitative theories of motor coordination. Trends in Neurosdence 10:170–74. [aAGF, JRF]
Hogan, N. & Mussa-Ivaldi, F. (1992) Muscle behavior may solve motor coordination problems. In: Eye-hand sensori-motor system, ed. Berthoz, A., Graaf, W. & Vidal, P.. Oxford University Press. [MD]
Hollerbach, J. M. (1988) Fundamentals of motor behavior. In: Invitation to cognitive science, ed. Osherson, D.. MIT Press. [MD]
Hollerbach, J. M. & Atkeson, C. G. (1987) Deducing planning variables from experimental arm trajectories: Pitfalls and possibilities. Biological Cybernetics 56:279–92. [aAGF]
Holt, K. G., Hamill, J. & Andres, R. O. (1990) The force-driven harmonic oscillator as a model for human locomotion. Human Movement Science 9:5568. [NGH]
Hore, J., MeCloskey, D. I. & Taylor, J. L. (1990) Task-dependent changes in gain of the reflex response to imperceptible perturbations of joint position in man. Journal of Physiology (London) 429:309–21. [aAGF]
Hore, J., Wild, B. & Diener, H. (1991) Cerebellar dysmetria at the elbow, wrist and fingers. Journal of Neurophysiology 65:563–71. [DMC]
Houk, J. C. & Rymer, W. Z. (1981) Neural control of muscle length and tension.In: Handbook of physiology: section 1. The nervous system: vol. 2. Motor control, ed. Brookhart, J. M., Mountcastle, V. B., Brooks, V. B. & Geiger, S. R.. American Physiological Society. [aAGF]
Hounsgaard, J., Hultborn, H., Jespersen, B. & Kiehn, O. (1988) Bistability of a-motoneurones in the decerebrate cat and in the acute spinal cat after intravenous 5-hydroxytryptophan. Journal of Physiology (London) 405:345–67. [aAGF]
Hugon, M., Massion, J. & Wiesendanger, M. (1982) Anticipatory postural changes induced by active unloading and comparison with passive unloading in man. Pflügers Archiv 393:292–96. [aAGF]
Hulliger, M., Nordh, E. & Vallbo, A. B. (1982) The absence of position response in spindle afferent units from human finger muscles during accurate position holding. Journal of Physiology (London) 322:167–79. [aAGF]
Hultborn, H., Meunier, S., Morin, C. & Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1987) Assessing changes in presynaptic inhibition of la fibres: A study in man and the cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 389:729–56. [GEL]
Humphrey, D. R. & Reed, D. J. (1983) Separate cortical systems for control of joint movement and joint stiffness: Reciprocal activation and coactivation of antagonist muscles. Advances in Neurology 39:347–72. [aAGF]
Illert, M., Jankowska, E., Lundberg, A. & Odutola, A. (1981) Integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat. Experimental Brain Research 42:269–81. [GEL]
Ingvaldsen, R. P. & Whiting, H. T. A. (1993) The two faces of motor learning. In: Learning motor skills, ed. Doorenbosch, C. A. M.. Enschede, Netherlands: Copy 2000. [RI]
Ingvaldsen, R. P. & Whiting, H. T. A. (1995) Modern views on skill learning are not representative. Submitted. [RI]
Jackson, E. A. (1989) Perspectives of nonlinear dynamics. Cambridge University Press. [TGF]
Jacobs, O. L. R. (1993) Introduction to control theory. Oxford University Press. [SRG]
Jami, L. (1992) Golgi tendon organs in mammalian skeletal muscle: Functional properties and central actions. Physiological Reviews 72:623–66. [aAGF]
Jankowska, E. (1992) Interneuronal relay in spinal pathways from proprioceptors. Progress in Neurobiology 38:335–78. [aAGF, UW]
Jankowska, E., Lundberg, A. & Stuart, D. (1973) Propriospinal control of last order intemeurones of spinal relex pathways in the cat. Brain Research 53:227–31. [GEL]
Jeannerod, M. (1988) The neural and behavioral organization of goal-directed arm movements. Clarendon Press. [arAGF, MD, FL]
Jeannerod, M. (1994) The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behavioral and Brain Science 17(2):187202. [MB]
Jongen, H. A. H., Denier van der Gon, J. J. & Gielen, C. C. A. M. (1989) Inhomogeneous activation of motoneuron pools as revealed by co-contraction of antagonistic human arm muscles. Experimental Brain Research 75:555–62. [aAGF]
Jordan, L. M., Pratt, C. A. & Menzies, J. A. (1979) Locomotion evoked by brainstem stimulation: Occurrence without phasic segmental afferent input. Brain Research 177:204–7. [TMH]
Kaas, J. (1991) Plasticity of sensory and motor maps in adult mammals. Annual Review of Neuroscience 14:137–67. [aAGF]
Kalaska, J. F. (1991) Reaching movements to visual targets: Neuronal representations of sensori-motor transformations. Seminars in the Neurosciences 3:6780. [aAGF]
Kalaska, J. F. & Crammond, D. J. (1992) Cerebral cortical mechanisms of reaching movements. Science 255:1517–23. [arAGF, KHP, SS]
Kalaska, J. F. & Drew, T. (1993) Motor cortex and visuomotor behavior. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 21:397436. [AEP]
Kay, B. A., Saltzman, E. L. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1991) Steady-state and perturbed rhythmical movements: A dynamical analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 17:183–97. [aAGF, NGH]
Kearney, R. E. & Hunter, I. W. (1983) System identification of human triceps surae stretch reflex dynamics. Experimental Brain Research 51:117–27 [AH]
Kearney, R. E. & Hunter, I. W. (1984) System identification of human stretch reflex dynamics: Tibialis anterior. Experimental Brain Research 56:4049. [AH]
Kelso, J. A. S. (1994a) Elementary coordination dynamics. In: Interlimb coordination: Neural, dynamical and cognitive constraints, ed. Swinnen, S. P., Heuer, H., Massion, J. & Caesar, P.. Academic Press. [DS]
Kearney, R. E. & Hunter, I. W. (1994b) The informational character of self-organized coordination dynamics. Human Movement Science 3:393414. [RI, PM]
