This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
K. M. Abel (2004) Foetal origins of schizophrenia: Testable hypotheses of genetic and environmental influences. British Journal of Psychiatry 184:383–85.
R. K. Abramson , S. A. Ravan , H. H. Wright , K. Wieduwilt , C. M. Wolpert , S. A. Donnelly , M. A. Pericak-Vance & M. L. Cuccaro (2005) The relationship between restrictive and repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive compulsive symptoms in parents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 36:155–65.
A. Abu-Akel (1999) Impaired theory of mind in schizophrenia. Pragmatics and Cognition 7:247–82.
A. Abu-Akel & K. Abushua'leh (2004) “Theory of mind” in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 69:45–53.
A. Abu-Akel & A. L. Bailey (2000) The possibility of different forms of theory of mind impairment in psychiatric and developmental disorders [Letter to the editor]. Psychological Medicine 30:735–38.
R. Adolphs , S. Baron-Cohen & D. Tranel (2002) Impaired recognition of social emotions following amygdala damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14:1264–74.
R. Adolphs , F. Gosselin , T. W. Buchanan , D. Tranel , P. Schyns & A. R. Damasio (2005) A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage. Nature 433:68–72.
A. Akefeldt , R. Ekman , C. Gillberg & J. E. Mansson (1998) Cerebrospinal fluid monoamines in Prader-Willi syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 44:1321–28.
S. Akhondzadeh , F. Rezaei , B. Larijani , A. A. Nejatisafa , L. Kashani & S. H. Abbasi (2006) Correlation between testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin and severity of negative symptoms in male patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 84:405–10.
A. Aleman , R. S. Kahn & J. P. Selten (2003) Sex differences in risk for schizophrenia: Evidence from meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:565–71.
A. L. Alexander , J. E. Lee , M. Lazar , R. Boudos , M. B. Dubray , T. R. Oakes , J. N. Miller , J. Lu , E. Jeong , W. M. McMahon , E. D. Bigler & J. E. Lainhart (2007) Diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum in autism. NeuroImage 34:61–73.
G. M. Anderson , A. Jacobs-Stannard , K. Chawarska , F. R. Volkmar & H. J. Kliman (2007) Placental trophoblast inclusions in autism spectrum disorder. Biological Psychiatry 61:487–91.
E. Angiolini , A. Fowden , P. Coan , I. Sandovici , P. Smith , W. Dean , G. Burton , B. Tycko , W. Reik , C. Sibley & M. Constância (2006) Regulation of placental efficiency for nutrient transport by imprinted genes. Placenta 27(A):98–102.
K. M. Antshel , A. Aneja , L. Strunge , J. Peebles , W. P. Fremont , K. Stallone , N. Abdulsabur , A. M. Higgins , R. J. Shprintzen & W. R. Kates (2007) Autistic spectrum disorders in velo-cardio facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37:1776–86.
M. Arató , E. Frecska , C. Beck , M. An & H. Kiss (2004) Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 28:191–94.
S. Arbelle , M. D. Sigman & C. Kasari (1994) Compliance with parental prohibition in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24:693–702.
M. A. Arbib & T. N. Mundhenk (2005) Schizophrenia and the mirror system: An essay. Neuropsychologia 43:268–80.
H. Asperger (1991) Autistic psychopathy in childhood. In: Autism and asperger syndrome, ed. U. Frith . Cambridge University Press.
J. A. Atlas & L. B. Lapidus (1987) Patterns of symbolic expression in subgroups of the childhood psychoses. Journal of Clinical Psychology 43:177–88.
M. Avila , G. Thaker & H. Adami (2001) Genetic epidemiology and schizophrenia: A study of reproductive fitness. Schizophrenia Research 47:233–41.
C. Badcock & B. Crespi (2006) Imbalanced genomic imprinting in brain development: An evolutionary basis for the aetiology of autism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:1007–32.
C. Baethge , R. J. Baldessarini , K. Freudenthal , A. Streeruwitz , M. Bauer & T. Bschor (2005) Hallucinations in bipolar disorder: Characteristics and comparison to unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disorders 7:136–45.
A. A. Bailey & P. L. Hurd (2005) Depression in men is associated with more feminine finger length ratios. Personality and Individual Differences 39: 829–36.
Y. Barak , A. Achiron , M. Mandel , I. Mirecki & D. Aizenberg (2005) Reduced cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia. Cancer 104:2817–21.
K. J. Barnett , M. C. Corballis & I. J. Kirk (2005) Symmetry of callosal information transfer in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Schizophrenia Research 74:171–78.
K. J. Barnett & I. J. Kirk (2005) Lack of asymmetrical transfer for linguistic stimuli in schizophrenia: An ERP study. Clinical Neurophysiology 116:1019–27.
S. Baron-Cohen (2002) The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:248–54.
S. Baron-Cohen & M. K. Belmonte (2005) Autism: A window onto the development of the social and the analytic brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 28:109–26.
S. Baron-Cohen , R. C. Knickmeyer & M. K. Belmonte (2005) Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science 310:819–23.
S. Baron-Cohen , H. A. Ring , E. T. Bullmore , S. Wheelwright , C. Ashwin & S. C. Williams (2000) The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24:355–64.
S. Baron-Cohen , S. Wheelwright , R. Skinner , J. Martin & E. Clubley (2001) The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:5–17.
A. S. Bassett , A. Bury , K. A. Hodgkinson & W. G. Honer (1996) Reproductive fitness in familial schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 21:151–60.
A. P. Bayliss , G. di Pellegrino & S. P. Tipper (2005) Sex differences in eye gaze and symbolic cueing of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 58:631–50.
R. P. Behrendt (2004) A neuroanatomical model of passivity phenomena. Consciousness and Cognition 13:579–609.
S. Bejerot (2007) An autistic dimension: A proposed subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Autism 11:101–10.
S. Bejerot & L. Nylander (2003) Low prevalence of smoking in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Psychiatry Research 119:177–82.
M. A. Bellgrove , A. Vance & J. L. Bradshaw (2003) Local-global processing in early-onset schizophrenia: Evidence for an impairment in shifting the spatial scale of attention. Brain and Cognition 51:48–65.
M. K. Belmonte , G. Allen , A. Beckel-Mitchener , L. M. Boulanger , R. A. Carper & S. J. Webb (2004a) Autism and abnormal development of brain connectivity. Journal of Neuroscience 24:9228–31.
M. K. Belmonte & T. Bourgeron (2006) Fragile X syndrome and autism at the intersection of genetic and neural networks. Nature Neuroscience 9:1221–25.
F. M. Benes & S. Berretta (2001) GABAergic interneurons: Implications for understanding schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:1–27.
D. Ben Shalom (2000) Developmental depersonalization: The prefrontal cortex and self-functions in autism. Consciousness and Cognition 9:457–60.
S. Berretta , D. W. Munno & F. M. Benes (2001) Amygdalar activation alters the hippocampal GABA system: “Partial” modelling for postmortem changes in schizophrenia. Journal of Comparative Neurology 431:129–38.
G. Bersani , M. L. Maneschi , E. Tarolla & P. Pancheri (2006) Dyslexia as a possible aspect of neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 82:265–66.
L. Bertella , L. Girelli , G. Grugni , S. Marchi , E. Molinari & C. Semenza (2005) Mathematical skills in Prader-Willi Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49:159–69.
A. Bertone , L. Mottron , P. Jelenic & J. Faubert (2005) Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity. Brain 128:2430–41.
E. D. Bigler , S. Mortensen , E. S. Neeley , S. Ozonoff , L. Krasny , M. Johnson , J. Lu , S. L. Provencal , W. McMahon & J. E. Lainhart (2007) Superior temporal gyrus, language function, and autism. Developmental Neuropsychology 31:217–38.
D. C. Bittel , N. Kibiryeva , Z. Talebizadeh & M. G. Butler (2003) Microarray analysis of gene/transcript expression in Prader-Willi syndrome: Deletion versus UPD. Journal of Medical Genetics 40:568–74.
D. H. R. Blackwood , B. J. Pickard , P. A. Thomson , K. L. Evans , D. J. Porteous & W. J. Muir (2007) Are some genetic risk factors common to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression? Evidence from DISC1, GRIK4 and NRG1. Neurotoxicity Research 11:73–83.
N. J. Blackwood , R. J. Howard , R. P. Bentall & R. M. Murray (2001) Cognitive neuropsychiatric models of persecutory delusions. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:527–39.
R. J. R. Blair (2005) Responding to the emotions of others: Dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and Cognition 14:698–718.
R. Blanc , J. L. Adrien , S. Roux & C. Barthélémy (2005) Dysregulation of pretend play and communication development in children with autism. Autism 9:229–45.
R. E. Blanton , J. G. Levitt , J. R. Peterson , D. Fadale , M. L. Sporty , M. Lee , D. To , E. C. Mormino , P. M. Thompson , J. T. McCracken & A. W. Toga (2004) Gender differences in the left inferior frontal gyrus in normal children. NeuroImage 22:626–36.
M. P. Boks , M. H. de Vette , I. E. Sommer , S. van Rijn , J. C. Giltay , H. Swaab & R. S. Kahn (2007a) Psychiatric morbidity and X-chromosomal origin in a Klinefelter sample. Schizophrenia Research 93:399–402.
M. P. Boks , S. Leask , J. K. Vermunt & R. S. Kahn (2007b) The structure of psychosis revisited: The role of mood symptoms. Schizophrenia Research 93:178–85.
