Skip to main content
×
Home

A perspective for viewing the history of psychophysics

  • David J. Murray (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Fechner's conception of psychophysics included both “outer psychophysics” the relation between stimulus intensity and the response reflecting sensation strength, and “inner psychophysics” the relation between neurelectric responses and sensation strength. In his own time outer psychophysics focussed on the form of the psychophysical law, with Fechner espousing a logarithmic law, Delboeuf a variant of the logarithmic law incorporating a resting level of neural activity, and Plateau a power law. One of the issues on which the dispute was focussed concerned the appearance of contrasts if the overall illumination was increased or decreased; another issue was the question of whether a sensation of a “just noticeable difference” established for one value of a sensory dimension appeared the same for a value elsewhere on the dimension. The development of “inner psychophysics” led through the works of Delboeuf, Solomons, Jastrow, and Thurstone to modern signal detection theory. A third line of research, devoted to the question of what was meant by the “measurement” of sensation strength, stemmed from the criticism of Fechner's work by von Kries (1882) and others. Although a valid body of science could be built up without the intervening variable called “sensation strength,” such a science might be a cumbersome representation of reality. When an optical contrast is set up, and its overall illumination is increased or decreased, subjective contrasts involving medium levels of lightness vary little as illumination varies (as a power law based on sensation ratios or a logarithmic law based on sensation differences predict), but subjective contrasts involving extreme levels of lightness might be subject to the effects of other variables.

Copyright
References
Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Anderson N. H. (1970) Functional measurement and psychophysical judgment. Psychological Review 77:153–70. [aDJM, DJW]
Anderson N. H. (1972) Cross-talk validation of functional measurement. Perception and Psychophysics 12:389–95. [rDJM]
Anderson N. H. (1975) On the role of context effects in psychophysical judgment. Psychological Review 6:462–82. [DJW]
Anderson N. H. (1981) Foundations of information integration theory. Academic Press. [RDL]
Anderson N. H. (1982) Methods of information integration theory. Academic Press. [NHA, RDL, DJW]
Anderson N. H. (1990) Integration psychophysics. In: Psychophysical explorations of mental structures, ed. Geissler H.-G.. Hogrefe & Huber. [NHA]
Anderson N. H. (1992) Integration psychophysics and cognition. In: Psychophysical approaches to cognition, ed. Algom D.. Elsevier. [NHA]
Atkinson R. C. (1963) A variable sensitivity theory of signal detection. Psychological Review 70:91106. [DL]
Atkinson W. H. (1982) A general equation for sensory magnitude. Perception and Psychophysics 31:2640. [aDJM]
Bain A. (1859/1880) The emotions and the will, 3rd ed.Longmans, Green. [rDJM]
Baird J. C. (1970) A cognitive theory of psychophysics: II. Fechner's law and Stevens' law. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 11:89102. [MO]
Baird J. C. & Noma E. (1975) Psychophysical study of numbers. 1. Generation of numerical responses. Psychological Research 37:281–97. [aDJM]
Baird J. C. & Noma E. (1978) Fundamentals of scaling and psychophysics. Wiley. [MO]
Baird J. C. & Wagner M. (1991) Transformation theory of size judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance 17:852–64. [MW]
Baker K. E. & Dudek F. J. (1955) Weight scales from ratio judgments nd comparisons of existent weight scales. Journal of Experimental Psychology 50:291308. [HER]
Balmer H. (1977) Albrecht von Holier. Haupt. [O-JG]
Bartlett F. C. (1932) Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [rDJM]
Bartley H. S. (1970) The homeostatic and comfort perceptual systems. Journal of Psychology 75:157–62. [GB]
Baxt N. (1871/1982) On the time necessary for a visual impression to come into consciousness. Psychological Research 44:112. (Translated by D. J. Murray.) [aDJM]
Beck J. (1972) Surface color perception. Cornell University Press. [aDJM]
Bell E. T. (1939) Men of mathematics. Gollanez. [RAMG]
Berkeley C. (1709) An essay towards a new theory of vision. Dublin: Pepyat. (Reprinted in [1948] G. Berkeley's works, vol. 1, ed. Luce A. A. & Jessop T. E.. Nelson.) [O-JG]
Bernoulli (1837) (See Fechner, 1860). [CB]
Birch T. (1756/1968) The history of the Royal Society of London, vol. 3. Jonson. [O-JG]
Birnbaum M. H. (1974) Using contextual effects to derive psychophysical laws. Perception and Psychophysics 15:8996. [DJW]
Birnbaum M. H. (1980) Comparison of two theories of “ratio” and “difference” judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 109:304–19. [aDJM]
Birnbaum M. H. (1989) Should contextual effects in human judgment be avoided? Contemporary Psychology 37:2123. [GG]
Bimbaum M. H. & Veit C. T. (1974) Scale convergence as a criterion for rescaling: Information integration with difference, ratio and averaging tasks. Perception and Psychophysics 15:715. [aDJM]
Björkman M. (1958) Some relationships between psychophysical parameters. Reports from the Psychological Laboratory, University of Stockholm, No. 65. [MO]
Björkman M. (1960) Variability data and direct quantitative judgment for scaling subjective magnitude. Reports from the Psychological Laboratory, University of Stockholm, No. 78. [MO]
Björkman M. & Ekman G. (1962) Experimentalpsykologiska metoder [Methods in experimental psychology], Almqvist & Wiksell. [GB]
Blackwell H. R. (1963) Neural theories of simple visual discriminations. Journal of the Optical Society of America 53:129–60. [DL]
Blackwell H. R., Pritchard B. S. & Ohmart T. G. (1954) Automatic apparatus for stimulus presentation and recording in visual threshold experiments. Journal of the Optical Society of America 44:322–66. [DL]
Bonne C. (1989) How to bridge the gap between magnitude estimation and reaction time. In: Fechner Day 90. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the International Society of Psychophysics, ed. Muller F.. Institute für Psychologie Universität Wuerzburg. [ANL]
Borg G. (1961) Interindividual scaling and perception of muscular force. Kungliga Fysiografiska sallskapets i Lund förhandlingar 31:117–25. [GB]
Borg G. (1962) Physical performance and perceived exertion. Studia Psychologica et Paedogogica, Series altera, Investigationes XI. Gleerup, Lund. [GB]
Borg G. (1978) Subjective effort in relation to physical performance and working capacity. In: Psychology: From research to practice, ed. Pick H. L. et al. Plenum. [GB]
Borg G. (1982) A category scale with ratio properties for intermodal and interindividual comparisons. In: Psychophysical judgment and the process of perception, ed. Geissler H. G. & Petzold P.. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. [GB]
Borg G. (1990) A general model for interindividual comparison. In: Recent trends in theoretical psychology, vol. 2, ed. Baker W. J., Hyland M. E., van Hezewijk R. & Terwee S.. Springer-Verlag. [GB]
Borg G., Burg M. van den, Hassmén P., Kaijser L. & Tanaka S. (1987) Relationships between perceived exertion, HR and HLa in cycling, running and walking. Scandinavian Journal of Sports Sciences 9:6977. [GB]
Borg C., Diamant H., Ström L. & Zotterman V. (1967) The relation between neural and perceptual intensity: A comparative study on the neural and psychophysical response to taste stimuli. Journal of Physiology 192:1320. [GB]
Boring E. G. (1917) A chart of the psychometric function. American Journal of Psychology 28:465–70. [aDJM]
Boring E. G. (1942) Sensation and perception in the history of experimental psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [rDJM]
Boring E. G. (1929) A history of experimental psychology. Appleton-Century. [GG]
Bradley J. (1971) Mach's philosophy of science. Athlone Press. [JVB]
Brentano F. (1874/1973) Psychology from an empirical standpoint. (Translated by Rancurello A. C., Terrell D. B. & McAlister L. L.). Routledge & Kegan Paul. [aDJM]
Brooks G. P. & Aalto S. K. (1981) The rise and fall of moral algebra: Frances Hutcheson and the mathematization of psychology. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 17:343–56. [rDJM]
Brown J. L. & Mueller C. G. (1965) Brightness discrimination and brightness contrast. In: Vision and visual perception, ed. Graham C.. Wiley. [aDJM]