Kelso, J. A. S. & Shöner, G. (1988) Self-organization of coordinative movement patterns. Human Movement Science 7:2746. [MLL]
Kelso, J. A. S., DelColle, J. D. & Schöner, G. (1990) Action-perception as a pattern formation process. In: Attention and performance, ed. Jeannerod, M.. Erlbaum. [DS]
Ker, R. F., Alexander, R. McN. & Bennett, M. B. (1988) Why are mammalian tendons so thick? Journal of Zoology 216:309–24. [RMcNA]
Kernell, D. & Hultborn, H. (1990) Synaptic effects on recruitment gain: A mechanism of importance for the input-output relations of motoneurone pools? Brain Research 507:176–79. [aAGF]
King, J. S. & Pribam, K. H. (in press) Scale in concious experience: Is the brain too important to be left to specialists to study? Erlbaum. [KHP]
Kostyukov, A. I. & Cherkassky, V. L. (1992) Movement-dependent after-effects in the firing of the spindle endings from the de-efferented muscles of the cat hindlimb. Neuroscience 46:989–99. [UW]
Kriellaars, D. J., Brownstone, R. M., Noga, B. R. & Jordan, L. M. (1994) Mechanical entrainment of fictive locomotion in the decerebrate cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 7:2074–86. [TMH]
Kugler, P. N., Kelso, J. A. S. & Turvey, M. T. (1980) On the concept of coordinative structures as dissipative structures: 1. Theoretical lines of convergence. In: Tutorials in motor behavior, ed. Stelmach, G. E. & Requin, J.. North Holland. [DS]
Kugler, P. N. & Turvey, M. T. (1987) Information, natural law, and the self-assembly of rhythmic movement. Erlbaum. [NGH]
Kugler, P. N. & Turvey, M. T. (1988) Self-organization, (low fields, and information. Human Movement Science 7:97129. [aAGF]
Kuperstein, M. (1988) Neural model of adaptive hand-eye coordination for single postures. Science 239:1308–11. [aAGF]
Laboissière, R., Ostry, D. J. & Feldman, A. G. (in press) The control of multi-muscle systems: Human jaw and hyoid movements. Journal of Neurophysiology. [DJO]
Lackner, J. R. & DiZio, P. (1992) Gravitoinertial force level affects the appreciation of limb position during muscle vibration. Brain Research 592:175–80. [aAGF]
Lackner, J. R. & DiZio, P. (1993) Factors contributing to initial reaching errors and adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations. Society for Neurosdence Abstracts 19:1595. [aAGF]
Lackner, J. R. & DiZio, P. (1994) Rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of arm trajectory. Journal of Neurophysiology. 72:115. [rAGF]
Lacquaniti, F. (1989) Central representations of human limb movement as revealed by studies of drawing and handwriting. Trends in Neurosdence 12:287–91. [aAGF]
Lacquaniti, F. (1992) Automatic control of limb movement and posture. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2:807–14. [aAGF]
Lacquaniti, F., Borghese, N. A. & Carrozzo, M. (1991) Transient reversal of the stretch reflex in human arm muscles. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:939–54. [aAGF]
Lacquaniti, F. & Soechting, J. F. (1986) Responses of mono- and bi-articular muscles to load-perturbations of the human arm. Experimental Brain Research 65:135–44. [JBJS]
Lan, N. & Crago, P. E. (1992) Equilibrium-point hypothesis, minimum effort control strategy and the triphasic muscle activation pattern. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:769–71. [aAGF]
Latash, M. L. (1992) Are we able to preserve a motor command in the changing environment? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:771–73. [aAGF]
Latash, M. L. (1993) Are we able to preserve a motor commond in the changing environment? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:771–73 [rAGF]
Latash, M. L. (1994) Control of fast elbow movement: A study of electromyographic patterns during movements against unexpectedly decreased inertial load. Experimental Brain Research 98:145–52. [GLG, MLL]
Latash, M. L. & Corcos, D. M. (1991) Kinematic and electromyographic characteristics of single-joint movements of individuals with Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation 96:189201. [DMC]
Latash, M. L. & Goodman, S. R. (1993) Variability of fast single joint movements and the equilibrium point hypothesis. In: Variability in motor control, ed. Newell, K. & Corcos, D.. Urbana, IL: Human Kinetics. [SRG]
Latash, M. L. & Goodman, S. R. (1994) An equilibrium-point model of electromyographic patterns during single-joint movements based on experimentally reconstructed control signals. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 4:230–41. [GLG, MLL]
Latash, M. L. & Gottlieb, G. K. (1991a) Reconstruction of shifting elbow joint characteristics during fast and slow movements. Neuroscience 47:357–65. [aAGF, JBJS]
Latash, M. L. & Gottlieb, G. K. (1991b) Reconstruction of joint compliant characteristics during fast and slow movements. Neuroscience 43:697712. [DMC, SRC, MLL]
Latash, M. L. & Gottlieb, G. K. (1991c) An equilibrium-point model for fast single-joint movement: 2. Similarity of single-joint isometric and isotonic descending commands. Journal of Motor Behavior 23:179–91. [MLL]
Lee, R. G., Lucier, G. E., Mustard, B. E. & White, D. G. (1986) Modification of motor output to compensate for unanticipated load conditons during rapid voluntary movements. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 13:97102. [MLL]
Lee, R. G. & Stein, R. B. (1981) Resetting of tremor by mechanical perturbations: A comparison of essential tremor and Parkinsonian tremor. Annals of Neurology 10:523–31. [REAvE]
Lestienne, F. G. & Gurfinkel, V. S. (1988) Postural activity in weightlessness: A dual process underlying adaptation to an unusual environment. Trends in Neuroscience 11:359–63. [FL]