S. Bölte & F. Poustka (2006) The broader cognitive phenotype of autism in parents: How specific is the tendency for local processing and executive dysfunction? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 47:639–45.
J. Boucher (2007) Memory and generativity in very high functioning autism: A firsthand account, and an interpretation. Autism 11:255–64.
D. M. Bowler (1992) “Theory of mind” in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 33:877–93.
P. Brambilla , R. Cerini , A. Gasparini , A. Versace , N. Andreone , E. Vittorini , C. Barbui , L. Pelizza , M. Nosè , L. Barlocco , G. Marrella , M. Gregis , K. Tournikioti , A. S. David , M. S. Keshavan & M. Tansella (2005) Investigation of corpus callosum in schizophrenia with diffusion imaging. Schizophrenia Research 79:201–10.
P. Broks (1997) Brain, self, and others: The neuropsychology of social cognition. In: Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health, ed. G. Claridge , pp. 98–123. Oxford University Press.
W. M. Brown (2001) Genomic imprinting and the cognitive architecture mediating human culture. Journal of Cognition and Culture 1:251–58.
P. Brugger & R. E. Graves (1997a) Right hemispatial inattention and magical ideation. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 247:55–57.
P. Brugger & R. E. Graves (1997b) Testing vs. believing hypothesis: Magical ideation in the judgement of contingencies. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2:251–72.
M. Brüne (2004) Schizophrenia-an evolutionary enigma? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28:41–53.
M. Brüne & U. Brüne-Cohrs (2006) Theory of mind – Evolution, ontogeny, brain mechanisms and psychopathology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30:437–55.
A. Brunet , S. R. Datta & M. E. Greenberg (2001) Transcription-dependent and -independent control of neuronal survival by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11:297–305.
E. Brunet-Gouet & J. Decety (2006) Social brain dysfunctions in schizophrenia: A review of neuroimaging studies. Psychiatry Research 148:75–92.
C. Buck , G. E. Hobbs , H. Simpson & J. M. Wanklin (1975) Fertility of the sibs of schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 127:235–39.
L. Burd & J. Kerbeshian (1988) Familial pervasive development disorder, Tourette disorder and hyperlexia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 12:233–34.
N. Burgess , E. A. Maguire & J. O'Keefe (2002) The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron 35:625–41.
M. Bürgy (2007) Obsession in the strict sense: A helpful psychopathological phenomenon in the differential diagnosis between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. Psychopathology 40:102–10.
J. K. Burns (2004) An evolutionary theory of schizophrenia: Cortical connectivity, metarepresentation, and the social brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:831–85.
J. K. Burns (2006a) Psychosis: A costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30:797–814.
B. Bursch , K. Ingman , L. Vitti , P. Hyman & L. K. Zeltzer (2004) Chronic pain in individuals with previously undiagnosed autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Pain 5:290–95.
A. Burt & R. Trivers (2006) Genes in conflict: The biology of selfish genetic elements. Harvard University Press.
M. G. Butler , M. J. Dasouki , X. P. Zhou , Z. Talebizadeh , M. Brown , T. N. Takahashi , J. H. Miles , C. H. Wang , R. Stratton , R. Pilarski & C. Eng (2005) Subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorders and extreme macrocephaly associated with germline PTEN tumour suppressor gene mutations. Journal of Medical Genetics 42:318–21.
L. Cahill , M. Uncapher , L. Kilpatrick , M. T. Alkire & J. Turner (2004) Sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala function in emotionally influenced memory: An fMRI investigation. Learning and Memory 11:261–66.
M. P. Caligiuri , J. B. Hellige , B. J. Cherry , W. Kwok , L. L. Lulow & J. B. Lohr (2005) Lateralized cognitive dysfunction and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 80:151–61.
K. M. Camisa , M. A. Bockbrader , P. Lysaker , L. L. Rae , C. A. Brenner & B. F. O'Donnell (2005) Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders. Psychiatry Research 133:23–33.
M. Cannon , P. B. Jones & R. M. Murray (2002) Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: Historical and meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1080–92.
T. D. Cannon , I. M. Rosso , J. M. Hollister , C. E. Bearden , L. E. Sanchez & T. Hadley (2000) A prospective cohort study of genetic and perinatal influences in the etiology of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 26:351–66.
L. Capps , C. Kasari , N. Yirmiya & M. Sigman (1993) Parental perception of emotional expressiveness in children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61:475–84.
R. A. Carper , P. Moses , Z. D. Tigue & E. Courchesne (2002) Cerebral lobes in autism: Early hyperplasia and abnormal age effects. NeuroImage 16:1038–51.
J. M. Carroll & K. Y. Chiew (2006) Sex and discipline differences in empathising, systemising and autistic symptomatology: Evidence from a student population. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:949–57.
C. S. Carter , L. C. Robertson , T. E. Nordahl , M. Chaderjian & L. Oshora-Celaya (1996) Perceptual and attentional asymmetries in schizophrenia: Further evidence for a left hemisphere deficit. Psychiatry Research 62:111–19.
C. Cascio , F. McGlone , S. Folger , V. Tannan , G. Baranek , K. A. Pelphrey & G. Essick (2008) Tactile perception in adults with autism: A multidimensional psychophysical study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38:127–37.
F. Castelli (2005) Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development. Autism 9:428–49.
F. Castelli , C. Frith , F. Happé & U. Frith (2002) Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes. Brain: A Journal of Neurology 125:1839–49.
P. M. Catalano & J. P. Kirwan (2001) Maternal factors that determine neonatal size and body fat. Current Diabetes Reports 1:71–77.
B. M. Cattanach , C. V. Beechey & J. Peters (2004) Interactions between imprinting effects in the mouse. Genetics 168:397–413.
M. Cederlund & C. Gillberg (2004) One hundred males with Asperger syndrome: A clinical study of background and associated factors. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 46:652–60.
F. Cerrato , A. Sparago , I. Di Matteo , X. Zou , W. Dean , H. Sasaki , P. Smith , R. Genesio , M. Bruggemann , W. Reik & A. Riccio (2005) The two-domain hypothesis in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Autonomous imprinting of the telomeric domain of the distal chromosome 7 cluster. Human Molecular Genetics 14:503–11.
S. A. Chance , M. M. Esiri & T. J. Crow (2005) Macroscopic brain asymmetry is changed along the antero-posterior axis in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 74:163–70.
M. Charalambous , F. M. Smith , W. R. Bennett , T. E. Crew , F. Mackenzie & A. Ward (2003) Disruption of the imprinted GRB10 gene leads to disproportionate overgrowth by an IGF2-independent mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:8292–97.
F. Chen , P. Planche , E. Lemonnier & A. Lazartigues (2007) How could language interact with visuo-spatial performance in autism? Medical Hypotheses 69:695–97.
M. Chen , M. Haluzik , N. J. Wolf , J. Lorenzo , K. R. Dietz , M. L. Reitman & L. S. Weinstein (2004) Increased insulin sensitivity in paternal GNAS knockout mice is associated with increased lipid clearance. Endocrinology 145:4094–4102.
Y. Chen , L. C. Bidwell & P. S. Holzman (2005) Visual motion integration in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and patients with bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 74:271–81.
Y. Cheng , O. J. L. Tzeng , J. Decety , T. Imada & J. Hsieh (2006) Gender differences in the human mirror system: A magnetoencephalography study. Neuroreport 17:1115–19.
J. G. Chi , E. C. Dooling & F. H. Gilles (1977) Gyral development of the human brain. Annals of Neurology 1:86–93.
C. Chiron , M. Leboyer , F. Leon , I. Jambaqué , C. Nuttin & A. Syrota (1995) SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: Evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 37:849–60.
K. Christoff , J. M. Ream & J. D. Gabrieli (2004) Neural basis of spontaneous thought processes. Cortex 40:623–30.
S. E. Chua , I. C. Wright , J. B. Poline , P. F. Liddle , R. M. Murray , R. S. Frackowiak , K. J. Friston & P. K. McGuire (1997) Grey matter correlates of syndromes in schizophrenia: A semi-automated analysis of structural magnetic resonance images. British Journal of Psychiatry 170:406–10.
G. Claridge (1997) Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health. Oxford University Press.
G. Claridge , K. Clark & C. Davis (1997) Nightmares, dreams, and schizotypy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 36:377–86.
G. Claridge , R. Pryor & G. Watkins (1990) Sounds from the bell jar: Ten psychotic authors. Macmillan.
P. M. Coan , G. J. Burton & A. C. Ferguson-Smith (2005) Imprinted genes in the placenta – A review. Placenta 26(Suppl. A):S10–20.
H. Cody , K. Pelphrey & J. Piven (2002) Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 20:421–38.
D. Cohen , N. Pichard , S. Tordjman , C. Baumann , L. Burglen , E. Excoffier , G. Lazar , P. Mazet , C. Pinquier , A. Verloes & D. Héron (2005) Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35:103–16.
S. L. Collinson , C. E. Mackay , A. C. James , D. J. Quested , T. Phillips , N. Roberts & T. J. Crow (2003) Brain volume, asymmetry and intellectual impairment in relation to sex in early-onset schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 183:114–20.
R. Condray (2005) Language disorder in schizophrenia as a developmental learning disorder. Schizophrenia Research 73:5–20.
A. M. Connolly , M. Chez , E. M. Streif , R. M. Keeling , P. T. Golumbek , J. M. Kwon , J. J. Riviello , R. G. Robinson , R. J. Neuman & R. M. Deuel (2006) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and autoantibodies to neural antigens in sera of children with autistic spectrum disorders, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, and epilepsy. Biological Psychiatry 59:354–63.