Brown T. (1820/1830) Lectures on the philosophy of the human mind. William Tait. [rDJM]
Brunswik E. (1934) Wahrnehmung und Cegenstandswelt: Grundlegung einer Psychologie vom Gegenstand her. Deuticke. [GG]
Brunswik E. (1956) Perception and the representatice design of psychological experiments. University of California Press. [GRL]
Buf J. M. H. du (1987) Spatial characteristics of brightness and apparentcontrast perception. Ph.D. dissertation, Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands. [rDJM]
Bühler W. K. (1987) Gauss, eine biographische Studie. Springer-Verlag. [RAMC]
Büttner U. & Grüsser O.-J. (1968) Quantitative Analyse der Erregungssummation im receptiven Feld retinaler Neurone der Katze. Kybernetik 4:8194. [O-JG]
Campbell N. R. (1920) Physics: The elements. Cambridge University Press. (Reprinted in 1957 as Foundations of science: The philosophy of theory and experiments. Dover.) [RDL]
Carnap R. (1945) The two concepts of probability. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 5:513–32. [MH]
Cattell J. M. (1893) On errors of observation. American Journal of Psychology 5:285–93. [aDJM]
Cattell J. M. (1902) The time of perception as a measure of differences in intensity. Philosophische Studien 19:6368. (Reprinted in [1947] James McKeen Cattell: Man of Science, vol. 1. Science Press.) [WMP]
Chocholle R. (1940) Variations des temps de réaction auditifs en function de l'intensité à diverses fréquences. L'Année Psychologique 41:65124. [rDJM]
Churchland P. M. (1990) Matter and consciousness. MIT Press. [GB]
Coombs C. H. (1964) A theory of data. Wiley. [WMP]
Cornsweet T. N. (1970) Visual perception. Academic Press. [aDJM]
Corso J. F. (1963) A theoretico-historical review of the threshold concept. Psychological Bulletin 60:356–70. [aDJM]
Corso J. F. (1967) The experimental psychology of sensory behavior. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [aDJM]
Cross D. V. & Rotkin L. (1975) The relation between size and apparent heaviness. Perception and Psychophysics 18:7987. [HER]
Curry R. E., Nagel C. D. & Gai E. G. (1977) Decision behavior with changing signal strengths. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 15:4669. [aDJM]
Dale A. I. (1991) A history of inverse probability. Springer-Verlag. [RAMG]
Daston L. (1988) Classical probability in the Enlightenment. Princeton University Press. [GG]
David H. A. (1969) The method of paired comparisons. Griffin. [SL]
Dawson W. E. & Miller M. E. (1978) Inverse attribute functions and the proposed modifications of the power law. Perception and Psychophysics 24:457–65. [aDJM]
de Lange H. (1958) Research into the dynamic nature of the human foveacortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. I. Attenuation characteristies with white and colored lights. Journal of the Optical Society of America 48:777–84. [aDJM]
Delboeuf J. R. L. (1873) Etude psychophysique: Recherches theoriques et expérimentales sur la mesure des sensations et spécialement des sensations de lumière et de fatigue. Mémoires couronnés et autres mémoires publiés par l'Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres, et des Beaux-arts de Belgique, vol. 23. Brussels: Hayez. [aDJM]
Delboeuf J. R. L. (1883) Examen critique de la loi psychophysique: Sa base et sa signification: Hering contre Fechner: Fechner contre ses adversaires. Librairie Germer Baillière et cie. [rDJM]
Delezenne C. E. J. (1827) Sur les valeurs numeriques des notes de la gamme. Recueil des travaux de la Société des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Arts de Lille 156. [rDJM]
Diamond A. L. (1953) Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45:304–14. [aDJM]
Drobisch M. W. (1850/1972) Erste Crundlehren der mathematischen Psychologie E. J. Bonset. [rDJM]
Drobisch M. W. (1861) Neue Ableit der Grundformeln von Fechner's Psychophysik. Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Königlich Sächsischen Gesselschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 13. [RAMG]
Dusoir A. E. (1975) Treatment of bias in detection and recognition models: A review. Perception and Psychophysics 17:167–78. [aDJM]
Dusoir A. E. (1983) Isobias curves in some detection tasks. Perception and Psychophysics 33:403–12. [aDJM]
Ebbinghaus H. (1885/1964) Über des Gedächtnis (Translated by Ruger H. A. & Bussenius C. E.: Memory.) Dover. [rDJM]
Egan J. P. (1958) Recognition memory and the operating characteristic (Technical Note). Indiana University Hearing and Communication Laboratory. [aDJM]
Egan J. P. (1975) Signal detection theory and ROC analysis. Academic Press. [rDJM]
Ehrenfels C. von (1890) Über Gestaltqualitäten. Vierteljahrschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie und Soziologie 14:249–92. [rDJM]
Ehrlich P. (1982) Negative, infinite and hotter than infinite temperatures. Synthese 50:233–77. [JVB]
Eisler H. & Montgomery H. (1974) On theoretical and realizable ideal conditions in psychophysics: Magnitude and category scales and their relation. Perception and Psychophysics 16:157–68. [MO]
Ekman C. (1956) Discriminal sensitivity on the subjective continuum. Acta Psychologica 12:233–43. [arDJM, MO]
Ekman C. (1959) Weber's law and related functions. Journal of Psychology 47:343–52. [aDJM, MO]
Ekman G. & Künnapas T. M. (1957) Subjective dispersion and the Weber fraction. Reports from the Psychological Laboratory, University of Stockholm, No. 41. [rDJM, MO]
Ellis B. (1967) Measurement. In: Encyclopedia of philosophy, vol. 5, ed. Edwards P.. Macmillan. [MH]
Ellis B. (1968) Basic concepts of measurement. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [JVB]
Engen T. & Tulunay U. (1957) Some sources of error in half-heaviness judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54:208–12. [rDJM]
Eriksen C. W. (1966) Temporal luminance summation effects in backward and forward masking. Perception and Psychophysics 1:8792. [aDJM]
Falmagne J.-C. (1985) Elements of psychophysical theory. Oxford University Press. [aDJM]
Falmagne J.-C. (1986) Psychophysical measurement and theory. In: Handbook of perception and human performance, vol. 1, ed. Boff K. R., Kaufman L. & Thomas J. P.. Wiley. [aDJM]
Fechner G. T. (1848) Nanna oder über das Seelenleben der Pflanzen. Leipzig: Voss. [GG]
Fechner G. T. (1851) Zend-Avesta: Oder über die Dinge des Himmels und des Jenseits. Leipzig: Voss. [aDJM, GC, ANL]
Fechner G. T. (1858) Das psychische Mass. Zeitschrift für Philosophic und philosophische Kritik 32:124. [MH]
Fechner G. T. (1860/1964) Elemente der Psychophysik, vols. 1 and 2. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. (Reprinted: [1964] E. J. Bonset.) [aDJM, GB, GG, O-JG, MH, SL]
Fechner G. T. (1860/1966) Elements of psychophysics, vol. 1, ed. Boring E. G. & Howes D. H.. (Translated by Adler H..) Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [arDJM, SL, DAS]
Fechner G. T. (1866) Das Büchlein vom Leben nach dem Tode, 2nd ed.Leipzig: Voss. (Originally published in 1836 using the pseudonym Dr. Mises.) [GG]
Fechner G. T. (1876) Vorschule der Aesthetik. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. [rDJM]
Fechner G. T. (1877) In Sachen der Psychophysik. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. [aDJM, MH, LEK]
Fechner G. T. (1882) Revision der Hauptpuncte der Psychophysik. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. [aDJM, MH]
Fechner G. T. (1887) Ueber die psychischen Massprincipien und das Weber'sche Gesetz. Philosophische Studien 4:161230. [arDJM, MH]
Fechner G. T. (1897) Kollektivmasslehre, ed. Lipps G. F.. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. [aDJM, GG]
Fechner G. T. (1987a) Outline of a new principle of mathematical psychology (1851). (Translated and edited by Eckart Scheerer.) Psychological Research 49:203–7. [aDJM]
Fechner G. T. (1987b) My own viewpoint on mental measurement (1887). (Translated and edited by Eckart Scheerer.) Psychological Research 49:213–19. [aDJM]
Feng A. S., Hall J. C. & Gooler D. M. (1990) Neural basis of sound pattern recognition in anurans. Progress in Neurobiology 34:313–29. [SH]
Ferguson A., Meyers C. S., Bartlett R. J., Banister H., Bartlett F. C. et al. (1940) Quantitative estimates of sensory events. (Final report of the committee appointed to consider and report upon the possibility of quantitative estimates of sensory events.) British Association for the Advancement of Science 2:331–49. [aDJM, GAH, JVB]
Fisher R. A. (1922) On the mathematical foundations of theoretical statistics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 222A:309–68. [DL]
Fisher R. A. (1935) The design of experiments. Oliver & Boyd. [GG]