Lestienne, F. G., Gurfinkel, V. S., Levik, Yu. S. & Perrin, Ph. (1994) Posture et gestuelle en microgravité: Un outil d'investigation pour la physiologie sensori-motrice. Médicine Aéronautique et Spatiale, XXXVI, 130:9298. [FL]
Levin, M. F., Feldman, A. G., Milner, T. E. & Lamarre, Y. (1992) Reciprocal and coactivation commands for fast wrist movements. Experimental Brain Research 89:669–77. [arAGF, GLG]
Loeb, G. E. (1985) Motoneurone task groups: Coping with kinematic heterogeneity. Journal of Experimental Biology 115:137–46. [aAGF]
Loeb, G. E. (1989) Strategies for the control of studies of voluntary movements with one mechanical degree of freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:227. [aAGF]
Loeb, G. E., Giszter, S. F., Borghesani, P. & Bizzi, E. (1993) Effects of dorsal root cut on forces evoked by spinal inicrostimulation in the spinalized frog. Journal of Somatosensory and Motor Research 10(1):8195. [SG]
Lundberg, A. (1975) Control of spinal mechanisms from the brain. In: The nervous system, vol. 2., ed. Tower, D. B.. Raven. [aAGF]
Lundberg, A. (1981) Half-centres revisited. In: Advances in physiological sciences: vol. 1. Regulatory functions of the CNS: Motion and organization principles, ed. Szentagothai, J., Palkovits, M. & Hamori, J.. Budapest: Pergamon/Akademiai Kiado. [TM1I]
Maioli, C. & Lacquaniti, F. (1988) Determinants of postural control in cats: A biomechanical study. In: Posture and gait: Development, adaptation and modulation, ed. Amblard, B., Berthoz, A. & Clarac, F.. Elsevier. [FL, rAGF]
Marteniuk, R. G., MacKenzie, C. L., Jeannerod, M., Athens, S. & Dugas, C. (1987) Constraints on human arm movement trajectories. Canadian Journal of Psychology 41:365–78. [CCP]
Masino, T. & Knudsen, E. I. (1990) Horizontal and vertical components of head movement are controlled by distinct neural circuits in the barn owl. Nature 345:434–37. [SG]
Matthews, P. B. C. (1959) The dependence of tension upon extension in the stretch reflex of the soleus muscle of the decerebrate cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 147:521–46. [aAGF, UW]
Matthews, P. B. C. (1972) Mamtnalian muscle receptors and their central actions. Edward Arnold. [aAGF]
Matthews, P. B. C. (1981) Muscle spindles: Their messages and their fusimotor supply. In: Handbook of physiology: 1. The nervous system. American Physiological Society. [aAGF]
May, R. (1976) Simple mathematical models with very complicated dynamics. Nature 78:459–67. [REAvE]
McCloskey, D. I. & Prochazka, A. (1994) The role of sensory information in the guidance of voluntary movement: Reflections on a symposium held at the 22nd annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Somatosensory and Motor Research 11:6976. [rAGF]
McCloskey, D. J. (1978) Kinaesthetic sensibility. Physiological Reviews 58:763820. [aAGF]
McCrea, D. A. (1986) Spinal cord circuitry and motor reflexes. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 14:105–41. [TRN]
McCrea, D. A. (1992) Can sense be made of spinal intemeuron circuits? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:633–43. [aAGF]
McCurdy, M. L. & Hamm, T. M. (1993) Coherence spectra demonstrate synchronization between motor pools of hip and ankle extensors of the cat during fictive locomotion. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 19:540. [TMH]
McDonald, P. V., Bloomberg, J. J. & Layne, C. S. (1994) Lower limb coordination during treadmill locomotion following space flight. Paper presented to the 19th Annual Technical Symposium of The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Houston Section), University of Houston—Clear Lake. [PVMcD]
McDonald, P. V., Layne, C. S., Bloomberg, J. J., Merkle, L., Jones, G. & Pruett, C. J. (1994) The impact of space flight adaptation on postflight locomotion. In: Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting (Miami Beach, FL). Society for Neuroscience.
McIntyre, J. & Bizzi, E. (1993) Servo models for the biological control of movement. Journal of Motor Behavior 25:193202. [aAGF]
MeIzack, R. (1989) Phantom limbs, the self and the brain: The D. O. Hebb memorial lecture. Canadian Psychology 30:116. [aAGF]
Merton, P. A. (1953) Speculations on the servo control of movement. In: The spinal cord, ed. Wolstenholme, G. E. W.. Churchill. [aAGF]
Merzenich, M. M., Recanzone, C., Jenkins, W. M., Allard, T. T. & Nudo, R. J. (1988) Cortical representational plasticity. In: Neurobiology of neocortex, ed. Rakic, P. & Singer, W.. Wiley. [aAGF]
Meyer, D. E., Smith, J. E. K., Kornblum, S., Abrams, R. A. & Wright, C. E. (1990) Speed-accuracy tradeoffs in aimed movements: Toward a theory of rapid voluntary action. In Attention and performance, vol. 13: Motor rejyresentation and control, ed. Jeannerod, M.. Erlbaum. [CEW]
Meyer, D. E., Smith, J. E. K. & Wright, C. E. (1982) Models for the speed and accuracy of aimed movements. Psychological Reviews 89:449–82. [aAGF]
Michaels, C. F. & Beek, P. J. (1994) The state of ecological psychology. Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Ecological Psychology (Ruhr-University, Germany). [RI]
Miller, L. E., Gielen, C. C. A. M., Theeuwen, M. & Doorenbosch, D. (1992) The activation of mono- and biarticular muscles in multijoint movements. In: Control of arm movement in space: Neurophysiological and computational approaches, ed. Caminiti, R., Johnson, P. B. & Burnod, Y.. Springer-Verlag. [aAGF, CCAMG]
Milner, T. E. & Ijaz, M. (1990) The effect of accuracy constraints on threedimensional movement kinematics. Neuroscience 35:365–74. [aAGF]
Milner-Brown, H. S. & Stein, R. B. (1975) The relation between the surface electromyogram and muscular tension. Journal of Physiology (London) 246:259–62. [aAGF]
Mochon, S. & McMahon, T. A. (1980) Ballistic walking. Journal of Biomechanics 13:4957. [AEP]