J. N. Constantino & R. D. Todd (2005) Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry 57:655–60.
G. Conti-Ramsden , Z. Simkin & N. Botting (2006) The prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 47:621–28.
E. J. Costello , C. Worthman , A. Erkanli & A. Angold (2007) Prediction from low birth weight to female adolescent depression: A test of competing hypotheses. Archives of General Psychiatry 64:338–44.
E. Courchesne (2004) Brain development in autism: Early overgrowth followed by premature arrest of growth. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 10:106–11.
E. Courchesne & K. Pierce (2005a) Brain overgrowth in autism during a critical time in development: Implications for frontal pyramidal neuron and interneuron development and connectivity. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 23:153–70.
E. Courchesne & K. Pierce (2005b) Why the frontal cortex in autism might be talking only to itself: Local over-connectivity but long-distance disconnection. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15:225–30.
E. Courchesne , E. Redcay & D. P. Kennedy (2004) The autistic brain: Birth through adulthood. Current Opinion in Neurology 17:489–96.
E. Courchesne , J. Townsend , N. A. Akshoomoff , O. Saitoh , R. Yeung-Courchesne , A. J. Lincoln , H. E. James , R. H. Haas , L. Schreibman & L. Lau (1994) Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. Behavioral Neuroscience 108:848–65.
N. Craddock & L. Forty (2006) Genetics of affective (mood) disorders. European Journal of Human Genetics 14:660–68.
J. Craig & S. Baron-Cohen (1999) Creativity and imagination in autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29:319–26.
J. S. Craig , C. Hatton , F. B. Craig & R. P. Bentall (2004) Persecutory beliefs, attributions and theory of mind: Comparison of patients with paranoid delusions, Asperger's syndrome and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research 69:29–33.
B. J. Crespi (2000) The evolution of maladaptation. Heredity 84:623–29.
B. Crespi & C. Semeniuk (2004) Parent-offspring conflict in the evolution of vertebrate reproductive mode. American Naturalist 163:635–53.
B. Crespi , K. Summers & S. Dorus (2007) Adaptive evolution of genes underlying schizophrenia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274:2801–810.
T. J. Crow (1995) A Darwinian approach to the origins of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 167:12–25.
T. J. Crow (1998) From Kraepelin to Kretschmer leavened by Schneider: The transition from categories to psychosis to dimensions of variation intrinsic to Homo sapiens. Archives of General Psychiatry 55:502–504.
T. J. Crow (2000) Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: A resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Research Reviews 31:118–29.
T. J. Crow (2004a) Auditory hallucinations as primary disorders of syntax: An evolutionary theory of the origins of language. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 9:125–45.
T. J. Crow (2004b) Cerebral asymmetry and the lateralization of language: Core deficits in schizophrenia as pointers to the gene. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 17:97–106.
T. J. Crow (2004c) What Marian Annett can teach Noam Chomsky and could have taught Stephen Jay Gould if he'd had time to listen. Cortex 40:120–34.
T. J. Crow , L. R. Crow , D. J. Done & S. Leask (1998) Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia 36:1275–82.
T. J. Crow , D. J. Done & A. Sacker (1996) Cerebral lateralization is delayed in children who later develop schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 22:181–85.
S. C. Cunnane & M. A. Crawford (2003) Survival of the fattest: Fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology 136:17–26.
J. P. Curley , S. Barton , A. Surani & E. B. Keverne (2004) Coadaptation in mother and infant regulated by a paternally expressed imprinted gene. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 271:1303–309.
S. O. Dalton , L. Mellemkjaer , L. Thomassen , P. B. Mortensen & C. Johansen (2005b) Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969–1993. Schizophrenia Research 75:315–24.
M. Dapretto , M. S. Davies , J. H. Pfeifer , A. A. Scott , M. Sigman , S. Y. Bookheimer & M. Iacoboni (2006) Understanding emotions in others: Mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience 9:28–30.
P. Das , A. H. Kemp , G. Flynn , A. W. F. Harris , B. J. Liddell , T. J. Whitford , A. Peduto , E. Gordon & L. M. Williams (2007) Functional disconnections in the direct and indirect amygdala pathways for fear processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 90:284–94.
W. Davies , A. R. Isles , P. S. Burgoyne & L. S. Wilkinson (2006) X-linked imprinting: Effects on brain and behaviour. Bioessays 28:35–44.
W. Davies , A. R. Isles , R. Smith , D. Karunadasa , D. Burrmann , T. Humby , O. Ojarikre , C. Biggin , D. Skuse , P. Burgoyne & L. Wilkinson (2005) Xlr3b is a new imprinted candidate for X-linked parent-of-origin effects on cognitive function in mice. Nature Genetics 37:625–29.
W. Davies , A. R. Isles & L. S. Wilkinson (2001) Imprinted genes and mental dysfunction. Annals of Medicine 33:428–36.
J. O. Davis , J. A. Phelps & H. S. Bracha (1995) Prenatal development of monozygotic twins and concordance for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 21:357–66.
P. J. Davis & M. G. Gibson (2000) Recognition of posed and genuine facial expressions of emotion in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109:445–50.
L. De Fossé , S. M. Hodge , N. Makris , D. N. Kennedy , V. S. Caviness Jr., L. McGrath , S. Steele , D. A. Ziegler , M. R. Herbert , J. A. Frazier , H. Tager-Flusberg & G. J. Harris (2004) Language-association cortex asymmetry in autism and specific language impairment. Annals of Neurology 56:757–66.
V. De Luca , A. H. C. Wong , D. J. Muller , G. W. H. Wong , R. F. Tyndale & J. L. Kennedy (2004) Evidence of association between smoking and alpha7 nicotinic receptor subunit gene in schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1522–26.
Y. Deng , S. Bhattacharya , O. R. Swamy , R. Tandon , Y. Wang , R. Janda & H. Riedel (2003) Growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (GRB10) as a partner of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in metabolic insulin action. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278:39311–22.
K. Devriendt (2005) Hydatidiform mole and triploidy: The role of genomic imprinting in placental development. Human Reproduction Update 11:137–42.
E. DiCicco-Bloom , C. Lord , L. Zwaigenbaum , E. Courchesne , S. R. Dager , C. Schmitz , R. T. Schultz , J. Crawley & L. J. Young (2006) The developmental neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder. The Journal of Neuroscience 26:6897–6906.
W. M. Dinn , C. L. Harris , A. Aycicegi , P. Greene & M. S. Andover (2002) Positive and negative schizotypy in a student sample: Neurocognitive and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Research 56:171–85.
D. C. Dolinoy , J. R. Weidman & R. L. Jirtle (2006) Epigenetic gene regulation: Linking early developmental environment to adult disease. Reproductive Toxicology 23:297–307.
S. Dollfus , A. Razafimandimby , P. Delamillieure , P. Brazo , M. Joliot , B. Mazoyer & N. Tzourio-Mazoyer (2005) Atypical hemispheric specialization for language in right-handed schizophrenia patients. Biological Psychiatry 57:1020–28.
J. E. Downhill Jr., M. S. Buchsbaum , T. Wei , J. Spiegel-Cohen , E. A. Hazlett , M. M. Haznedar , J. Silverman & L. J. Siever (2000) Shape and size of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research 42:193–208.
A. Downs & T. Smith (2004) Emotional understanding, cooperation, and social behavior in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:625–35.
D. B. Dunger , C. J. Petry & K. K. Ong (2006) Genetic variations and normal fetal growth. Hormone Research 65(3):34–40.
E. M. Dykens , R. M. Hodapp & B. M. Finucane (2000) Genetics and mental retardation syndromes: A new look at behavior and interventions. Brookes.
M. Dykes & A. McGhie (1976) A comparative study of attentional strategies of schizophrenic and highly creative normal subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry 128:50–56.
J. C. Edgar , R. A. Yeo , S. W. Gangestad , M. B. Blake , J. T. Davis , J. D. Lewine & J. M. Cañive (2006) Reduced auditory M100 asymmetry in schizophrenia and dyslexia: Applying a developmental instability approach to assess atypical brain asymmetry. Neuropsychologia 44:289–99.
B. Egaas , E. Courchesne & O. Saitoh (1995) Reduced size of corpus callosum in autism. Archives of Neurology 52:794–801.
T. Eggermann , E. Meyer , C. Obermann , I. Heil , H. Schüler , M. B. Ranke , K. Eggermann & H. A. Wollmann (2005) Is maternal duplication of 11p15 associated with Silver-Russell syndrome? Journal of Medical Genetics 42:e26.
T. Eggermann , N. Schönherr , E. Meyer , C. Obermann , M. Mavany , K. Eggermann , M. B. Ranke & H. A. Wollmann (2006) Epigenetic mutations in 11p15 in Silver-Russell syndrome are restricted to the telomeric imprinting domain. Journal of Medical Genetics 43:615–16.
S. Eliez (2007) Autism in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46:433–34.
Z. Ellison , J. van Os & R. Murray (1998) Special feature: Childhood personality characteristics of schizophrenia: Manifestations of, or risk factors for, the disorder? Journal of Personality Disorders 12:247–61.
E. S. Emamian , D. Hall , M. J. Birnbaum , M. Karayiorgou & J. A. Gogos (2004) Convergent evidence for impaired AKT1-GSK3beta signaling in schizophrenia. Nature Genetics 36:131–37.
N. J. Emery (2000) The eyes have it: The neuroethology, function and evolution of social gaze. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24:581–604.