Fodor J. A. (1968) Psychological explanation. Random House. [MH]
Foerster M., Grind W. van de & Grüsser O.-J. (1977) The response of cat horizontal cells to flicker stimuli of different area, intensity and frequency. Experimental Brain Research 29:367–85. [O-JG]
Foley J. M. & Legge G. E. (1981) Contrast detection and near-threshold discrimination in human vision. Vision Research 21:1041–53. [DL]
Forbes E. G. (1971) Tobias Mayer's opera inedita. The first translation of the Lichtenberg edition of 1775. Macmillan. [O-JG]
Forbes E. G. (1972) The unpublished writings of Tobias Mayer. 3 vols. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. [OJG]
Forbes E. G. (1980) Tobias Mayer (1723–1762): Pioneer of enlightened sciences in Cermany. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. [O-JG]
Forrin B. & Cunningham K. (1973) Recognition time and serial position of probed item in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99:272–79. [rDJM]
Foss C. E., Nickerson D. & Cranville W. C. (1944) Analysis of the Oswald color system. Journal of the Optical Society of America 34:361–81. [aDJM]
Furman G. G. (1965) Comparison of models for subtractive and shunting lateral inhibition in receptor-neuron fields. Kybernetik 2:257–74. [O-JG]
Gamau C. (1811) Erinnerungen an Lichtenbergs Vorlesungen über Erxlebens Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre, vol. 2. Wien: Geistinger. [O-JG]
Garner W. R. (1954) A technique and a scale for loudness measurement. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 26:7388. [DJW]
Garner W. R. (1962) Uncertainty and structure as psychological concepts. Wiley. [aDJM]
Garner W. R. (1974) The processing of information and structure. Erlbaum. [SH]
Gauss C. F. (1809) Theoria motus corporum coelestium. Hamburg: Certhes & Besser. [SL]
Gauss C. F. (1821/1880) Theoria combinationis observationum erroribus minimis obnoxiae, pars prior. In: Carl Friedrich Gauss Werke, vol. 4. Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. [SL]
Geissler H.-G. (1990) Foundations of quantized processing. In: Psychophysical explorations of mental structures, ed. Geissler H.-G.. Hogrefe & Huber. [ANL]
Geldard F. A. (1972) The human senses, 2nd ed.Wiley. [HER]
Gescheider G. A. (1976) Psychophysics: Method and theory. Erlbaum. [aDJM, HER]
Gescheider G. A. (1984) Psychophysics: Method, theory and application, 2nd ed.Erlbaum. [SH, MO]
Gibson J. J. (1979) The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin. [SH]
Gigerenzer G. & Murray D. J. (1987) Cognition as intuitive statistics. Erlbaum. [aDJM, GG]
Gilchrist A. L. (1980) When does perceived brightness depend on perceived spatial arrangement? Perception and Psychophysics 28:527–38. [arDJM]
Göldner K. (1983) Mathematische Grundlagen der Systemanalyse, vol. 2. Verlag Harri Deutsch. [RAMG]
Graham N. (1977) Visual detection of aperiodic spatial stimuli by probability summation among narrowband channels. Vision Research 17:637–52. [DL]
Graham N. (1989) Visual pattern analyzers. Oxford University Press. [PW]
Green D. M. & Swets J. A. (1966) Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Wiley. [arDJM, DL]
Gregson R. A. M. (1988) Nonlinear psychophysical dynamics. Erlbaum. [RAMG]
Gregson R. A. M. (1991) Dead men tell odd simple tales! Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:187–88. [aDJM, LEK]
Gregson R. A. M. (1992) n-Dimensional nonlinear psychophysics. Erlbaum. [RAMG]
Grüsser O.-J. (1979) Cat ganglion-cell receptive fields and the role of horizontal cells in their generation. In: The neurosciences. Fourth Study Program, ed. Schmitt F. O. & Worden F. G.. MIT Press. [O-JG]
Grüsser O.-J. (1989) Quantitative visual psychophysics during the period of European enlightenment. The studies of the astronomer and mathematician Tobias Mayer (1723–1762) on visual acuity and colour perception. Documenta Ophthalmologica 71:93111. [O-JG]
Grüsser O.-J., Schaible D. & Vierkant-Glathe J. (1970) A quantitative analysis of the spatial summation of excitation within the receptive field centers of retinal neurons. Pflügers Achiv der gesamten Physiologie 319;101–21. [O-JG]
Guilford J. P. (1936) Psychometric methods. McGraw-Hill. [GB]
Gundlach H. (1988a) Fechner scholarship. In: G. T. Fechner and psychology, ed. Brozek J. & Gundlach H.. Passavia University Press. [HG]
Gundlach H. (1988b) Index psychophysicus. Passavia University Press. [HG]
Gundlach H. (1992) Entstehung und Gegenstand der Psychophysik. (Formation and object of psychophysics.) Springer-Verlag, in press. [HG]
Haber R. N. (1983) The impending demise of the icon: A critique of the concept of iconic storage in visual information processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:111. [rDJM]
Haller A. von (1759) Elementa physiologiae corporis humani. Tomus quintus. Sensus externi interni. Lausanne: Grasset. [O-JG]
Haller A. von (1768) Anfangsgründe der Phisiologie des menschlichen Körpcers, vol. 5. (Translated by Hallen J. S..) Berlin: Voss. [O-JG]
Harnad S., ed. (1987) Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition. Cambridge University Press. [aDJM]
Harper R. & Stevens S. S. (1948) A psychological scale of weight and a formula for its derivation. American Journal of Psychology 61:343–51. [MO]
Hartley D. (1967) Thoughts about the human being, his duty and trust in Good. In: English materialistic scientists of the eighteenth century. Academy of the Pedagogical Sciences of USSR (in Russian). [ANL]
Harvey O. J. & Campbell D. T. (1963) Judgments of weight as affected by adaptation range, adaptation duration, magnitude of unlabelled anchor, and judgmental language. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65:1221. [rDJM]
Hecht S. (1928) The relation between visual acuity and illumination. Journal of General Physiology 11:255–81. [O-JG]
Heidelberger M. (1986) Zur Philosophie der Messung im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Die historische Metrologie in den Wissenschaften, ed. Witthöft H. et al. Scripta Mercaturae Verlag. [MH]
Heidelberger M. (1987) Fechner's indeterminism: From freedom to laws of chance. In: The probabilistic revolution, vol. 1, Ideas in History, ed. Krüger L., Daston L. J. & Heidelberger M.. MIT Press. [arDJM, GG]
Heidelberger M. (1988) Fechner's Leib-Seele-Theorie. In: G. T. Fechner and psychology, ed. Brozek J. & Gundlach H.. Passavia Universitätsverlag. [MH]
Heidelberger M. (1993a) Die innere Seite der Natur: Gustav Theodor Fechners wissenschaftlich-philosophische Weltauffassung. Vittorio Klostermann (in press). [arDJM, MH]
Heidelberger M. (1993b) Gustav Theodor Fechner's conception of the unity of nature and mind. In: Romantic sciences and unity of knowledge: Science 1790–1840, ed. Bossi M. & Poggi S.. Kluwer (in press). [MH]
Heinemann E. G. (1955) Simultaneous brightness induction as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 50:8996. [aDJM]
Heller O. (1990) Scaling and orientation. In: Fechner Day 90 – Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, ed. F., Müller & F. R. G. Würaburg. [GB]
Helmholtz H. von (18561866/1962) Treatise on physiological optics. (Translated by Southall J. P. C..) Dover. [aDJM]
Helmholtz H. von (1866) Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. Leipzig: Voss. [O-JG]
Helmholtz H. von (1887/1921) Zählen und Messen, erkenntnistheoretisch betrachtet. In: Schriften zur Erkenntnistheorie, ed. Hertz P. & Schlick M.. Julius Springer. [MH]
Henmon V. A. C. (1906) The time of perception as a measure of differences in sensation. Archives of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 8:175. [WMP]
Herbart J. F. (1812) Psychologische Untersuchung ueber die Staerke einer gegebenen Vorstellung, als Function ihrer Dauer betrachtet. In: Johann Friderich Herbart's Schriften zur Psychologic, Dritter Theil, ed. Hartenstein G. (1989). Leipzig: Voss. [rDJM, RAMG]
Herbart J. F. (1816/1891) Lehrbuch der Psychologie (Translated by Smith M. K. as: A textbook in psychology.) D. Appleton. [rDJM]
Herbart J. F. (1824/1892) Psychologie als Wissenschaft neu gegründet auf Erfahrung Metaphysik und Mathematik. In: J. F. Herbart's sämtliche Werke Part 1 (vol. 5) & Part 2 (vol. 6) ed. Kehrbach K.. Langensalza: H. Beyer & Söhne. [rDJM]
Hering E. (1874) Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinn V. Grundzüge einer Theorie des Lichtsinnes. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, Abth. III 69:85104. [O-JG]
Hering E. (1875) Zur Lehre von der Beziehung zwischen Leib und Seele. I. Mittheilung. Über Fechner's psychophysisches Gesetz. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. Abth. III 72:310–48. [aDJM, MH]