Morasso, P. (1981) Spatial control of arm movements. Experimental Brain Research 42:223–27. [MD, SRC, PM]
Morasso, P. & Sanguineti, V. (1994) Self-organizing body-schema for motor planning. Journal of Motor Behavior 26:131–48. [PM]
Morasso, P., Sanguineti, V. & Spada, G. (1994) Representation of space and time in motor control. In: Integration of elementary functions into complex behavior, ed. Dean, J., Cruse, H. & Ritter, H.. [report no. 1 of the research group Prerational Intelligence (1993/94)]. Center for Interdisciplinary Research, University of Bielefeld, Germany. [JD]
Motter, B. C., Steinmerz, M. A., Duffy, C. J. & Mountcastle, V. B. (1987) Functional properties of parietal visual neurons: Mechanisms of directionality along a single axis. Journal of Neuroscience 7:154–76. [K11P]
Munoz, D. P., Pélisson, D. & Guitton, D. (1991) Movement of neural activity on the superior colliculus motor map during gaze shifts. Science 51:1358–60. [aAGF, MD]
Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. (1992) From basis functions to basis fields: Using vector primitives to capture vector patterns. Biololgical Cybernetics 67:479–89. [SG]
Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Giszter, S. F. (1992) Vector field approximation: A computational paradigm for motor control and learning. Biological Cybernetics 67:491500. [SG]
Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A., Giszter, S. F. & Bizzi, E. (1994) Linear combinations of primitives in vertebrate motor control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91(16):7534–38. [SG]
Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Hogan, N. (1991) Integrable solutions of kinematic redundancy via impedance control. Robotic Research 10:481–91. [SRG]
Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A., Morasso, P. & Zaccaria, R. (1988) Kinematic networks: A distributed model for representing and regularizing motor redundancy. Biological Cybernetics 60:116. [aAGF]
Mustard, B. E. & Lee, R. G. (1987) Relationship between EMC patterns and kinematic properties for flexion movements at the human wrist. Experimental Brain Research 66:247–56. [aAGF, DMC]
Myklebust, B. M. & Gottlieb, G. L. (1993) Development of the stretch reflex in the newborn: Reciprocal excitation and reflex irradiation. Child Development 64:1036–45. [ET]
Neilson, P. D. & Neilson, M. D. (1992) Adaptive model theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:782–83. [aAGF]
Nelson, W. L. (1983) Physical principles for economies of skilled movements. Biological Cybernetics 46:135–47. [JD]
Newman, D. J. & Alexander, H. L. (1993) Human locomotion and workload for simulated lunar and martian environments. Acta Astronautica 29:613–20. [PVMcD]
Nichols, T. R. (1989) The organization of heterogenic reflexes among muscles crossing the ankle joint in the decerebrate cat. Journal of Physiology (London) 410:463–77. [aAGF]
Nichols, T. R. (1992) Stiffness regulation revisited. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:783–84. [aAGF]
Nichols, T. R. (1995) A biomechanical perspective on spinal mechanisms of coordinated muscular action: An architecture principle. Ada Anatomica 151:113. [TRN]
Nichols, T. R. & Houk, J. C. (1976) Improvement in linearity and regulation of stiffness that results from actions of the stretch reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology 39:119–42. [aAGF]
Nichols, T. R. & Steeves, J. D. (1986) Resetting of resultant stiffness in ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the decerebrate cat. Experimental Brain Research 62:401–10. [aAGF, UW]
Nicogossian, A. E. (1989). Overall physiological response to space flight. In: Space physiology and medicine, ed. Nicogossian, A. E., Huntoon, C. L. & Pool, S. L.. Lea & Febiger. [PVMcD]
Orlovsky, G. N. & Shik, M. L. (1976) Control of locomotion: Neurophysiological analysts of the cat locomotor system. International Review of Physiology 10:281318. [arAGF]
Ostry, D. J., Feldman, A. G. & Flanagan, R. F. (1991) Kinematics and control of frog hindlimb movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 65:547–62. [SG]
Ostry, D. J., Laboissiére, R. & Feldman, A. G. (1994) A model of jaw and hyoid motion based on the equilibrium point hypothesis. Society for Neurosdence Abstracts 20:854. [DJO]
Ostry, D. J. & Munhall, K. G. (1994) Control of jaw orientation and position in mastication and speech. Journal of Neurophysiology 71:1528–45. [DJO]
Pagano, C. C. & Turvey, M. T. (in press) The inertia tensor as a basis for the perception of limb orientation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. [CCP]
Pailhous, J. & Bonnard, M. (1994) Jeannerod's representing brain: Image or illusion? Behavioral and Brain Science 17(2):215–16. [MB]
Paillard, J. (1991) Brain and space. Oxford University Press. [aAGF]
Partridge, L. D. (1966) Signal handling characteristics of load-moving skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology 210:853–63. [LDP]
Partridge, L. D. (1967) Intrinsic feedback factors producing inertial compensation in muscle. Biophysics Journal 7:853–63. [LDP]
Partridge, L. D. (1972) Interrelationships studied in a semi-biological “reflex.” American Journal of Physiology 223:144–58. [LDP]
Partridge, L. D. (1979) Muscle properties: A problem for the motor controller physiologist. In: Posture and Movement, ed. Talbott, R. E. & Humphrey, D. R.. Raven. [LDP]
Partridge, L. D. (1982) How was movement controlled before Newton? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:561. [UW]
Partridge, L. D. (1983) Neural control drives a muscle spring: A persisting yet limited motor theory. Experimental Brain Research [Suppl.] 7:280–90. [LDP]