T. Endrass , B. Mohr & B. Rockstroh (2002) Reduced interhemispheric transmission in schizophrenia patients: Evidence from event-related potentials. Neuroscience Letters 320:57–60.
H. A. Engstrom , S. Ohlson , E. G. Stubbs , A. Maciulis , V. Caldwell , J. D. Odell & A. R. Torres (2003) Decreased expression of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) on CD4+ T-lymphocytes from participants with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 15:155–63.
P. R. Escalante-Mead , N. J. Minshew & J. A. Sweeney (2003) Abnormal brain lateralization in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:539–43.
L. Fañanás & J. Bertranpetit (1995) Reproductive rates in families of schizophrenic patients in a case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91:202–204.
A. Fanous , C. Gardner , D. Walsh & K. S. Kendler (2001) Relationship between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and schizotypal symptoms in nonpsychotic relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry 58:669–73.
S. H. Fatemi & A. R. Halt (2001) Altered levels of Bcl2 and p53 proteins in parietal cortex reflect deranged apoptotic regulation in autism. Synapse 42:281–84.
C. Feinstein , S. Eliez , C. Blasey & A. L. Reiss (2002) Psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with velocardiofacial syndrome: Usefulness as phenotypic indicators of schizophrenia risk. Biological Psychiatry 51:312–18.
C. Feinstein & S. Singh (2007) Social phenotypes in neurogenetic syndromes. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 16:631–47.
E. C. Finger , A. A. Marsh , N. Kamel , D. G. V. Mitchell & J. R. Blair (2006) Caught in the act: The impact of audience on the neural response to morally and socially inappropriate behavior. NeuroImage 33:414–21.
J. E. Fisher , A. Mohanty , J. D. Herrington , N. S. Koven , G. A. Miller & W. Heller (2004) Neuropsychological evidence for dimensional schizotypy: Implications for creativity and psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality 38:24–31.
R. A. Fisher , M. D. Hodges , H. C. Rees , N. J. Sebire , M. J. Seckl , E. S. Newlands , D. R. Genest & D. H. Castrillon (2002) The maternally transcribed gene p57(KIP2) (CDNK1C) is abnormally expressed in both androgenetic and biparental complete hydatidiform moles. Human Molecular Genetics 11:3267–72.
E. J. Flagg , J. E. Cardy , W. Roberts & T. P. Roberts (2005) Language lateralization development in children with autism: Insights from the late field magnetoencephalogram. Neuroscience Letters 386:82–87.
P. C. Fletcher , F. Happé , U. Frith , S. C. Baker , R. J. Dolan , R. S. Frackowiak & C. D. Frith (1995) Other minds in the brain: A functional imaging study of “theory of mind” in story comprehension. Cognition 57:109–28.
P. Flor-Henry (1969) Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. A controlled investigation. Epilepsia 10:363–95.
R. A. Foley & P. C. Lee (1991) Ecology and energetics of encephalization in hominid evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 334:223–31.
S. E. Folstein & B. Rosen-Sheidley (2001) Genetics of autism: Complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder. Nature Reviews. Genetics 2:943–55.
K. R. Foster , T. Wenseleers , F. L. W. Ratnieks & D. C. Queller (2006) There is nothing wrong with inclusive fitness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:599–600.
A. L. Fowden , C. Sibley , W. Reik & M. Constancia (2006) Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth. Hormone Research 65(Suppl. 3):50–58.
N. Franck , E. Daprati , F. Michel , M. Saoud , J. Daléry , M. Marie-Cardine & N. Georgieff (1998) Gaze discrimination is unimpaired in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 81:67–75.
C. Francks , L. E. DeLisi , S. E. Fisher , S. H. Laval , J. E. Rue , J. F. Stein & A. P. Monaco (2003a) Confirmatory evidence for linkage of relative hand skill to 2p12-q11. American Journal of Human Genetics 72:499–502.
C. Francks , L. E. DeLisi , S. H. Shaw , S. E. Fisher , A. J. Richardson , J. F. Stein & A. P. Monaco (2003b) Parent-of-origin effects on handedness and schizophrenia susceptibility on chromosome 2p12-q11. Human Molecular Genetics 12:3225–30.
C. Francks , S. Maegawa , J. Lauren , B. S. Abrahams , A. Velayos-Baeza , S. E. Medland , S. Colella , M. Groszer , E. Z. McAuley , T. M. Caffrey , T. Timmusk , P. Pruunsild , I. Koppel , P. A. Lind , N. Matsumoto-Itaba , J. Nicod , L. Xiong , R. Joober , W. Enard , B. Krinsky , E. Nanba , A. J. Richardson , B. P. Riley , N. G. Martin , S. M. Strittmatter , H. J. Moller , D. Rujescu , D. St Clair , P. Muglia , J. L. Roos , S. E. Fisher , R. Wade-Martins , G. A. Rouleau , J. F. Stein , M. Karayiorgou , D. H. Geschwind , J. Ragoussis , K. S. Kendler , M. S. Airaksinen , M. Oshimura , L. E. Delisi & A. P. Monaco (2007) LRRTM1 on chromosome 2p12 is a maternally suppressed gene that is associated paternally with handedness and schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 12(12):1129–39, 1057.
C. D. Frith (1996) The role of the prefrontal cortex in self-consciousness: The case of auditory hallucinations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 351:1505–12.
C. D. Frith (2005b) The self in action: Lessons from delusions of control. Consciousness and Cognition 14:752–70.
C. D. Frith , S. J. Blakemore & D. M. Wolpert (2000) Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 355:1771–88.
C. D. Frith & U. Frith (1999) Interacting minds – A biological basis. Science 286:1692–95.
U. Frith (2004) Emanuel Miller lecture: Confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:672–86.
U. Frith & F. Happé (2005) Autism spectrum disorder. Current Biology 15:R786–90.
A. Fukumoto , T. Hashimoto , H. Ito , M. Nishimura , Y. Tsuda , M. Miyazaki , K. Mori , K. Arisawa & S. Kagami (2008) Growth of head circumference in autistic infants during the first year of life. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38:411–18.
D. W. Fults (2005) Modeling medulloblastoma with genetically engineered mice. Neurosurgical Focus 19:E7.
W. Gaebel & W. Wölwer (2004) Facial expressivity in the course of schizophrenia and depression. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 254:335–42.
R. Gagnon (2003) Placental insufficiency and its consequences. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 110(1):S99–107.
C. R. Gale & C. N. Martyn (2004) Birthweight and later risk of depression in a national birth cohort. British Journal of Psychiatry 184:28–33.
V. Gallese (2006) Intentional attunement: A neurophysiological perspective on social cognition and its disruption in autism. Brain Research 1079:15–24.
J. M. Gardiner (2002) Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: A first-person approach. In: Episodic memory: New directions in research, ed. A. Baddeley , J. P. Aggleton & M. A. Conway . Oxford University Press.
J. M. Gardiner , D. M. Bowler & S. J. Grice (2003) Further evidence of preserved priming and impaired recall in adults with Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:259–69.
A. G. Garrity , G. D. Pearlson , K. McKiernan , D. Lloyd , K. A. Kiehl & V. D. Calhoun (2007) Aberrant “default mode” functional connectivity in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164:450–57.
E. Geuze , E. Vermetten & J. D. Bremner (2005) MR-based in vivo hippocampal volumetrics: 2. Findings in neuropsychiatric disorders. Molecular Psychiatry 10:160–84.
L. R. Gianotti , C. Mohr , D. Pizzagalli , D. Lehmann & P. Brugger (2001) Associative processing and paranormal belief. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 55:595–603.
M. A. Gibson & R. Mace (2003) Strong mothers bear more sons in rural Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 270(Suppl. 1):S108–109.
G. Gillessen-Kaesbach , W. Robinson , D. Lohmann , S. Kaya-Westerloh , E. Passarge & B. Horsthemke (1995) Genotype-phenotype correlation in a series of 167 deletion and non-deletion patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. Human Genetics 96:638–43.
B. Gisabella , V. Y. Bolshakov & F. M. Benes (2005) Regulation of synaptic plasticity in a schizophrenia model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:13301–306.
V. Goel , J. Grafman , N. Sadato & M. Hallett (1995) Modeling other minds. Neuroreport 6:1741–46.
V. M. Goghari , K. Rehm , C. S. Carter & A. W. Macdonald III (2007) Regionally specific cortical thinning and gray matter abnormalities in the healthy relatives of schizophrenia patients. Cerebral Cortex 17:415–24.
M. J. Goldacre , L. M. Kurina , C. J. Wotton , D. Yeates & V. Seagroat (2005) Schizophrenia and cancer: An epidemiological study. British Journal of Psychiatry 187:334–38.
G. Goldstein , C. R. Johnson & N. J. Minshew (2001a) Attentional processes in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:433–40.
G. Goldstein , N. J. Minshew , D. N. Allen & B. E. Seaton (2002) High-functioning autism and schizophrenia: A comparison of an early and late onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 17:461–75.
J. M. Goldstein , L. J. Seidman , N. J. Horton , N. Makris , D. N. Kennedy , V. S. Caviness Jr., S. V. Faraone & M. T. Tsuang (2001b) Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex 11:490–97.
A. P. Goldstone (2004) Prader-Willi syndrome: Advances in genetics, pathophysiology and treatment. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 15:12–20.
M. Gomot , F. A. Bernard , M. H. Davis , M. K. Belmonte , C. Ashwin , E. T. Bullmore & S. Baron-Cohen (2006) Change detection in children with autism: An auditory event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage 29:475–84.