Hering E. (1920) Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn. Springer. [O-JG]
Hering E. (1931) Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 2 vols. Thiem. [O-JG]
Hess C. & Pretori H. (1894) Messende Untersuchungen über die Gesetzmässingkeit des simultanen Helligkeits-Contrastes. Archiv für Ophthalmologie 40:127. (Translated [1969] by H. R. Flock & J. H. Tenney). Technical Report FLP.-l, York University. [aDJM]
Hick W. E. (1952) On the rate of gain of information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 4:1126. [rDJM]
Hoffman W. C. & Dodwell P. C. (1985) Geometric psychology generates the visual Gestalt. Canadian Journal of Psychology 39:491528. [rDJM]
Hooke R. (1705) The posthumous works. London: Smith & Walford. [O-JG]
Hornstein G. A. (1988) Quantifying psychological phenomena: Debates, dilemmas, and implications. In: The rise of experimentation in American psychology, ed. Morawski J. G.. Yale University Press. [GAH]
Houtsma A. J. M., Durlach N. I. & Braida L. D. (1980) Intensity perception XI. Experimental results on the relation of intensity resolution to loudness matching. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 68:807–13. [LEK]
Hueck A. (1840) Über die Grenzen des Sehvermögens. Müllers Archiv für Anatomic, Physiologie und Wissenschaftliche Medizin 1840:8297. [O-JG]
Hurvich L. & Jameson D. (1966) The perception of brightness and darkness. Allyn & Bacon. [aDJM]
Illich I. (1985) H2O and the waters of forgetfulness. Heyday Books. [DAS]
Indow T. (1989) Psychophysics: On the possibility of another approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:276–77. [aDJM]
Jackson S. W. (1986) Melancholia and depression from Hippocratic times to modern times. Yale University Press. [rDJM]
James W. (1890) Principles of psychology. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. (Reprint 1950, Dover) [rDJM, DAS, MW]
James W. (1911) The will to believe and other essays in popular philosophy. Longman, Green. [LEM]
Jameson D. & Hurvich L. M. (1961) Complexities of perceived brightness. Science 133:174–79. [aDJM]
Jarvilehto T. (1981) A new combination of methods for the study of neural mechanisms of mental activity. In: Soviet-Finnish symposium on psychophysiology, Moscow. Finnish-Soviet Committee on Scientific Technical Cooperation. [ANL]
Jastrow J. (1888) A critique of psycho-physic methods. American Journal of Psychology 1:271309. [aDJM]
Jesteadt W., Wier C. C. & Green D. M. (1977) Intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 61:169–77. [aDJM]
Jones L. A. (1986) Perception of force and weight: Theory and research. Psychological Bulletin 100:2942. [HER]
Kaas J. (1989) The segregation of function in the nervous system: Why do sensory systems have so many subdivisions? In: Contributions to sensory physiology, vol. 7, ed. Neff W. D.. Academic Press. [SH]
Kaestner A. G. (1762) Elogium Tobiae Mayeri. Gottingen: Schulz & Rosenbusch. [O-JG]
Katz D. (1925/1989) The world of touch. (Translated and ed. by Krueger L. E..) Erlbaum. [aDJM]
Kim D. O., Chang S. O. & Sirianni J. G. (1980) A population study of auditory nerve fibers in unanesthetized decerebrate cats: Response to pure tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 87(4):1648–55. [SH]
Kimchi R. (1992) Primacy of holistic processing and global/local paradigm: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin 112:2438. [rDJM]
Knibestöl M. & Vallbo A. B. (1980) Intensity of sensation related to activity of slowly adapting mechanoreceptive units in the human hand. Journal of Physiology 300:251–67. [aDJM]
Köhler A. (1886) Ueber die hauptsächlichsten Versuche einer mathematischen Formulirung des psychophysischen Gesetzes von Weber. Philosophische Studien 3:572642. [aDJM]
Köhler W. (1969) The task of Cestalt psychology. Princeton University Press. [rDJM]
König A. (1897) Die Abhängigkeit der Sehschärfe von der Beleuchtungsintensität. Berichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1897:559–75. [O-JG]
Krantz D. H. (1969) Threshold theories of signal detection. Psychological Review 76:308–24. [aDJM, DL]
Krantz D. H. (1972) Visual scaling. In: Visual psychophysics, vol. 7/4, Handbook of sensory physiology, ed. Jamson D. & Hurwich L. E.. Springer. [O-JG]
Krantz D. H., Luce R. D., Suppes P. & Tversky A. (1971) Foundations of measurement, vol. 1. Academic Press. [RDL, WMP]
Kries J. von (1882) Über die Messung intensiver Grössen und über das sogenannte psychophysische Gesetz. Vierteljahrsschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophic 6:257–94. [arDJM, MH, JVB]
Kries J. von (1886) Prinzipien der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung. Mohr. [MH]
Krueger L. E. (1989a) Reconciling Fechner and Stevens: Toward a unified psychophysical law. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:251320. [aDJM, JVB, LEK, DJW]
Krueger L. E. (1989r) Psychophysical law: Keep it simple. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:299320. [aDJM]
Krueger L. E. (1991) Psychophysical law: Taming the cognitive and chaotic aspects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:193204. [aDJM, LEK]
Kruskal J. B. (1964) Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: A numerical method. Psychometrika 29:115–29. [WMP]
Kuhl P. K., Williams K. S., Lacerda F., Stevens K. N. & Lindblom B. (1992) Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age. Science 255(5044):606–08. [SH]
Külpe O. (1893) Grundriss der Psychologie Herzil. [RAMG]
LaMettrie J. O. (1751) L'homme machine. English translation in: Man a machine [1912], ed. Bussey G. C.. Open Court. [O-JC]
Laming D. (1984) The relativity of “absolute” judgments. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 37:152–83. [aDJM]
Laming D. (1985) Some principles of sensory analysis. Psychological Review 92:462–85. [aDJM]
Laming D. (1986) Sensory analysis. Academic Press. [aDJM, DL]
Laming D. (1988) A reexamination of Sensory analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:316–39. [rDJM]
Laming D. (1989) Experimental evidence for Fechner's and Stevens's Laws. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:277–81. [aDJM, RT])
Laming D. (1991) Reconciling Fechner and Stevens? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:188–91. [aDJM, MO]
Leary D. E. (1980) The historical foundation of Herbart's mathematization of psychology. Journal of the Behavioral Sciences 16:150–63. [rDJM]
Lebedev A. N. (1990) Cyclic neural codes of human memory and some quantitative regularities in experimental psychology. In: Psychophysical explorations of mental structures, ed. Geissler H.-G.. Hogrefe & Huber. [ANL]
Lebedev A. N. & Myshkin I. Yu. (1989) Contemporary problems of inner psychophysics. In: Fechner Day 90. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the International Society of Psychophysics, ed. Muller F.. Universität Wuerzburg. [ANL]
Legge G. E. (1978) Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: Temporal and spatial properties. Vision Research 18:6981. [DL]
Legge G. E. & Foley J. M. (1980) Contrast masking in human vision. Journal of the Optical Society of America 70:1458–71. [aDJM]
Lehmann A. (1886) Ueber die Anwendung der Methode der mittleren Abstufungen auf den Lichtsinn. Philosophische Studien 3:497533. [aDJM]
Lewin K. (1936) Principles of topological psychology. McGraw-Hill. [LEM]
Libet B., Alberts W. W., Wright E. W. Jr. & Feinstein B. (1967) Responses of human somatosensory cortex to stimuli below threshold for consciousness. Science 158:15971600. [aDJM]
Lichtenberg G. C. (1775) Tobiae Mayeri opera inedita I. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck. [O-JG]
Lim J. S., Rabinowitz W. M., Braida L. D. & Durlach N. I. (1977) Intensity perception VIII. Loudness comparisons between different types of stimuli. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 62:1256–67. Erratum: (1978) 63:1233. [LEK]
Link S. W. (1992) The wave theory of difference and similarity. Erlbaum. [rDJM, SL]
Lipetz L. E. (1971) The relation of physiological and psychological aspects of sensory intensity. In: Handbook of sensory physiology, vol. 1, ed. Loewenstein W. R.. Springer-Verlag. [arDJM, LEK]
Lockhead G. R. (1992) Psychophysical scaling: Judgments of attributes or objects? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15:543601. [GRL]
Lotze H. (1887) Metaphysic, vol. 2 (Translated by Bosanquet B.). Clarendon Press. [DAS]
Lowrie W., trans, and ed. (1946) Religion of a Scientist: Selections from Gustav Th. Fechner. Pantheon Books. [rDJM]