Partridge, L. D. & Benton, L. A. (1981) Muscle the motor. In: Handbook of physiology: The nervous system, ed. Brooks, V. B.. American Physiological Society. [UW]
Patla, A. E., Prentice, S. D., Armand, M. & Huissoon, J. P. (1994) The role of effector system dynamics on the control of limb trajectory over obstacles during locomotion: Empirical and modelling approaches. In: Vestibular and neural front [12th International Symposium on Posture and Gait], ed. Taguchi, K., Igarashi, M. & Mori, S.. Elsevier. [AEP]
Patla, A. E. & Rietdyk, S. (1993) Visual control of limb trajectory over obstacles during locomotion: Effect of obstacle height and width. Gait and Posture 1(1):4560. [AEP]
Patla, A. E., Rietdyk, S., Martin, C. & Prentice, S. (in press) Locomotor patterns of the leading and trailing limb while going over solid and fragile obstacles: Some insights into the role of vision during locomotion. Journal of Motor Behavior. [AEP]
Patla, A. E., Rietdyk, S., Prentice, S., Unger-Peters, G. & Gobbi, L. (1993) Understanding the roles of sensory inputs in the control of limb trajectory over obstacles during locomotion. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 19:148. [AEP]
Pearson, K. G. (1985) Are diere central pattern generators for walking and flight in insects? In: Feedback and neural control in invertebrates and vertebrates, ed. Barnes, W J. P. & Gladden, M. H.. Croom Helm. [aAGF]
Pearson, K. G. & Collins, D. F. (1993) Reversal of the influence of group Ib aflerents from plantaris on activity in medial gastrocnemius muscle during locomotor activity. Journal of Neurophysiology 70:1009–17. [TMH]
Pélisson, D., Prablanc, C., Goodale, M. A. & Jeannerod, M. (1986) Visual control of reaching movements without vision of the limb: 2. Evidence of fast unconscious processes correcting the trajectory of the hand to the final position of a double-step stimulus. Experimental Brain Research 62:303– 11. [aAGF, MD]
Pellionisz, A. (1985) Tensor network theory of the metaorganization of functional geometries in the central nervous system. Neuroscience 16:245–73. [aAGF]
Pellionisz, A. & Llinás, R. (1982) Space-time representation in the brain. The cerebellum as a predictive space-time metric tensor. Neuroscience 7:2949–70. [aAGF]
Pennycuick, C. J. (1975) On the running of the gnu (Connochaetes taurinus) and other animals. Journal of Experimental Biology 63:775–99. [NGH]
Piaget, J. (1963) The origin of intelligence in children. Norton. [PM]
Polit, A. & Bizzi, E. (1979) Characteristics of motor programs underlying arm movements in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 42:183–94. [MD]
Porter, R. & Lemon, R. N. (1993) Corticospinal function and voluntary movement. Clarendon Press. [SS]
Prablanc, C. & Martin, O. (1992) Automatic control during hand reaching at undetected two-dimensional target displacements. Journal of Neurophysiology 67:455–69. [MD]
Pratt, C. A., Chanaud, C. M. & Loeb, G. E. (1991) Functional complex muscles of the cat hindlimb: 4. Intramuscular distribution of movement command signals and cutaneous reflexes in broad, bifunctional thigh muscles. Experimental Brain Research 85:5671. [aAGF]
Pribram, K. H. (1971) Languages of the brain: Experimental paradoxes and prindples in neuropsychology. Prentice-Hall. [KHP]
Pribram, K. H. (1991) Brain and perception: Holonomy and structure in figural processing. Erlbaum. [KHP]
Pribam, K. H., Sharafat, A. & Bn, G. J. (1984) Frequency encoding in motor systems. In: Human motor actions—Bernstein reassessed, ed. Whiting, H. T. A.. Elsevier. [KHP]
Prochazka, A. (1989) Sensorimotor gain control: A basic strategy of motor systems? Progress in Neurobiology 33:281307. [aAGF]
Prochazka, A., Hulliger, M., Zangger, P. & Appenteng, K. (1985) “Fusimotor set”: New evidence for a-independent control of g-motoneurones during movements in the awake cat. Brain Research 339:136–40. [aAGF]
Rack, P. M. H. & Ross, H. F. (1984) The tendon of flexor pollicis longus; its effects on the muscular control of force and position at the human thumb. Journal of Physiology 351:99110. [RMcNA]
Ramos, C. F. & Stark, L. W. (1990) Simulation experiments can shed light on the functional aspects of postural adjustments related to voluntary movements. In: Multiple muscle systems: Biomechanics and movement organization, ed. Winters, J. M. & Woo, S. L.-Y.. Springer-Verlag. [AA]
Reeke, G. N., Finkel, L. H., Sporns, O. & Edelman, G. M. (1990) Synthetic neural modeling: A multilevel approach to the analysis of brain complexity. In: Signal and senses: Local and global order in perceptual maps, ed. Edelman, G., Gall, W. E. & Cowan, W. M.. Wiley. [aAGF]
Reichert, H. & Rowell, C. H. F. (1986) Neuronal circuits controlling flight in the locust: How sensory information is processed for motor control. Trends in Neuroscience 9:281–83. [JD]
Reschke, M. F., Bloomberg, J. J., Paloski, W. H., Harm, D. L. & Parker, D. E. (1994) Neurophysiologic aspects: Sensory and sensory-motor function. In: Space physiology and medicine, ed. Nicogossian, A. E., Huntoon, C. L. & Pool, S. L.. Lea & Febiger. [PVMcD]
Richmond, F. J. R. & Loeb, G. E. (1992) Electromyographic studies of neck muscles in the intact cat: 2. Reflexes evoked by muscle nerve stimulation. Experimental Brain Research 88:5966. [aAGF]
Roberts, T. D. M. (1963) Rhythmic excitation of a stretch reflex, revealing (a) hysteresis and (b) a difference between the responses to pulling and to stretching. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 48:328–45. [UW]
Robinson, D. (1975) Oculomotor control signals. In: Baste mechanisms of ocular motility and their clinical implications, ed. Lennerstrand, G. & Bach-y-Rita, P.. Pergamon. [MD]