C. D. Good , I. Johnsrude , J. Ashburner , R. N. Henson , K. J. Friston & R. S. Frackowiak (2001) Cerebral asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure: A voxel-based morphometric analysis of 465 normal adult human brains. NeuroImage 14:685–700.
L. M. Goos , P. Ezzatian & R. Schachar (2007) Parent-of-origin effects in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research 149(1–3):1–9.
O. Y. Gorlova , C. I. Amos , N. W. Wang , S. Shete , S. T. Turner & E. Boerwinkle (2003) Genetic linkage and imprinting effects on body mass index in children and young adults. European Journal of Human Genetics 11:425–32.
D. Gothelf (2007) Velocardiofacial syndrome. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 16:677–93.
V. Goussé , M. H. Plumet , N. Chabane , M. Mouren-Siméoni , N. Ferradian & M. Leboyer (2002) Fringe phenotypes in autism: A review of clinical, biochemical and cognitive studies. European Psychiatry 17:120–28.
T. Grandin (2004) Label of “autism” could hold back gifted children. Nature 430:399.
E. Granholm , W. Perry , J. V. Filoteo & D. Braff (1999) Hemispheric and attentional contributions to perceptual organization deficits on the global-local task in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 13:271–81.
J. A. Gray (1998) Integrating schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24:249–66.
L. A. Green , D. Fein , C. Modahl , C. Feinstein , L. Waterhouse & M. Morris (2001) Oxytocin and autistic disorder: Alterations in peptide forms. Biological Psychiatry 50:609–13.
M. J. Green & M. L. Phillips (2004) Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28:333–42.
M. D. Greicius , B. H. Flores , V. Menon , G. H. Glover , H. B. Solvason , H. Kenna , A. L. Reiss & A. F. Schatzberg (2007) Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: Abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus. Biological Psychiatry 62:429–37.
M. D. Greicius , B. Krasnow , A. L. Reiss & V. Menon (2003) Functional connectivity in the resting brain: A network analysis of the default mode hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:253–58.
E. L. Grigorenko , A. Klin & F. Volkmar (2003) Annotation: Hyperlexia: Disability or superability? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 44:1079–91.
S. Grossberg (2000b) The imbalanced brain: From normal behavior to schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 48:81–98.
D. Gunnell & J. M. Holly (2004) Hypothesis: Do insulin-like growth factors underlie associations of birth complications, fetal and pre-adult growth with schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research 71:191–93.
D. Gunnell , F. Rasmussen , D. Fouskakis , P. Tynelius & G. Harrison (2003) Patterns of fetal and childhood growth and the development of psychosis in young males: A cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology 158:291–300.
H. L. Gunter , M. Ghaziuddin & H. D. Ellis (2002) Asperger syndrome: Tests of right hemisphere functioning and interhemispheric communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32:263–81.
R. C. Gur , D. Alsop , D. Glahn , R. Petty , C. L. Swanson , J. A. Maldjian , B. I. Turetsky , J. A. Detre , J. Gee & R. E. Gur (2000) An fMRI study of sex differences in regional activation to a verbal and a spatial task. Brain and Language 74:157–70.
R. E. Gur , M. S. Keshavan & S. M. Lawrie (2007) Deconstructing psychosis with human brain imaging. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33:921–31.
R. E. Gur , C. Kohler , B. I. Turetsky , S. J. Siegel , S. J. Kanes , W. B. Bilker , A. R. Brennan & R. C. Gur (2004) A sexually dimorphic ratio of orbitofrontal to amygdala volume is altered in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 55:512–17.
R. E. Gur , C. McGrath , R. M. Chan , L. Schroeder , T. Turner , B. I. Turetsky , C. Kohler , D. Alsop , J. Maldjian , J. D. Ragland & R. C. Gur (2002) An fMRI study of facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1992–99.
N. Hadjikhani , R. M. Joseph , J. Snyder & H. Tager-Flusberg (2006) Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cerebral Cortex 16:1276–82.
N. Hadjikhani , R. M. Joseph , J. Snyder & H. Tager-Flusberg (2007) Abnormal activation of the social brain during face perception in autism. Human Brain Mapping 28:441–49.
D. Haig (1993) Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Quarterly Review of Biology 68:495–532.
D. Haig (1996) Placental hormones, genetic imprinting, and maternal-fetal communication. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9:357.
D. Haig (2000b) The kinship theory of genomic imprinting. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:9–32.
D. Haig (2003) On intrapersonal reciprocity. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:418–25.
D. Haig (2004a) Evolutionary conflicts in pregnancy and calcium metabolism – A review. Placenta 25(Suppl. A):S10–S15.
D. Haig (2004b) Genomic imprinting and kinship: How good is the evidence? Annual Review of Genetics 38:553–85.
D. Haig (2006) Intragenomic politics. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 113:68–74.
D. Haig & R. Wharton (2003) Prader-Willi syndrome and the evolution of human childhood. American Journal of Human Biology 15:320–29.
U. Halbreich & L. S. Kahn (2003) Hormonal aspects of schizophrenias: An overview. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28(2):1–16.
A. F. Hamilton , C. de , R. M. Brindley & U. Frith (2007) Imitation and action understanding in autistic spectrum disorders: How valid is the hypothesis of a deficit in the mirror neuron system? Neuropsychologia 45:1859–68.
W. D. Hamilton (1964) The genetical evolution of social behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1–52.
S. Han , J. A. Weaver , S. O. Murray , X. Kang , E. W. Yund & D. L. Woods (2002) Hemispheric asymmetry in global/local processing: Effects of stimulus position and spatial frequency. NeuroImage 17:1290–99.
F. Happé , S. Ehlers , P. Fletcher , U. Frith , M. Johansson , C. Gillberg , R. Dolan , R. Frackowiak & C. Frith (1996) “Theory of mind” in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome. Neuroreport 8:197–201.
F. Happé & U. Frith (2006) The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:5–25.
F. Happé , A. Ronald & R. Plomin (2006) Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience 9(10):1218–20.
A. Y. Hardan , S. Muddasani , M. Vemulapalli , M. S. Keshavan & N. J. Minshew (2006) An MRI study of increased cortical thickness in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry 163:1290–92.
L. Harrington , R. J. Siegert & J. McClure (2005b) Theory of mind in schizophrenia: A critical review. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:249–86.
B. J. Harrison , M. Yücel , J. Pujol & C. Pantelis (2007) Task-induced deactivation of midline cortical regions in schizophrenia assessed with fMRI. Schizophrenia Research 91:82–86.
P. J. Harrison (1999) The neuropathology of schizophrenia. A critical review of the data and their interpretation. Brain 122(Pt 4):593–624.
W. Hartmann , A. Koch , H. Brune , A. Waha , U. Schuller , I. Dani , D. Denkhaus , W. Langmann , U. Bode , O. D. Wiestler , K. Schilling & T. Pietsch (2005) Insulin-like growth factor II is involved in the proliferation control of medulloblastoma and its cerebellar precursor cells. American Journal of Pathology 166:1153–62.
T. Hashimoto , S. E. Bergen , Q. L. Nguyen , B. Xu , L. M. Monteggia , J. N. Pierri , Z. Sun , A. R. Sampson & D. A. Lewis (2005) Relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB to altered inhibitory prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuroscience 25:372–83.
J. Hattori , T. Ogino , K. Abiru , K. Nakano , M. Oka & Y. Ohtsuka (2006) Are pervasive developmental disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder distinct disorders? Brain and Development 28:371–74.
J. Haukka , J. Suvisaari & J. Lönnqvist (2003) Fertility of patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, and the general population: A cohort study from 1950 to 1959 in Finland. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:460–63.
P. Heaton & G. L. Wallace (2004) Annotation: The savant syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:899–911.
E. A. Heerey , D. Keltner & L. M. Capps (2003) Making sense of self-conscious emotion: Linking theory of mind and emotion in children with autism. Emotion 3:394–400.
S. Heim , J. Kissler , T. Elbert & B. Rockstroh (2004) Cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia and dyslexia: Neuromagnetic responses to auditory stimuli. Neuropsychologia 42:692–97.
M. R. Herbert (2005) Large brains in autism: The challenge of pervasive abnormality. Neuroscientist 11:417–40.
M. R. Herbert , G. J. Harris , K. T. Adrien , D. A. Ziegler , N. Makris , D. N. Kennedy , N. T. Lange , C. F. Chabris , A. Bakardjiev , J. Hodgson , M. Takeoka , H. Tager-Flusberg & V. S. Caviness Jr. (2002) Abnormal asymmetry in language association cortex in autism. Annals of Neurology 52:588–96.
M. R. Herbert & T. Kenet (2007) Brain abnormalities in language disorders and in autism. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:563–83.
M. R. Herbert , D. A. Ziegler , C. K. Deutsch , L. M. O'Brien , D. N. Kennedy , P. A. Filipek , A. I. Bakardjiev , J. Hodgson , M. Takeoka , N. Makris & V. S. Caviness Jr. (2005) Brain asymmetries in autism and developmental language disorder: A nested whole-brain analysis. Brain 128:213–26.
M. R. Herbert , D. A. Ziegler , N. Makris , P. A. Filipek , T. L. Kemper , J. J. Normandin , H. A. Sanders , D. N. Kennedy & V. S. Caviness Jr. (2004) Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder. Annals of Neurology 55:530–40.
E. Herrera (2002) Implications of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental, fetal and postnatal development – A review. Placenta 23(Suppl. A):S9–S19.