Luce R. D. (1959) On the possible psychophysical laws. Psychological Review 66:8195. [DJW]
Luce R. D. (1963) A threshold theory for simple detection experiments. Psychological Review 70:6179. [aDJM, DL]
Luce R. D. (1972) What sort of measurement is psychophysical measurement? American Psychologist 27:96106. [aDJM]
Luce R. D. (1977) A note on sums of power functions. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 16:9193. [RDL]
Luce R. D. (1986) Response times: Their role in inferring elementary mental organization. Oxford University Press. [rDJM, RDL]
Luce R. D. & Edwards W. (1958) The derivation of subjective scales from just noticeable differences. Psychological Review 65:222–37. [aDJM]
Luce R. D., Krantz D. H., Suppes P. & Tversky A. (1990) Foundations of measurement, vol. 3. Academic Press. [RDL]
Luce R. D. & Narens L. (1987) Measurement scales on the continuum. Science 235:1527–32. [aDJM, DJW]
Mach E. (1866) Über den psychologischen Effect raümlich vertheilter Lichtreize. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschafliche Klasse, Abth II. 54:131–44. [rDJM]
Mach E. (1868) Über die physiologische Wirkung räumlich vertheilter Lichtreize. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, in Wien. Mathematisch-Saturwissenschaftliche Klasse Abth II 57:1119. [O-JG, MH]
Mach E. (1883/1960) The science of mechanics: A critical & historical account of its development, 6th ed. (after the 9th German edition). Open Court. [JVB]
Mach E. (1886/1914) The analysis of sensations and the relation of the physical to the psychical. (Translated by Williams C. M. & Waterlow S..) Open Court. [aDJM]
Mach E. (1886/1919) Die Analyse der Empfindungen und des Verhältnis des Physischen zum Psychischen, 8th ed.Gustav Fischer. [JVB]
Mach E. (1886/1922) Die Analyse der Empfindungen und das Verhältnis des Physischen zum Psychischen, 9th ed.Gustav Fischer. [MH]
Mach E. (1891) Some questions of psycho-physics. The Monist 1:393400. [rDJM]
Mach E. (1896/1919) Die Principien der Wärmelehre. Historisch-kritisch entwickelt, 3rd ed.Johann Ambrosius Barth. [MH]
Macmillan N. A. (1987) Beyond the categorical/continuous distinction: A psychophysical approach to processing modes. In: Categorical Perception, ed. Harnad S.. Cambridge University Press. [aDJM]
Macmillan N. A. & Creelman C. D. (1991) Detection theory: A user's guide. Cambridge University Press. [arDJM, PW]
Marcel A. J. (1983) Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology 15:197237. [aDJM]
Markowitz J. & Swets J. A. (1967) Factors affecting the slope of empirical ROC curves: Comparison of binary and rating responses. Perception and Psychophysics 2:91150. [aDJM]
Marks L. E. (1974) On scales of sensation: Prolegomena to any future psychophysics that will be able to come forth as science. Perception and Psychophysics 16:358–76. [aDJM]
Marks L. E. (1979) A theory of loudness and loudness judgments. Psychological Review 86:256–85. [aDJM]
Marks L. E., Borg G. & Ljunggren G. (1983) Individual differences in perceived exertion assessed by two new methods. Perception and Psychophysics 34:280–88. [GB]
Marks L. E., Szczesiul R. & Ohlott P. (1986) On the cross-modal perception of intensity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 12:517–34. [aDJM]
Marshall M. E. (1982) Physics, metaphysics and Fechner's psychophysies. In: The problematic science: Psychology in nineteenth century thought, ed. Woodward W. R. & Ash M. G.. Praeger. [rDJM]
Marshall M. E. (1990) The theme of quantification and the hidden Weber in the early work of Gustav Theodor Fechner. Canadian Psychology 31:4553. [DAS]
Massaro D. W. (1987)Categorical partition: A fuzzy-logical model of categorization behavior. In: Categorical perception, ed. Harnad S.. Cambridge University Press. [aDJM]
Matthews B. H. C. (1931) The response of a muscle spindle during active contraction of a muscle. Journal of Physiology 72:153–74. [rDJM]
Mayer T. (1741) Neue und allgemeine Art, alle Aufgaben aus der Geometrie vermittelst der geometrischen Linien leichter aufzulösen; insbesondere wie alle reguläre und irreguläre Vielecke, davon ein Verhältnis ihrer Seiten gegeben in den Circul geometrisch sollen eingeschrieben werden, samt einer kurzen hierzu nötigen Buchstaben-Rechenkunst und Geometrie. Als Erstlinge an das Licht gestellet von Tobias Mayern. Esslingen: Mäntlern. [O-JG]
Mayer T. (1745) Mathematischer Atlas, in welchem auf 60 Tabellen alle der Mathematik vorgestellt, und nicht allein überhaupt zu bequemer Wiederholung, sondern auch den Anfängern besonders zur Aufmunterung durch deutliche Beschreibung und Figuren entworfen werden. Augsburg: Pfeffel. [O-JG]
Mayer T. (1754a) Observationes astronomicae A. 1753 Gottingae habitae. Commentarii Societatis Regiae Scientiarium Gottingensis 3:441–51. [O-JG]
Mayer T. (1754b) Experimente über die Schärfe des Gesichtsinnes. Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen (20):401–2. [rDJM, O-JG]
Mayer T. (1755) Experimenta circa visus aciem. Commentarii Societatis Regiae Scientiarium Gottingensis 4:97112. [rDJM, O-JG]
Mayer T. (undated, ca. 1757) Von den Farben. Unpublished manuscript, Göttingen University Library, Mayer 15, 13. [O-JG]
Mayer T. (1758) De affinitate colorum (Über die Verwandtschaft der Farben). Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen, 147. Stück (9 Dezember): 1385–89. [O-JG]
Mayer T. (1759) Die verschiedenen Grade des Schattens zu bestimmen, wenn man eine einzige Farbe zugleich zum ganzen und halben Schatten nehmen will. Unpublished manuscript January 22, 1759, Göttingen University Library, Mayer 13. [O-JG]
Mayer T. (1775) De affinitate colorum. In: Tobiae Mayeri opera inedita I, ed. Lichtenberg G. C.. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck. (English translation in Forbes 1971.) [O-JG]
McBride R. L. & Anderson N. H. (1991) Integration psychophysics in the chemical senses. In: Contributions to information integration theory, vol. 1, Cognition, ed. Anderson N. H.. Erlbaum. [NHA]
McElree B. & Dosher B. A. (1989) Serial position and set-size in short-term memory: The time course of recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118:346–73. [rDJM]
McKenna F. P. (1985) Another look at the “new psychophysies.” British Journal of Psychology 76:97109. [HER]
McNicol D. (1972) A primer of signal detection theory. George Allen & Unwin. [aDJM]
McNicol D. & Stewart G. W. (1980) Reaction time and the study of memory. In: Reaction times, ed. Welford A. T.. Academic Press. [rDJM]
McReynolds P. & Ludwig K. (1977) Psychometrics in the seventeenth century: The personology of Christian Thomasius. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Meeting of Cheiron, the International Society for the History of the Behavioral and Social Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, June 9–11. [rDJM]
Melara H. D. & Marks L. E. (1990) Interaction among auditory dimensions: Timbre, pitch, and loudness. Perception and Psychophysics 48(2):169–78. [SH]
Melzack R. (1992) Phantom limbs. Scientific American 266(4):120–26. [WLB]
Merzenich M. M., Jenkins W. M. & Middlebrooks J. C. (1984) Observations and hypotheses on special organizational features of the central auditory nervous system. In: Dynamic aspects of neocortical function, ed. Edelman G. M., Gall W. E. & Cowan W. M.. Wiley. [SH]
Metraux A. (1983) An essay on the early beginnings of psychometrics. In: Advances in historiography of psychology, ed. Eckart G. & Sprung L.. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. [rDJM]
Michell J. (1986) Measurement scales and statistics: A clash of paradigms. Psychological Bulletin 100:398407. [MH]
Michels W. C. & Helson H. (1949) A reformulation of the Fechner Law in terms of adaptation-level applied to rating-scale data. American Journal of Psychology 62:355–68. [aDJM]
Mises R. von (1928/1957) Probability, statistics, and truth. Dover. [GG]
Molen M. W. van der & Keuss P. J. G. (1979) The relationship between reaction time and auditory intensity in discrete auditory tasks. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 31:95102. [rDJM]
Montgomery H. (1975) Direct estimation: Effect of methodological factors on scale type. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 16:1929. [aDJM, MO]
Moravee H. (1988). Mind children: The future of robot and human intelligence. Harvard University Press. [MH]
Morgan C. L. (1900) On the relation of stimulus to sensation in visual impressions. Psychological Review 7:217–33. [aDJM]
Mountcastle V. G., Poggio G. F. & Werner G. (1963) The relation of thalamic cell response to peripheral stimuli varied over an intensive continuum. Journal of Neurophysiology 26:807–34. [GB]