Robinson, D. A. (1989) Integrating with neurons. Annual Review of Neuroscience 12:3345. [aAGF]
Rock, I. & Smith, D. (1986). The opto-motor response and induced motion of the self. Perception 15:497502. [MB]
Rosenbaum, D., Engelbrecht, S., Bushe, M. & Loukopoulos, L. (1993) Knowledge model for selecting and producing reaching movements. Journal of Motor Behavior 25:217–27. [M D]
Rossignol, S., Lund, J. & Drew, T. (1988) The role of sensory inputs in regulating patterns of rhythmical movements in higher vertebrates. In: Neural control of rhythmic movements in vertibrates, ed. Cohen, A., Rossignol, S. & Grillner, S.. Wiley. [aAGF]
Saltzman, E. L. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1987) Skilled actions: A task-dynamic approach. Psychological Reviews 94:84106. [aAGF, BAK, DS]
Sanes, J. N. (1986) Kinematics and end-point control of arm movements are modified by unexpected changes in viscous loading. Journal of Neuroscience 6:3120–27. [DMC]
Sanger, T. D. (1994a) Discovering elementary movement primitives using unsupervised motor learning. Proceedings of Neural Networks for Computing Conference (Snowbird, UT). [SG]
Sanger, T. D. (1994b) Optimal unsupervised motor learning predicts the internal representation of barn owl head movements. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing, vol. 6, ed. Touretzky, D.. Morgan Kaufmann. [SG]
Schaal, S., Sternad, D. & Atkeson, C. G. (in press) One-handed juggling: Dynamical approaches to a rhythmic task. Journal of Motor Behavior. [DS]
Schmidt, R. A., Zelaznik, H. N., Hawkins, B., Frank, J. S. & Quinn, J. T. Jr (1979) Motor output variability: A theory for the accuracy of rapid motor acts. Psychological Reviews 86:415–51. [aAGF, CEW]
Schneider, K., Zemicke, R. F., Ulrich, B. D., Jensen, J. L. & Thelen, E. (1990) Understanding movement control in infants through the analysis of limb interscgniental dynamics. journal of Motor Behavior 22:493–320. [ET]
Scholz, J. P., Kelso, J. A. S. & Schöner, G. (1987) Nonequilibrium phase-transitions in coordinated biological motion: Critical slowing down and switching time. Physics Letters A 123:390–94. [REAvE]
Schomburg, E. D. (1990) Spinal sensorimotor systems and their supraspinal control. Neumscience Research 7:265340. [GEL]
Schöner, G. (in press) Recent developments and problems in human movement science and their conceptual implications. Ecological Psychology. [ET]
Schöner, G. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1988a) Dynamic pattern generation in behavioral and neural systems. Science 239:1513–20. [REAvE, TCF, MLL]
Schöner, G. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1988b) A synergetic theory of environmentally-specified and learned patterns of movement coordination: 1. Relative phase dynamics. Biological Cybernetics 58:7180. [DS]
Schöner, G. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1990) A dynamic theory of coordination of discrete movement. Biological Cybernetics 63:257–70. [MLL]
Schöner, G. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1994) From interlimb coordination to trajectory formation: Common dynamic principles. In: Interlimb coordination: Neural, dynamical and cognitive constraints, ed. Swinnen, S. P., Heuer, H., Massion, J. & Caesar, P.. Academic Press. [TGF. DS]
Schöner, G., Jiang, W. Y. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1990) A synergetic theory of quadrupedal gaits and gait transformations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 142:359–91. [aAGF]
Shadmehr, R., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Bizzi, E. (1993) Postural force fields of the human arm and their role in generating multijoint movements, Journal of Neuroscience 13(1):4562. [AH]
Shaw, R. & Kineslla-Shaw, J. (1988) Ecological mechanics: A physical geometry for intentional constraints. Human Movement Science 7:155200. [REAvE]
Sherrington, C. S. (1906/1947) The integrative action of the nervous system. Yale University Press. [aAGF]
Slotine, J.-J. (1994) Stability in adaptation and learning. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on the simulation of adaptive beliavior (from animals to animals 3), ed. Cliff, D., Husbands, P., Meyer, J.-A. & Wilson, S. W.. MIT Press. [SG]
Smeets, J. B. J. (1991) Co-ordination in reflex control of arm movements. Ph.D. thesis, Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO). [aAGF]
Smeets, J. B. J. (1992) What do fast goal-directed movements teach us about equilibrium-point control? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:796–97. [aAGF]
Smeets, J. B. J. & Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1994) An unsupervised neural network model for the development of reflex co-ordination. Biological Cybernetics 70:417–45. [JBJS]
Smeets, J. B. J. & Erkelens, C. J. (1991) Dependence of autogenic and heterogenic stretch reflexes on preload activity in the human arm. Journal of Physiology 440:455–65. [JBJS]
Smeets, J. B. J., Erkelens, C. J. & Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1990) Adjustments of fast goal-directed arm movements in response to an unexpected inertial load. Experimental Brain Research 81:303–12. [GLG, JBJS]
Smith, A. & Denny, M. (1990). High-frequency oscillations as indicators of neural control mechanisms in human respiration, mastication and speech. Journal of Neurophysiology 63:745–58. [TMH ]
Smith, J. C., Betts, B., Edgerton, V. R. & Zernicke, R. F. (1980) Rapid ankle extension during paw shakes: Selective recruitment of fast ankle extensors. Journal of Neurophysiology 43:612–20. [aAGF]
Smolianinov, V. V. (1980) Mathematical models of biological tissues. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian). [aAGF]