J. R. Highley , L. E. DeLisi , N. Roberts , J. A. Webb , M. Relja , K. Razi & T. J. Crow (2003) Sex-dependent effects of schizophrenia: An MRI study of gyral folding, and cortical and white matter volume. Psychiatry Research 124:11–23.
E. L. Hill & U. Frith (2003) Understanding autism: Insights from mind and brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 358:281–89.
R. E. Hoffman , M. Hampson , M. Varanko & T. H. McGlashan (2004) Auditory hallucinations, network connectivity, and schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:860–61.
A. Holland , J. Whittington & E. Hinton (2003) The paradox of Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic model of starvation. Lancet 362:989–91.
L. Holsen & T. Thompson (2004) Compulsive behavior and eye blink in Prader-Willi syndrome: Neurochemical implications. American Journal of Mental Retardation 109:197–207.
D. J. Holt , L. Kunkel , A. P. Weiss , D. C. Goff , C. I. Wright , L. M. Shin , S. L. Rauch , J. Hootnick & S. Heckers (2006) Increased medial temporal lobe activation during the passive viewing of emotional and neutral facial expressions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 82:153–62.
M. Holtmann , S. Bölte & F. Poustka (2007) Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 49:361–66.
R. Honea , T. J. Crow , D. Passingham & C. E. Mackay (2005) Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:2233–45.
E. Honey , S. R. Leekam , M. Turner & H. McConachie (2006) Repetitive behaviour and play in typically developing children and children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37:1107–15.
C. Hooker & S. Park (2005) You must be looking at me: The nature of gaze perception in schizophrenia patients. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:327–45.
D. Hubl , T. Koenig , W. Strik , A. Federspiel , R. Kreis , C. Boesch , S. E. Maier , G. Schroth , K. Lovblad & T. Dierks (2004) Pathways that make voices: White matter changes in auditory hallucinations. Archives of General Psychiatry 61:658–68.
H. E. Hulshoff Pol , H. G. Schnack , R. C. W. Mandl , R. G. H. Brans , H. E. van Haren , E. M. Neeltje , W. F. C. Baaré , C. J. van Oel , D. L. Collins , A. C. Evans & R. S. Kahn (2006) Gray and white matter density changes in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage 31:482–88.
G. Hutchinson , D. Bhugra , R. Mallett , R. Burnett , B. Corridan & J. Leff (1999) Fertility and marital rates in first-onset schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 34:617–21.
J. Huxley , E. Mayr , H. Osmond & A. Hoffer (1964) Schizophrenia as a genetic morphism. Nature 204:220–21.
M. Iacoboni & M. Dapretto (2006) The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7:942–51.
E. Ingudomnukul , S. Baron-Cohen , S. Wheelwright & R. Knickmeyer (2007) Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions. Hormones and Behavior 51:597–604.
A. R. Isles , W. Davies & L. S. Wilkinson (2006) Genomic imprinting and the social brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 361(1476):2229–37.
M. Jackson (1997) Benign schizotypy? The case of spiritual experience. In: Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health, ed. G. Claridge . Oxford University Press.
C. S. Jahshan & M. J. Sergi (2007) Theory of mind, neurocognition, and functional status in schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research 89:278–86.
A. C. James , T. J. Crow , S. Renowden , A. M. Wardell , D. M. Smith & P. Anslow (1999) Is the course of brain development in schizophrenia delayed? Evidence from onsets in adolescence. Schizophrenia Research 40:1–10.
I. Janssen , L. Krabbendam , J. Jolles & J. van Os (2003) Alterations in theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 108:110–17.
C. Jarrold , D. W. Butler , E. M. Cottington & F. Jimenez (2000) Linking theory of mind and central coherence bias in autism and in the general population. Developmental Psychology 36:126–38.
P. Jha , D. Sheth & M. Ghaziuddin (2007) Autism spectrum disorder and Klinefelter syndrome. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 16:305–308.
J. D. Johnson (2005) Dysfunction of the anterior hippocampus: The cause of fundamental schizophrenic symptoms? Medical Hypotheses 65:55–60.
M. H. Johnson (2005) Subcortical face processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6:766–74.
S. C. Johnson (2003) Detecting agents. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 358:549–59.
W. Johnson & T. J. Bouchard Jr. (2007) Sex differences in mental abilities: G masks the dimensions on which they lie. Intelligence 35:23–39.
K. A. Johnstone , A. J. DuBose , C. R. Futtner , M. D. Elmore , C. I. Brannan & J. L. Resnick (2006) A human imprinting centre demonstrates conserved acquisition but diverged maintenance of imprinting in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome imprinting defects. Human Molecular Genetics 15:393–404.
A. Jolly (1966) Lemur behaviour. University of Chicago Press.
S. R. Jones & C. Fernyhough (2007) Thought as action: Inner speech, self-monitoring, and auditory verbal hallucinations. Consciousness and Cognition 16:391–99.
G. Josse & N. Tzourio-Mazoyer (2004) Hemispheric specialization for language. Brain Research: Brain Research Reviews 44:1–12.
M. A. Just , V. L. Cherkassky , T. A. Keller & N. J. Minshew (2004) Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity. Brain 127:1811–21.
N. Juul-Dam , J. Townsend & E. Courchesne (2001) Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors in autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and the general population. Pediatrics 107:E63.
H. O. Kalkman (2006) The role of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B pathway in schizophrenia. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 110:117–34.
R. K. Kana , T. A. Keller , V. L. Cherkassky , N. J. Minshew & M. A. Just (2006) Sentence comprehension in autism: Thinking in pictures with decreased functional connectivity. Brain 129:2484–93.
L. Kanner (1949) Problems of nosology and psychodynamics of early infantile autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 19:416–26.
L. Kanner (1965) Infantile autism and the schizophrenias. Behavioral Science 10:412–20.
K. Kasai , M. E. Shenton , D. F. Salisbury , Y. Hirayasu , C. Lee , A. A. Ciszewski , D. Yurgelun-Todd , R. Kikinis , F. A. Jolesz & R. W. McCarley (2003a) Progressive decrease of left superior temporal gyrus gray matter volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:156–64.
K. Kasai , M. E. Shenton , D. F. Salisbury , Y. Hirayasu , T. Onitsuka , M. H. Spencer , D. A. Yurgelun-Todd , R. Kikinis , F. A. Jolesz & R. W. McCarley (2003b) Progressive decrease of left Heschl gyrus and planum temporale gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia: A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:766–75.
B. Kayahan , O. Ozturk , B. Veznedaroglu & D. Eraslan (2005) Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: Prevalence and clinical correlates. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 59:291–95.
O. Kelemen , S. Kéri , A. Must , G. Benedek & Z. Janka (2004) No evidence for impaired “theory of mind” in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 110:146–49.
J. Keller , A. F. Schatzberg & M. Maj (2007) Current issues in the classification of psychotic major depression. Schizophrenia Research 33:877–85.
L. Kempf , N. Hussain & J. B. Potash (2005) Mood disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia with mood features: Trouble at the borders. International Review of Psychiatry 17:9–19.
D. P. Kennedy , E. Redcay & E. Courchesne (2006) Failing to deactivate: Resting functional abnormalities in autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:8275–80.
N. Kennedy , M. McDonough , B. Kelly & G. E. Berrios (2002) Erotomania revisited: Clinical course and treatment. Comprehensive Psychiatry 43:1–6.
J. G. Kerns (2005) Positive schizotypy and emotion processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:392–401.
E. B. Keverne (1999) GABA-ergic neurons and the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Brain Research Bulletin 48:467–73.
E. B. Keverne (2001a) Genomic imprinting and the maternal brain. Progress in Brain Research 133:279–85.
E. B. Keverne (2001b) Genomic imprinting, maternal care, and brain evolution. Hormones and Behavior 40:146–55.
T. Kieseppä , T. G. van Erp , J. Haukka , T. Partonen , T. D. Cannon , V. P. Poutanen , J. Kaprio & J. Lönnqvist (2003) Reduced left hemispheric white matter volume in twins with bipolar I disorder. Biological Psychiatry 54:896–905.
D. Kimhy , R. Goetz , S. Yale , C. Corcoran & D. Malaspina (2005) Delusions in individuals with schizophrenia: Factor structure, clinical correlates, and putative neurobiology. Psychopathology 38:338–44.
J. M. Kington , L. A. Jones , A. A. Watt , E. J. Hopkin & J. Williams (2000) Impaired eye expression recognition in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 34:341–47.
P. Kirsch , C. Esslinger , Q. Chen , D. Mier , S. Lis , S. Siddhanti , H. Gruppe , V. S. Mattay , B. Gallhofer & A. Meyer-Lindenberg (2005) Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans. Journal of Neuroscience 25:11489–93.
I. Klejbor , J. M. Myers , K. Hausknecht , T. D. Corso , A. S. Gambino , J. Morys , P. A. Maher , R. Hard , J. Richards , E. K. Stachowiak & M. K. Stachowiak (2006) Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling affects development and function of dopamine neurons – Inhibition results in a schizophrenia-like syndrome in transgenic mice. Journal of Neurochemistry 97:1243–58.
R. C. Knickmeyer , S. Baron-Cohen , P. Raggatt & K. Taylor (2005) Foetal testosterone, social relationships, and restricted interests in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 46:198–210.
D. Knoch , A. Pascual-Leone , K. Meyer , V. Treyer & E. Fehr (2006) Diminishing reciprocal fairness by disrupting the right prefrontal cortex. Science 314:829–32.
A. Kolevzon , R. Gross & A. Reichenberg (2007) Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism: A review and integration of findings. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161:326–33.