Munsterberg H. (1894) Studies from the Harvard psychological laboratory: A psychometric investigation of the psycho-physic law. Psychological Review 1:4551. [WMP]
Müller G. E. (1878) Zur Crundlegung der Psychophysik. Berlin: T. Grieben. [aDJM]
Murray D. J. (1967) The role of speech responses in short-term memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology 21:263–76. [aDJM]
Murray D. J. (1975) Craphemically cued retrieval of words from long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 104:6570. [rDJM]
Murray D. J. (1985) Review of Tulving, E.: Elements of episodic memory. Canadian Psychology 26:235–38. [aDJM]
Murray D. J. (1986) Level of articulation and short-term recognition following brief probe delays. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24:103–6. [rDJM]
Murray D. J. (1987) A perspective for viewing the integration of probability theory into psychology. In: The probabilistic revolution, vol. 2, Ideas in the sciences, ed. Krüger L., Gigerenzer C. & Morgan M. S.. MIT Press. [arDJM, GG]
Murray D. J. (1988) A history of Western psychology, 2nd ed.Prentice-Hall. [rDJM]
Murray D. J. (1989) Nineteenth-century attempts to decide between psychophysical laws. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:284–85. [aDJM]
Murray D. J. (1990) Fechner's later psychophysics. Canadian Psychology 31:5460. [aDJM]
Murray D. J. & Ross H. E. (1988) E. H. Weber and Fechner's psychophysics. In: G. T. Fechner and psychology, ed. Brozek J. & Gundlach M.. Passavia Universitätsverlag. [aDJM]
Myers A. K. (1982) Psychophysical scaling and scales of physical stimulus measurement. Psychological Bulletin 82:303–14. [LEK, DJW]
Naka K.-I. & Rushton W. A. H. (1966) S-potentials from luminosity units in the retina offish (Cyprinidae). Journal of Physiology (London) 185:587–99. [O-JG]
Narens L. (1992) A theory of magnitude estimation. Submitted for publication. [RDL]
Neisser U. (1982) Memory observed: Remembering in natural contexts. W. H. Freeman. [rDJM]
Newell A. (1990) Unified theories of cognition. Harvard University Press. [rDJM]
Newhall S. M., Nickerson D. & Judd D. B. (1943) Final report of the O.S.A. subcommittee on the Munsell colors. Journal of the Optical Society of America 33:385418. [aDJM]
Newman E. B. (1974) On the origin of scales of measurement. In: Sensation and measurement, ed. Moskowitz H. R. et al. Reidel. [MH]
Neyman J. (1976) The emergence of mathematical statistics. In: On the history of statistics and probability, ed. Owen D. B.. Marcel Dekker. [SL]
Neyman J. & Pearson E. S. (1928) On the use and interpretation of certain test criteria for purposes of statistical inference. Part I. Biometrika 20A:175240, 263294. [aDJM, DL]
Neyman J. & Pearson E. S. (1933) On the problem of the most efficient tests of statistical hypotheses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 231A:289337. [DL]
Norman D. A. (1964) Sensory thresholds, response biases, and the neural quantum theory. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 1:88120. [DL]
Norwich K. H. (1987) On the theory of Weber fractions. Perception and Psychophysics 42:286–98. [aDJM, DJW]
Norwich K. H. (1991) Toward the unification of the laws of thought: Some food for thought. In: Sensory science theory and applications in foods, ed. Lawless H. T. & Klein B. P.. Marcel Dekker. [rDJM]
Nunnally J. C. (1970) Introduction to psychological measurement. McGraw-Hill. [DJW]
Parducci A. (1963) Range-frequency compromise in judgment. Psychological Monographs 77 (2, whole no. 565). [rDJM]
Parducci A. (1982) Scale values and phenomenal experience: There is no psychophysical law! In: Psychophysical judgment and the process of perception, ed. Geissler H. G., Petzold P., Buffart H. F. J. M. & Zabrodin Y. M.. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. [GG]
Parducci A. (1984) Category ratings and the relational character of judgement. In: Modern trends in perception, eds. Geissler H. G. & Sarris V.. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. [GB]
Parker S. & Schneider B. (1980) Loudness and loudness discrimination. Perception and Psychophysics 28:398406. [aDJM]
Parker S., Schneider B. & Kanow G. (1975) Ratio scale measurement of the perceived lengths of lines. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 104:195204. [aDJM]
Parks T. R. (1966) Signal detectability theory of recognition-memory performance. Psychological Review 73:4458. [aDJM]
Pascal B. (1670/1958) Pensées. Dutton. [LEM]
Pastore R. D. (1987) Categorical perception: Some psychophysical models. In: Categorical perception, ed. Harnad S.. Cambridge University Press. [aDJM, SH]
Patton H. D. (1960) Reflex regulation of movement and posture. In: Medical physiology and biophysics, ed. Ruch T. C. & Fulton J. F.. W. B. Saunders. [rDJM, WLB]
Peterson W. W., Birdsall T. G. & Fox W. C. (1954) The theory of signal detectability. Transactions of the IRE Professional Croup in Information Theory PGIT 2–4:171212. [DL]
Petrusic W. M. & Jamieson D. J. (1979) Resolution time and the coding of arithmetic relations on supraliminally different visual extents. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 19:89107. [WMP]
Pieron H. (1914) Recherches sur les lois de variation des temps de latence sensorielle en fonction des intensites excitatrices. L'Année Psychologique 20:1796. [ANL]
Plateau J. A. F. (1872a) Sur la mesure des sensations physiques, et sur la loi qui lie l'intensité de ces sensations à l'intensité de la cause excitante. Bulletins de l'Académie Royale de Belgique (2nd series) 33:376–88. [aDJM, O-JG]
Plateau J. A. F. (1872b) Un mot au suject du mémoire présenté par M. Delboeuf. Bulletins de l'Académie Royale de Belgique (2nd series) 34:141–42. [aDJM]
Plateau J. A. F. (1873) Über die Messung physischer Empfindungen und das Gesetz, welches die Stärke dieser Empfindungen mit der Stärke der erregende Ursache verknüpft. Poggendorfs Annalen der Physik und Chemie (5)30:465–76. [O-JG]
Plato (1899a) Protagoras. In: The dialogues of Plato, vol. 1. (Translated and ed., Jowett B..) Scribner's. [LEM]
Plato (1899b) The republic. In: The dialogues of Plato, vol. 2 Jowett B. (trans. and ed.). Scribner's. [LEM]
Popper R., Parker S. & Galanter E. (1986) Dual loudness scales in individual subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 12:6169. [aDJM]
Poulton E. C. (1968) The new psychophysics: Six models for magnitude estimation. Psychological Bulletin 69:119. [aDJM, HER]
Poulton E. C. (1989) Bias in quantifying judgments. Erlbaum. [rDJM, HER]
Priest I. G., Gibson K. S. & McNicholas H. J. (1920) An examination of the Munsell color system. I. Spectral and total reflection and the Munsell scale of value. (U.S. National Bureau of Standards Technical Report 167). U.S. National Bureau of Standards. [aDJM]
Putnam H. (1967/1985) The nature of mental states. In: Mind, language and reality: Philosophical papers, vol. 2, ed. Putnam H.. Cambridge University Press. [MH]
Pylyshyn Z. W. (1984) Computation and cognition: Toward a foundation for cognitive science. MIT Press (Bradford Books). [aDJM]
Quick R. F. (1974) A vector-magnitude model of contrast detection. Kybernetik 16:6567. [DL]
Quine W. V. (1960) Word and object. MIT Press. [GB]
Quine W. V. (1987) Quiddities. Harvard University Press. [GB]
Quine W. V. (1990) Pursuit of truth. Harvard University Press. [GB]
Ramul K. (1960) The problem of measurement in the psychology of the eighteenth century. American Psychologist 15:256–65. [rDJM]
Ramul K. (1963) Some early measurements and ratings in psychology. American Psychologist 18:653–59. [rDJM]
Ratliff F. & Hartline H. K. (1959) The response of Limulus optic nerve fibers to patterns of illumination on the receptor mosaic. Journal of General Physiology 42:1241–55. [rDJM, WLB]
Rice S. O. (1944/1945) Mathematical analysis of random noise. Bell System Technical Journal 23:282332 & 24:46–156. [DL]
Richter M. (1953) Das System der DIN-Farbenkarte. Die Farbe 1:8598. [aDJM]
Riesz R. R. (1933) The relationship between loudness and the minimum perceptible increment of intensity. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 4:211–16. [LEK]
Robson J. G. & Graham N. (1981) Probability summation and regional variation in contrast sensitivity across the visual field. Vision Research 21:409–18. [DL]
Rosen S. & Howell P. (1987) Auditory, articulatory, and learning explanations of categorical preception in speech. In: Categorical perception, ed. Hamad S.. Cambridge University Press. [SH]