Soechting, J. F. (1984) Effect of target size on spatial and temporal characteristics of a pointing movement in man. Experimental Brain Research 54:121–32. [MD, MLL]
Soechting, J. F. & Flanders, M. (1992) Moving in three-dimensional space: Frames of reference, vectors and coordinate systems. Annual Review of Neuroscience 15:167–91. [arAGF, FL]
Soechting, J. F. & Terzuolo, C. A. (1986) An algorithm for the generation of curvilinear wrist motion in an arbitrary plane in three-dimensional space. Neuroscience 19:13931405. [aAGF]
St-Onge, N., Qi, H. & Feldman, A. G. (1993) The patterns of control signal underlying elbow joint movements in humans. Neuroscience Letters 164:171–74. [aAGF, DMC, GLG]
States, R. A. (1994). Resolving indeterminacy associated with joint-level motor equivalence in planar aimed arm movements [doctoral dissertation, Columbia University]. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International. [CEW]
Stein, J. F. (1992) The representation of egocentric space in the posterior parietal cortex. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:691700. [aAGF, PM]
Stein, P. S. G. (1984) Central pattern generators in the spinal cord. In: Handbook of the spinal cord, vol. 2 & 3, ed. Davidoff, R. A.. Dekker. [aAGF]
Stein, R. B. (1982) What muscle variable(s) does the nervous system control in limb movements? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:535–77. [aAGF, BAK]
Steinmetz, M. A., Motter, B. C., Duffy, C. J. & Mountcastle, V. B. (1987) Functional properties of parietal visual neurons: Radial organization of directionalities within the visual field. Journal of Neuroscience 7:177–91. [KHP]
Tafforin, C. (1990) Relationships between orientation, movement and posture in weightlessness: Preliminary ethological observations. Acta Astronautica 21:271–80. [PVMcD]
Taub, E., Goldberg, I. A. & Taub, P. (1975) Deafferentation in the monkey: Pointing at a target without visual feedback. Experimental Neurology 46:178–86. [aAGF]
Tax, A. A. M., Denier van der Gon, J. J. & Erkelens, C. J. (1990) Differences in coordination of elbow flexor muscles in force tasks and in movement tasks. Experimental Brain Research 81:567–72. [aAGF, CCAMG]
Tax, A. A. M., Denier van der Gon, J. J., Gielen, C. C. A. M. & Kleyne, M. (1990a) Differences in central control of m. biceps brachii in movement tasks and force tasks. Experimental Brain Research 79:138–42. [CCAMG]
Tax, A. A. M., Denier van der Gon, J. J., Gielen, C. C. A. M. & van den Tempel, C. M. M. (1989) Differences in the activation of m. biceps brachii in the control of slow isotonic movements and isometric contractions. Experimental Brain Research 76:5563. [aAGF]
Tax, A. A. M. & Gielen, C. C. A. M. (1993) New aspects of human muscle coordination as revealed by motor-unit studies. In: Progress in brain research, vol. 97, ed. Allum, J. H. J., Allum-Mecklenburg, D. J., Harris, F. P. & Probst, R.. Elsevier. [aAGF]
Theeuwen, M., Gielen, C. C. A. M. & Miller, L. E. (in press) The relative activation of muscles during isometric contractions and low-velocity movements against a load. Experimental Brain Research. [CCAMG]
Theeuwen, M., Gielen, C. C. A. M., Miller, L. E. & Doorenbosch, C. (1994) The relation between surface EMG and recruitment thresholds of motor units in human arm muscles during isometric contractions. Experimental Brain Research 98:488500. [CCAMG]
Thelen, E. (in press) Normal infant stereotypies: A dynamic systems approach. In: Stereotypies: Brain-behavior relationships, ed. Sprague, R. L. & Newell, K.. American Psychological Association. [ET]
Thelen, E., Corbetta, D., Kamm, K., Spencer, J. P., Schneider, K. & Zemicke, R. F. (1993) The transition to reaching: Mapping intention and intrinsic dynamics. Child Development 64:1058–98. [ET]
Thelen, E., Corbetta, D. & Spencer, J. P. (in press) The development of reaching during the first year: The role of movement speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance. [ET]
Thelen, E. & Fisher, D. M. (1983) The organization of spontaneous leg movements in newborn infants. Journal of Motor Behavior 15:353–77. [ET]
Thelen, E. & Smith, L. B. (1994) A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. MIT Press. [ET]
Thornton, W. E., Hoffler, C. W. & Rummel, J. A. (1977) Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts. In: Biomedical results from skylab (NASA SP-377), ed. Johnston, R. S. & Dietlein, L. F.. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Tsuji, T., Morasso, P., Goto, K. & Ito, K. (in press) Human hand impedance characteristics during maintained posture in multi-joint arm movements. Biological Cybernetics. [PM]
Turvey, M. T. (1990) The challenge of a physical account of action: A personal view. In: The natural-physical approach to movement control, ed. Whiting, H. T. A., Meijer, O. G. & van Wieringen, P. C. W.. Amsterdam: VU University Press. [MLL]
Turvey, M. T. & Schmidt, R. C. (1994) A low-dimensional nonlinear dynamic governing interlimb rhythmic coordination. In: Interlimb coordination: Neural, dynamical and cognitive constraints, ed. Swinnen, S. P., Heuer, H., Massion, J. & Caesar, P.. Academic Press. [DS]
Uno, Y., Kawato, M. & Suzuki, R. (1989) Formation and control of optimal trajectory in human multijoint arm movements: Minimun torque-change model. Biological Cybernetics 61:89101. [MD]
Vallbo, A. B. (1974) Human muscle spindle discharge during isometric voluntary contractions. Amplitude relations between spindle frequency and torque. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90:310–36. [aAGF]
Van der Helm, F. C. T. (1994) A finite element musculoskeletal model of the shoulder mechanism. Journal of Biomechanics 27:551–70. [JMW]