I. Kolvin (1971) Studies in the childhood psychoses. I. Diagnostic criteria and classification. British Journal of Psychiatry 118:381–84.
M. M. Konstantareas & T. Hewitt (2001) Autistic disorder and schizophrenia: Diagnostic overlaps. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31(1):19–28.
V. A. Kovalev , F. Kruggel & D. Y. von Cramon (2003) Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis. NeuroImage 19:895–905.
J. H. Kramer , L. Ellenberg , J. Leonard & L. J. Share (1996) Developmental sex differences in global-local perceptual bias. Neuropsychology 10:402–407.
E. Kravariti , T. Toulopoulou , F. Mapua-Filbey , K. Schulze , M. Walshe , P. Sham , R. M. Murray & C. McDonald (2006) Intellectual asymmetry and genetic liability in first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 188:186–87.
W. S. Kremen , S. V. Faraone , R. Toomey , L. J. Seidman & M. T. Tsuang (1998) Sex differences in self-reported schizotypal traits in relatives of schizophrenic probands. Schizophrenia Research 34:27–37.
V. A. Kuhlmeier , P. Bloom & K. Wynn (2004) Do 5-month-old infants see humans as material objects? Cognition 94:95–103.
G. R. Kuperberg , M. R. Broome , P. K. McGuire , A. S. David , M. Eddy , F. Ozawa , D. Goff , W. C. West , S. C. R. Williams , A. J. W. van der Kouwe , D. H. Salat , A. M. Dale & B. Fischl (2003) Regionally localized thinning of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:878–88.
M. Kurita , T. Kuwajima , I. Nishimura & K. Yoshikawa (2006) Necdin downregulates CDC2 expression to attenuate neuronal apoptosis. Journal of Neuroscience 26:12003–13.
N. Kuroki , M. Kubicki , P. G. Nestor , D. F. Salisbury , H. J. Park , J. J. Levitt , S. Woolston , M. Frumin , M. Niznikiewicz , C. F. Westin , S. E. Maier , R. W. McCarley & M. E. Shenton (2006) Fornix integrity and hippocampal volume in male schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 60:22–31.
K. Kuwako , A. Hosokawa , I. Nishimura , T. Uetsuki , M. Yamada , S. Nada , M. Okada & K. Yoshikawa (2005) Disruption of the paternal necdin gene diminishes TrkA signaling for sensory neuron survival. Journal of Neuroscience 25:7090–99.
C. H. Kwon , B. W. Luikart , C. M. Powell , J. Zhou , S. A. Matheny , W. Zhang , Y. Li , S. J. Baker & L. F. Parada (2006) Pten regulates neuronal arborization and social interaction in mice. Neuron 50:377–88.
R. Lajiness-O'Neill , I. Beaulieu , A. Asamoah , J. B. Titus , E. Bawle , S. Ahmad , J. W. Kirk & R. Pollack (2006) The neuropsychological phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS): Relationship to psychopathology. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21:175–84.
R. Landry & S. E. Bryson (2004) Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:1115–22.
A. Lane , M. Byrne , F. Mulvany , A. Kinsella , J. L. Waddington , D. Walsh , C. Larkin & E. O'Callaghan (1995) Reproductive behaviour in schizophrenia relative to other mental disorders: Evidence for increased fertility in men despite decreased marital rate. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91:222–28.
R. Langdon & M. Coltheart (1999) Mentalising, schizotypy, and schizophrenia. Cognition 71:43–71.
R. Langdon & M. Coltheart (2001) Visual perspective-taking and schizotypy: Evidence for a simulation-based account of mentalizing in normal adults. Cognition 82:1–26.
R. Langdon & M. Coltheart (2004) Recognition of metaphor and irony in young adults: The impact of schizotypal personality traits. Psychiatry Research 125:9–20.
R. Langdon , M. Coltheart & P. B. Ward (2006a) Empathetic perspective-taking is impaired in schizophrenia: Evidence from a study of emotion attribution and theory of mind. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 11:133–55.
R. Langdon , T. Corner , J. McLaren , M. Coltheart & P. B. Ward (2006b) Attentional orienting triggered by gaze in schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 44:417–29.
H. J. Larsson , W. W. Eaton , K. M. Madsen , M. Vestergaard , A. V. Olesen , E. Agerbo , D. Schendel , P. Thorsen & P. B. Mortensen (2005) Risk factors for autism: Perinatal factors, parental psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Epidemiology 161:916.
L. LaRusso (1978) Sensitivity of paranoid patients to nonverbal clues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87:463–71.
J. M. LaSalle , A. Hogart & K. N. Thatcher (2005) Rett syndrome: A Rosetta stone for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of autism. International Review of Neurobiology 71:131–65.
P. A. Lawrence (2006) Men, women, and ghosts in science. PLoS Biology 4:e19.
S. M. Lawrie , H. C. Whalley , D. E. Job & E. C. Johnstone (2003) Structural and functional abnormalities of the amygdala in schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 985:445–60.
J. Lawson , S. Baron-Cohen & S. Wheelwright (2004) Empathising and systemising in adults with and without Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:301–10.
S. J. Leask & T. J. Crow (2005) Lateralization of verbal ability in pre-psychotic children. Psychiatry Research 136:35–42.
M. P. Lee (2003) Genome-wide analysis of epigenetics in cancer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 983:101–109.
S. Lee , C. L. Walker , B. Karten , S. L. Kuny , A. A. Tennese , M. A. O'Neill & R. Wevrick (2005) Essential role for the Prader-Willi syndrome protein necdin in axonal outgrowth. Human Molecular Genetics 14:627–37.
L. Legg & P. Gilbert (2006) A pilot study of gender of voice and gender of voice hearer in psychotic voice hearers. Psychology and Psychotherapy 79:517–27.
I. Levav , I. Lipshitz , I. Novikov , I. Pugachova , R. Kohn , M. Barchana , A. Ponizovsky & H. Werner (2007) Cancer risk among parents and siblings of patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 190:156–61.
C. M. Lewis , D. F. Levinson , L. H. Wise , L. E. DeLisi , R. E. Straub , I. Hovatta , N. M. Williams , S. G. Schwab , A. E. Pulver , S. V. Faraone , L. M. Brzustowicz , C. A. Kaufmann , D. L. Garver , H. M. D. Gurling , E. Lindholm , H. Coon , H. W. Moises , W. Byerley , S. H. Shaw , A. Mesen , R. Sherrington , F. A. O'Neill , D. Walsh , K. S. Kendler , J. Ekelund , T. Paunio , J. Lönnqvist , L. Peltonen , M. C. O'Donovan , M. J. Owen , D. B. Wildenauer , W. Maier , G. Nestadt , J. Blouin , S. E. Antonarakis , B. J. Mowry , J. M. Silverman , R. R. Crowe , C. R. Cloninger , M. T. Tsuang , D. Malaspina , J. M. Harkavy-Friedman , D. M. Svrakic , A. S. Bassett , J. Holcomb , G. Kalsi , A. McQuillin , J. Brynjolfson , T. Sigmundsson , H. Petursson , E. Jazin , T. Zoëga & T. Helgason (2003) Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, Part II: Schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 73:34–48.
O. T. Leyfer , S. E. Folstein , S. Bacalman , N. O. Davis , E. Dinh , J. Morgan , H. Tager-Flusberg & J. E. Lainhart (2006) Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:849–61.
R. S. Lindsay , S. Kobes , W. C. Knowler & R. L. Hanson (2002) Genome-wide linkage analysis assessing parent-of-origin effects in the inheritance of birth weight. Human Genetics 110:503–509.
P. M. Lippiello (2006) Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists: A novel approach for the treatment of autism. Medical Hypotheses 66:985–90.
M. V. Lombardo , J. L. Barnes , S. J. Wheelwright & S. Baron-Cohen (2007) Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism. PLoS ONE 2:e883.
M. Losh & L. Capps (2003) Narrative ability in high-functioning children with autism or Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:239–51.
M. Losh & L. Capps (2006) Understanding of emotional experience in autism: Insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism. Developmental Psychology 42:809–18.
A. C. Lossie , M. M. Whitney , D. Amidon , H. J. Dong , P. Chen , D. Theriaque , A. Hutson , R. D. Nicholls , R. T. Zori , C. A. Williams & D. J. Driscoll (2001) Distinct phenotypes distinguish the molecular classes of Angelman syndrome. Journal of Medical Genetics 38:834–45.
E. Luders , D. E. Rex , K. L. Narr , R. P. Woods , L. Jancke , P. M. Thompson , J. C. Mazziotta & A. W. Toga (2003) Relationships between sulcal asymmetries and corpus callosum size: Gender and handedness effects. Cerebral Cortex 13:1084–93.
B. Luna , N. J. Minshew , K. E. Garver , N. A. Lazar , K. R. Thulborn , W. F. Eddy & J. A. Sweeney (2002) Neocortical system abnormalities in autism: An fMRI study of spatial working memory. Neurology 59:834–40.
S. Lutchmaya , S. Baron-Cohen & P. Raggatt (2002a) Foetal testosterone and eye contact in 12-month-old human infants. Infant Behavior and Development 25:327–35.
S. Lutchmaya , S. Baron-Cohen & P. Raggatt (2002b) Foetal testosterone and vocabulary size in 18- and 24-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development 24:418–24.
S. Lutchmaya , S. Baron-Cohen , P. Raggatt , R. Knickmeyer & J. T. Manning (2004) 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Human Development 77:23–28.