Roskam E. E. (1991) Psychophysical scaling. In: Fechner Day 91. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, ed. Lockhead G. R.. Duke University, Durham, NC. [aDJM]
Ross H. E. (1969) When is a weight not illusory? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 21:346–55. [HER]
Rozsypol A. J., Stevenson D. C. & Hogan J. T. (1985) Dispersion in models of categorical perception. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 29:271–88. [aDJM]
Rule S. J. & Curtis D. W. (1977) The influence of the interaction of weight and volume on subjective heaviness. Perception and Psychophysics 22:159–64. [HER]
Rule S. J., Curtis D. W. & Mullin L. C. (1981) Subjective rates and differences in perceived heaviness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 7:459–66. [aDJM]
Rule S. J., Laye R. C. & Curtis D. W. (1974) Magnitude judgments and difference judgments of lightness and darkness: A two-stage analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103:1108–14. [aDJM]
Rumelhart D. E., McClelland J. L. & the PDP Research Group (1986) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 1, Foundations. MIT Press. [aDJM]
Sakitt B. (1974) Canonical ratings. Perception and Psychophysics 16:478–88. [aDJM]
Sarris V. (1967) Adaptation level theory: Two critical experiments on Helson's weighted average model. American Journal of Psychology 80:331–55. [ANL]
Savage C. W. (1970) The measurement of sensation. University of California Press. [aDJM]
Scheerer E. (1987) The unknown Fechner. Psychological Research 49:197202. [aDJM]
Scheerer E. (1989) Conjuring Fechner's spirit. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:288–90. [DAS]
Scheerer E. (1992) Fechner's inner psychophysics: Its historical fate and present status. In: Cognition, information processing and psychophysics: Basic issues, ed. Geissler H.-G., Link S. W. & Townsend J. T.. Erlbaum. [aDJM, SL]
Scheerer G. (1987) Tobias Mayer – experiments on visual acuity. Spatial Vision 2:8197. [O-JG]
Schmidt S. R. (1991) Can we have a distinctive theory of memory? Memory and Cognition 19:523–42. [aDJM]
Schneider B. (1980a) Individual loudness functions determined from direct comparisons of loudness intervals. Perception and Psychophysics 28:493503. [aDJM]
Schneider B. (1980b) A technique for the nonmetric analysis of paired comparisons of psychological intervals. Psychometrika 45:357–72. [aDJM]
Schneider B. (1989) Is there really only one representation for stimulus intensity? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:290. [DJW]
Schneider B. & Bissett R. (1988) “Ratio” and “difference” judgments for length, area, and volume: Are there two classes of sensory continua? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 14:503–12. [aDJM]
Schneider B., Parker S. & Upenieks E. G. (1982) The perceptual basis of judgments of pitch differences and pitch ratios. Canadian Journal of Psychology 36:423. [aDJM]
Shannon C. E. (1949) Communication in the presence of noise. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 37:1021. [DL]
Shepard R. N. (1962) Analysis of proximities: Multidimensional scaling with an unknown distance function. Psychometrika 27:125–40. [WMP]
Shepard R. N. (1981) Psychological relations and psychological scales: On the status of “direct” psychophysical measurement. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 24:2157. [arDJM]
Shipley T., ed. (1961) Classics in psychology. Philosophical Library. [rDJM]
Smith P. T. (1991) Is this effort worth the pain? British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 44:413–17. [RAMG]
Solomons L. M. (1900) A new explanation of Weber's Law. Psychological Review 7:234–40. [aDJM]
Sprung L. & Sprung H. (1987) Gustav Theodor Fechner in der Geschichte der Psychologie – Leben, Werk und Wirken in der Wissenschaftsentwicklung des 19 Jahrhunderts. Karl-Marx Universität. [RAMG]
Star S. L. (1985) Scientific work and uncertainty. Social Studies of Science 15:391427. [GAH]
Star S. L. (1986) Triangulating clinical and basic research: British localizationists, 1870–1906. History of Science 24:2948. [GAH]
Star S. L. (1989) Regions of the mind: Brain research and the quest for scientific certainty. Stanford University Press. [GAH]
Sternberg S. (1966) High speed scanning in human memory. Science 153:652–54. [rDJM]
Sternberg S. (1969) The discovery of processing stages: Extensions of Donders' method. In: Attention and performance, vol. 2, ed. Koster W. G.. North-Holland. [rDJM]
Stevens J. C. & Rubin L. L. (1970) Psychophysical scales of apparent heaviness and the size-weight illusion. Perception and Psychophysics 8:225–30. [HER]
Stevens S. S. (1936) A scale for the measurement of a psychological magnitude: Loudness. Psychological Review 43:405–16. [aDJM]
Stevens S. S. (1946) On the theory of scales of measurement. Science 103:677–80. [aDJM, MH]
Stevens S. S. (1951) Handbook of experimental psychology. Wiley. [aDJM]
Stevens S. S. (1957) On the psychophysical law. Psychological Review 64:153–81. [arDJM, GB, MT, MW]
Stevens S. S. (1961) To honor Fechner and repeal his law. Science 133:8086. [aDJM, MT]
Stevens S. S. (1970) Neural events and the psychophysical law. Science 170:1043–50. [arDJM]
Stevens S. S. (1971) Issues in psychophysical measurement. Psychophysical Review 78:426–50. [CB]
Stevens S. S. (1975) Psychophysics: Introduction to its perceptual, neural, and social prospects, ed. Stevens G.. Wiley. [rDJM, MH, MO]
Stevens S. S. & Galanter E. H. (1957) Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54:377411. [rDJM, HER]
Stevens S. S., Morgan C. T. & Volkmann J. (1941) Theory of the neural quantum in the diserimination of loudness and pitch. American Journal of Psychology 54:315–35. [aDJM, LEK]
Stevens S. S. & Stevens J. C. (1960) Brightness function: Parametric effects of adaptation and contrast. Journal of the Optical Society of America 50:1139. [aDJM]
Stigler S. M. (1986) The history of statistics. The measurement of uncertainty before 1900. Belknap/Harvard University Press. [GG]
Stout D. (1989) A question of statistical inference: E. G. Boring, T. L. Kelley and the probable error. American Journal of Psychology 102:549–62. [aDJM]
Stout D. (in press) E. G., Boring, C. Murchison, and Clark University: Research practice and practical politics. Recent trends in theoretical psychology, vol. 3. Springer-Verlag. [DAS]
Stout G. F. (1888) The Herbartian psychology. Mind 13:321–88; 473–98. [rDJM]
Suppes P. & Zinnes J. L. (1963) Basic measurement theory. In: Handbook of mathematical psychology, vol. 1, ed. Luce R. D. et al. Wiley. [MH]
Swartz P. (1953) A new method for scaling pain. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45:288–93. [aDJM]
Swets J. A. (1986a) Indices of discrimination or diagnostic accuracy: Their ROCs and implied models. Psychological Bulletin 99:100117. [aDJM]
Swets J. A. (1986b) Form of empirical ROCs in discrimination and diagnostic tasks: Implications for theory and measurement of performance. Psychological Bulletin 99:181–98. [aDJM]
Swets J. A., Tanner W. P. & Birdsall T. G. (1961) Decision processes in perception. Psychological Review 68:301–40. [arDJM, DL]
Takane Y., Young F. W. & de Leeuw J. (1977) Nonmetric individual differences multidimensional scaling: An alternating least squares method with optimal scaling features. Psychometrika 42:767. [WMP]
Takasaki H. (1966) Lightness changes of grays induced by change in reflectance of gray background. Journal of the Optical Society of America 56:504–9. [rDJM]
Tanner W. P. Jr. (1956) Theory of recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 28:882–88. [aDJM]
Tanner W. P. & Swets J. A. (1954) A decision-making theory of visual detection. Psychological Review 61:401–09. [DL]
Teghtsoonian R. (1971) On the exponents in Stevens' Law and the constant in Ekman's Law. Psychological Review 78:7180. [aDJM, ANL, MO, RT]
Teghtsoonian R. (1973) Range effects in psychophysical scaling and a revision of Stevens' Law. American Journal of Psychology 86:327. [aDJM]
Teghtsoonian R. (1974) On (acts and theories in psychophysics: Does Ekman's Law exist? In: Sensation and measurement, ed. Moskowitz H. R. et al. Reidel. [RT]
Thurstone L. L. (1927a) Psychophysical analysis. American Journal of Psychology 38:368–89. [aDJM, DL]
Thurstone L. L. (1927b) A law of comparative judgment. Psychological Review 34:273–86. [aDJM, DL]
Thurstone L. L. (1927c) A mental unit of measurement. Psychological Review 34:415–23. [aDJM]
Thurstone L. L. (1927d) Three psychophysical laws. Psychological Review 34:424–32. [aDJM]
Thurstone L. L. (1929) Theory of attitude measurement. Psychological Review 36:222–41. [DL]