Van Emmerik, R. E. A. (1992) Kinematic adaptation to perturbations as a function of practice in rhythmic drawing movements. Journal of Motor Behavior 24:117–31. [aAGF, REAvE]
Van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1989) From rotation to translation: Constraints on multi-joint movements and the unique action of bi-articular muscles. Human Movement Sciences 8:865–82. [CCAMG]
Vincken, M. H., Gielen, C. C. A. M. & Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1983) Intrinsic and afferent components in apparent muscle stiffness in man. Neuroscience 9:529–34. [aAGF]
Viviani, P. & Terzuolo, C. A. (1980) Space-time invariance in learned motor skill. In: Tutorial in motor behavior, ed. Stelmach, G. E. & Requin, J.. North Holland. [SRG]
Viviani, P. & Terzuolo, C. A. (1982) Trajectory determines movement dynamics. Neuroscience 7:431–37. [aAGF]
Voloshin, A. S., Wosk, J. & Brull, M. (1981) Force wave transmission through the human locomotor system. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 103:4850. [PVMcD]
Von Hofsten, C. (1991) Structuring of early reaching movements: A longitudinal study. Journal of Motor Behavior 23:280–92. [ET]
Von Hoist, E. & Mittelstaedt, H. (1950) The reafference principle: Interaction between the central nervous system and the periphery. Naturwissenschaften 37:464–76. [aAGF]
Wadell, I., Johansson, H., Sjölander, P., Sojka, P., Djupsjöbacka, M. & Niechaj, A. (1991) Fusimotor reflexes influencing secondary muscle spindle afferents from flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limb of the cat. Journal of Physiology (Paris) 85:223–34. [aAGF]
Wadman, W. J., Denier van der Gon, J. J., Geuze, R. H. & Mol, C. R. (1979) Control of fast goal-directed arm movements. Journal of Human Movement Studies 5:317. [aAGF]
Wallace, S. A. (1981) An impulse-timing theory for reciprocal control of muscular activity in rapid, discrete movements. Journal of Motor Behavior 13:144–60. [aAGF]
Wallen, P., Ullen, F., Deliagina, T. G., Orlovsky, G. N. & Grillner, S. (1994) Modulations of the normal locomotor pattern during visually evoked yaw turns in the lamprey. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 20:1408. [rAGF]
Waters, P. & Strick, P. L. (1981) Influence of “strategy” on muscle activity during ballistic movements. Brain Research 207:189–94. [aAGF, DMC]
Weber, E. (1846) Muskelbewegung. Wagner's Handwîrterbuch der Physologie 3:1122. [LDP]
Westerga, J. & Gramsbergen, A. (1993) Changes in the electromyogram of two major hindlimb muscles during locomotor development in the rat. Experimental Brain Research 92:479–88. [aAGF]
Whalen, R. (1993) Musculoskeletal adaptation to mechanical forces on earth and in space. The Physiologist 36:S127S130. [PVMcD]
Whitney, D. E. (1969) Resolved motion rate control of manipulators and human prostheses. IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems v.MMS-10:4753. [SRG]
Williamson, R. M. & Roberts, B. L. (1986) Sensory and motor interactions during movement in the spinal dogfish. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 227:103–19. [NGH]
Wilson, D. M. (1961) The central nervous control of flight in a locust. Journal of Experimental Biology 38:471–90. [NGH]
Windhorst, U.) (1994) Shaping static elbow torque-angle relationships by spinal cord circuits: A theoretical study. Neuroscience 59:713–27. [UW]
Windhorst, U., Boorman, G. & Kirmayer, D. (1994) Renshaw cells and recurrent inhibition: Comparison of responses to cyclic inputs. Neuroscience Abstracts 20:791. [UW]
Windhorst, U., Schmidt, J. & Meyer-Lohman, (1976) Analysis of the dynamic responses of deefferented primary muscle spindle endings to ramp stretch. Pflügers Archiv 306:233–40. [aAGF]
Winfree, A. T. (1980) The geometry of biological time. Springer-Verlag. [REAvE]
Winters, J. M. (1994a) Concepts in neuro-muscular modelling. In: 3-D analysis of human movement, ed. Allard, et al. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. [JMW]
Winters, J. M. (in press) An improved muscle-reflex actuator for use in large-scale neuromusculoskeletal models. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. [JMW]
Winters, J. M. & Mullins, P. A. (1992) Synthesized neural/biomechanical models used for realistic 3-D tasks are more likely to provide insights into human movement strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:805–7. [JMW]
Winters, J. M. & Stark, L. (1985) Analysis of fundamental movement patterns through the use of in-depth antagonistic muscle models. IEEE Transactions in Biomedical Engineering, BME-32:826–39. [JMW]
Winters, J. M. & Van der Helm, F. C. T. (1994) A field-based musculoskeletal framework for studying human posture and manipulation in 3D. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Modeling and Control of Biomedical Systetns (Galveston, TX). International Federation on Automatic Control. [JMW]
Wong, Y. C., Kwan, H. C., MacKay, W. A. & Murphy, J. T. (1978) Spatial organization of precentral cortex in awake primates: 2. Somatosensory inputs. Journal of Physiology 41:1107–19. [SS]
Wu, C.-H., Houk, J. C., Young, K.-Y., Miller, L. E. (1990) Nonlinear damping of limb motion. In: Multiple muscle systems: Biomechanics and movement organization, ed. Winters, J. M. & Woo, S. L.-Y.. Springer-Verlag. [AH]
Zajac, F. E. & Giordon, M. E. (1989) Determining muscle's force and action in multi-articular movement. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 17:187230. [GEL, SS]
Zajac, F. E. & Winters, J. M. (1990) Modeling musculoskeltal movement systems: Joint and body-segment dynamics, musculotendon actuation, and neuromuscular control. In: Multiple muscle systems: Biomechanics and movement organization, ed. Winters, J. M. & Woo, S. L.-Y.. Springer-Verlag. [JMW]