Thurstone L. L. & Chave E. S. (1929) The measurement of attitude. University of Chicago Press. [DL]
Titchener E. B. (1896/1911) A text-book of psychology. Macmillan. [MW] (1901–1905) Experimental psychology: A manual of laboratory practice, vols. 1 and 2. Macmillan. [aDJM, SL]
Tolhurst D. J., Movshon J. A. & Dean A. F. (1983) The statistical reliability of signals in single neurons in cat and monkey visual cortex. Vision Research 23:775–85. [aDJM]
Torgerson W. S. (1961) Distances and ratios in psychophysical scaling. Acta Psychologica 19:201–5. [aDJM]
Townsend J. T. & Ashby F. G. (1983) Stochastic modeling of elementary psychological processes. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [rDJM, RDL]
Treisman M. (1961) The nature of the psychophysical law and its significance for the scaling of sensory magnitudes. Acta Psychologica 19:213–14. [MT]
Treisman M. (1962) Psychological explanation: The “private data” hypothesis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13:130–43. [MT]
Treisman M. (1963a) Laws of sensory magnitude. Nature 198:914–15. [MT]
Treisman M. (1963b) Neural effects and the psychophysical law. Nature 200:1241–42. [MT]
Treisman M. (1964a) Sensory scaling and the psychophysical law. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 16:1122. [aDJM, MT]
Treisman M. (1964b) The effect of one stimulus on the threshold for another: An application of signal detectability theory. British Journal of Statistical Psychology 17:1535. [aDJM]
Treisman M. (1964c) What do sensory scales measure? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 16:387–91. [MT]
Treisman M. (1985) The magical number seven and some other features of category scaling: Properties of a model for absolute judgment. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 29:175230. [MT]
Treisman M. (1989) Sensory scaling: Unanswered questions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:293–94. [MT]
Turner R. S. (1982) Helmholtz, sensory physiology, and the disciplinary development of Cerman psychology. In: The problematic science: Psychology in nineteenth century thought, ed. Woodward W. R. & Ash M. G.. Praeger. [rDJM]
Urban F. M. (1910) The method of constant stimuli and its generalizations. Psychological Review 17:229–59. [aDJM]
Van Brakel (1990) Units of measurement: Some Kripkean considerations. Erkenntnis 33:297317. [JVB]
Van Brakel J. & van der Peut A. A. (1979) Alternative physical concatenation procedures in length measurements. Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science 8:3640. [JVB]
Waismann F. (19301931) Logische Analyse des Wahrscheinlichkeitsbegriffs. Erkenntnis 1:228–48. [MH]
Wallach H. (1948) Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38:310–24. [aDJM]
Wallach H. (1963) The perception of neutral colors. Scientific American 208:107–16. [aDJM]
Ward J. (1876) An attempt to interpret Fechner's Law. Mind (O.S.) 1:452–66. [DAS]
Ward J. (1904/1927) Philosophical orientations and scientific standpoints. Essays in Philosophy by James Ward, ed. Sorley W. R. & Stout G. F.. Books for Libraries Press. (Reprinted. 1968.) [DAS]
Ward L. M. (1972) Category judgments of loudness in the absence of an experimenter-induced identification function: Segmental effects and power-function fit. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94:179–84. [aDJM]
Warren R. M. (1981) Measurement of sensory intensity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:175223. [aDJM]
Warren R. M. & Poulton E. C. (1960) Basis for lightness-judgments of grays. American Journal of Psychology 73:380–87. [aDJM]
Warren R. M. & Poulton E. C. (1966) Lightness of grays: Effects of background reflectance. Perception and Psychophysics 1:145–48. [aDJM]
Warren R. M. & Warren R. P. (1956) Effect of the relative volume of standard and comparison object on half-heaviness judgments. American Journal of Psychology 69:640–43. [HER]
Wasserman G. S. (1991) Neural and behavioral assessment of sensory quality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:192–93. [LEK]
Wasserman G. S. & Wang-Bennett L. T. (1989) Unity and diversity of neurelectric and psychophysical functions: The invariance question. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:297–98. [aDJM]
Watson A. B. (1979) Probability summation over time. Vision Research 19:515–22. [DL]
Watson A. B. (1986) Temporal sensitivity. In: Handbook of perception and human performance, vol. 1, ed. Boff K. R., Kaufman L. & Thomas J. P.. Wiley. [aDJM]
Watson J. B. (1930) Behaviorism (revised edition). W. W. Norton. [rDJM]
Weber E. H. (1834) De pulsu, resorptione, auditu et tactu – Annotationes anatomicae et physiologicae. Leipzig: Koehler. [HG]
Weber E. H. (1846/1978) Der Tastsinn und das Gemeingefühl. In: E. H. Weber: The sense of touch, ed. Ross H. E. & Murray D. J.. (Translated by D. J. Murray.) Academic Press. [HG, SL]
Weber E. H. (1851) Die Lehre vom Tastsinne und Cemeingefühle auf Versuche gegründet, für Aerzte und Philosophen. Braunschweig: Vieweg. [HG]
Weber E. H. (1852) Über den Raumsinn und die Empfindungskreise in der Haut und im Auge. Berichte der Königlichen Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-physikalische-Classe 85164. [O-JG]
Weber E. H. (1978) The sense of touch (De Tactu [1834] translated by Ross H. E.; Der Tastsinn [1846] translated by D. J. Murray). Academic Press. [aDJM, HG]
Weiss D. J. (1975) Quantifying private events: A functional measurement analysis of equisection. Perception and Psychophysics 17:351–57. [DJW]
Weiss D. J. (1981) The impossible dream of Fechner and Stevens. Perception 10:431–34. [LEK, DJW]
Weiss D. J. (1989) Psychophysics and metaphysics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:298–99. [LEK, DJW]
Welford A. T., ed. (1980) Reaction times. Academic Press. [rDJM]
Wendt D. (1982) On S. S. Stevens' psychophysics and the measurement of subjective probability and utility. In: Social attitudes and psychophysical measurement, ed. Wegener B.. Erlbaum. [MH]
Werner G. & Mountcastle V. B. (1965) Neural activity in mechanoreceptive cutaneous afferents: Stimulus-response relations, Weber functions, and information transmission. Journal of Neurophysiology 28:359–97. [rDJM, WLB]
Wertheimer M. (1953) An investigation of the “randomness” of threshold measurements. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45:294303. [aDJM]
West B. J. (1985) An essay on the importance of being nonlinear. Lecture notes in biomathematics, 62. Springer-Verlag. [RAMG]
Whittle P. (1991) Sensory and perceptual processes in seeing brightness and lightness. In: From pigments to perception, ed. Valberg A. & Lee B. B.. Plenum. [PW]
Whittle P. (1992) Brightness, discriminability and the “crispening effect.” Vision Research 32:14931507. [rDJM, PW]
Wiggins S. (1990) Introduction to applied nonlinear dynamical systems and chaos. Springer-Verlag. [RAMG]
Wilson M. (1987) Brain mechanisms in categorical perception. In: Categorical perception, ed. Hamad S.. Cambridge University Press. [aDJM]
Wolff C. (1725) Vernünftige Cedancken vom Cebrauche Der Theile in Menschen, Thieren und Pflantzen, den Liebhabern der Wahrheit mitgetheilet. Frankfurt/Leipzig: Renger. (Reprinted in [1980] G. Olms. Gesammelte Werke I. Abt.: Deutsche Schriften.) [O-JG]
Wolff C. (1731) Psychologia empirica. Reprinted in: Christian Wolff: Gesammelte Werke, Part II, vol. 5., ed. Ecole J.. Georg Olms (1968). [rDJM]
Wolff C. (1734) Psychologia rationalis. Reprinted in: Christian Wolff: Gesammelte Werke, Part II, vol. 6., ed. Ecole J.. Georg Olms (1972). [rDJM]
Woodworth R. S. & Schlosberg H. (1954) Experimental psychology. Methuen. [aDJM]
Wundt W. (1862) Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung. Leipzig: C. F. Winter. (The introduction, titled “On the methods of psychology,” is translated in: Classics in psychology ed. T. Shipley. Philosophical Library 1961.) [rDJM]
Wundt W. (1874) Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie, 1st ed.W. Engelmann. [rDJM]
Wyszecki G. (1986) Color appearance. In: Handbook of perception and human performance, vol. 1, ed. Boff K. R., Kaufman L. & Thomas J. R.. Wiley. [aDJM]
Yilmaz H. (1967) Perceptual invariance and the psychophysical law. Perception and Psychophysics 2:533–38. [arDJM]
Zwislocki J. J. & Goodman D. A. (1980) Absolute scaling of sensory magnitudes: A validation. Perception and Psychophysics 28:2838. [aDJM]
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 39 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 615 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.