G. S. Mahmoud & L. M. Grover (2006) Growth hormone enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in area CA1 of rat hippocampus. Journal of Neurophysiology 95:2962–74.
J. T. Manning , S. Baron-Cohen , S. Wheelwright & G. Sanders (2001) The 2nd to 4th digit ratio and autism. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 43:160–64.
J. T. Manning , P. E. Bundred & B. F. Flanagan (2002) The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: A proxy for transactivation activity of the androgen receptor gene? Medical Hypotheses 59:334–36.
J. T. Manning , A. Stewart , P. E. Bundred & R. L. Trivers (2004) Sex and ethnic differences in 2nd to 4th digit ratio of children. Early Human Development 80:161–68.
C. D. E. Margetts , D. Astuti , D. C. Gentle , W. N. Cooper , A. Cascon , D. Catchpoole , M. Robledo , H. P. H. Neumann , F. Latif & E. R. Maher (2005) Epigenetic analysis of HIC1:CASP8:FLIP,TSP1:DCR1:DCR2: DR4:DR5:KvDMR1:H19 and preferential 11p15.5 maternal-allele loss in von Hippel-Lindau and sporadic phaeochromocytomas. Endocrine-Related Cancer 12:161–72.
N. Maric , L. Krabbendam , W. Vollebergh , R. de Graaf & J. van Os (2003) Sex differences in symptoms of psychosis in a non-selected, general population sample. Schizophrenia Research 63:89–95.
D. Marjoram , D. E. Job , H. C. Whalley , V. Gountouna , A. M. McIntosh , E. Simonotto , D. Cunningham-Owens , E. C. Johnstone & S. Lawrie (2006) A visual joke fMRI investigation into theory of mind and enhanced risk of schizophrenia. NeuroImage 31:1850–58.
I. Mata , P. C. Sham , C. M. Gilvarry , P. B. Jones , S. W. Lewis & R. M. Murray (2000) Childhood schizotypy and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients predict schizotypy in relatives. Schizophrenia Research 44:129–36.
M. Mazza , A. De Risio , L. Surian , R. Roncone & M. Casacchia (2001) Selective impairments of theory of mind in people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 47:299–308.
G. M. McAlonan , V. Cheung , C. Cheung , J. Suckling , G. Y. Lam , K. S. Tai , L. Yip , D. G. M. Murphy & S. E. Chua (2005) Mapping the brain in autism. A voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism. Brain 128:268–76.
G. M. McAlonan , E. Daly , V. Kumari , H. D. Critchley , T. van Amelsvoort , J Suckling , A Simmons , T. Sigmundsson , K. Greenwood , A. Russell , N Schmitz , F. Happé , P. Howlin & D. G. M. Murphy (2002) Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome. Brain 125:1594–606.
P. McCaffery & C. K. Deutsch (2005) Macrocephaly and the control of brain growth in autistic disorders. Progress in Neurobiology 77:38–56.
T. McCall , S. S. Chin , K. L. Salzman & D. W. Fults (2006) Tuberous sclerosis: A syndrome of incomplete tumor suppression. Neurosurgical Focus 20:E3.
E. B. McClure , C. S. Monk , E. E. Nelson , E. Zarahn , E. Leibenluft , R. M. Bilder , D. S. Charney , M. Ernst & D. S. Pine (2004) A developmental examination of gender differences in brain engagement during evaluation of threat. Biological Psychiatry 55:1047–55.
C. McCreery & G. Claridge (1996) A study of hallucination in normal subjects. 1. Self-report. Personality and Individual Differences 21:739–47.
C. McDonald , E. T. Bullmore , P. C. Sham , X. Chitnis , H. Wickham , E. Bramon & R. M. Murray (2004) Association of genetic risks for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with specific and generic brain structural endophenotypes. Archives of General Psychiatry 61:974–84.
C. McDonald , E. T. Bullmore , P. C. Sham , X. Chitnis , J. Suckling , J. MacCabe , M. Walshe & R. M. Murray (2005) Regional volume deviations of brain structure in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder: Computational morphometry study. British Journal of Psychiatry 186:369–77.
J. J. McGrath , J. Hearle , L. Jenner , K. Plant , A. Drummond & J. M. Barkla (1999) The fertility and fecundity of patients with psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 99:441–46.
R. McKay , R. Langdon & M. Coltheart (2005) Paranoia, persecutory delusions and attributional biases. Psychiatry Research 136:233–45.
J. McMinn , M. Wei , N. Schupf , J. Cusmai , E. B. Johnson , A. C. Smith , R. Weksberg , H. M. Thaker & B. Tycko (2006) Unbalanced placental expression of imprinted genes in human intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta 27:540–49.
A. Mendrek (2007) Reversal of normal cerebral sexual dimorphism in schizophrenia: Evidence and speculations. Medical Hypotheses 69:896–902.
J. L. Mills , M. L. Hediger , C. A. Molloy , G. P. Chrousos , P. Manning-Courtney , K. F. Yu , M. Brasington & L. J. England (2007) Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder. Clinical Endocrinology 67:230–37.
E. Milne , S. White , R. Campbell , J. Swettenham , P. Hansen & F. Ramus (2006) Motion and form coherence detection in autistic spectrum disorder: Relationship to motor control and 2:4 digit ratio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:225–37.
R. L. C. Mitchell & T. J. Crow (2005) Right hemisphere language functions and schizophrenia: The forgotten hemisphere? Brain 128:963–78.
K. Miyazaki , N. Narita , R. Sakuta , T. Miyahara , H. Naruse , N. Okado & M. Narita (2004) Serum neurotrophin concentrations in autism and mental retardation: A pilot study. Brain and Development 26:292–95.
C. Mohr , P. Krummenacher , T. Landis , P. S. Sandor , M. Fathi & P. Brugger (2005) Psychometric schizotypy modulates levodopa effects on lateralized lexical decision performance. Journal of Psychiatric Research 39:241–50.
C. Mohr , C. M. Röhrenbach , M. Laska & P. Brugger (2001) Unilateral olfactory perception and magical ideation. Schizophrenia Research 47:255–64.
H. W. Moises , T. Zoega & I. I. Gottesman (2002) The glial growth factors deficiency and synaptic destabilization hypothesis of schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 2:8.
D. Monk & G. E. Moore (2004) Intrauterine growth restriction – Genetic causes and consequences. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 9:371–78.
C. Montag , A. Heinz , D. Kunz & J. Gallinat (2007) Self-reported empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 92:85–89.
P. J. Moriarty , D. Lieber , A. Bennett , L. White , M. Parrella , P. D. Harvey & K. L. Davis (2001) Gender differences in poor outcome patients with lifelong schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 27:103–13.
L. Mottron , M. Dawson , I. Soulières , B. Hubert , J. A. Burack (2006) Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:27–43.
S. E. Mouridsen , B. Rich & T. Isager (2008) Psychiatric disorders in adults diagnosed as children with atypical autism. A case control study. Journal of Neural Transmission 115(1):135–38.
K. D. Mraz , J. Green , T. Dumont-Mathieu , S. Makin & D. Fein (2007) Correlates of head circumference growth in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Neurology 22:700–13.
A. Mucci , S. Galderisi , P. Bucci , E. Tresca , A. Forte , T. Koenig & M. Maj (2005) Hemispheric lateralization patterns and psychotic experiences in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research 139:141–54.
D. Murray , M. Lesser & W. Lawson (2005) Attention, monotropism and the diagnostic criteria for autism. Autism 9:139–56.
M. Nakamura , E. Matsushima , K. Ohta , K. Ando & T. Kojima (2003) Relationship between attention and arousal level in schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 57:472–77.
K. L. Narr , R. M. Bilder , A. W. Toga , R. P. Woods , D. E. Rex , P. R. Szeszko , D. Robinson , S. Sevy , H. Gunduz-Bruce , Y. P. Wang , H. DeLuca & P. M. Thompson (2005) Mapping cortical thickness and gray matter concentration in first episode schizophrenia. Cerebral Cortex 15:708–19.
K. L. Narr , P. M. Thompson , P. Szeszko , D. Robinson , S. Jang , R. P. Woods , S. Kim , K. M. Hayashi , D. Asunction , A. W. Toga & R. M. Bilder (2004) Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia. NeuroImage 21:1563–75.
K. L. Narr , T. G. van Erp , T. D. Cannon , R. P. Woods , P. M. Thompson , S. Jang , R. Blanton , V. P. Poutanen , M. Huttunen , J. Lönnqvist , C. G. Standerksjold-Nordenstam , J. Kaprio , J. C. Mazziotta & A. W. Toga (2002) A twin study of genetic contributions to hippocampal morphology in schizophrenia. Neurobiology of Disease 11:83–95.
K. B. Nelson (2001) Toward a biology of autism: Possible role of certain neuropeptides and neurotrophins. Clinical Neuroscience Research 1:300–306.
R. M. Nesse (2005) Maladaptation and natural selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 80:62–70.
D. Nettle (2006) Schizotypy and mental health amongst poets, visual artists, and mathematicians. Journal of Research in Personality 40:876–90.
D. Nettle (2007) Empathizing and systemizing: What are they, and what do they contribute to our understanding of psychological sex differences? British Journal of Psychology, Part 2 98:237–55.
D. Nettle & H. Clegg (2006) Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 273:611–15.
A. B. Niculescu (2005) Genomic studies of mood disorders – The brain as a muscle? Genome Biology 6:215.
C. L. Niebauer (2004) Handedness and the fringe of consciousness: Strong handers ruminate while mixed handers self-reflect. Consciousness and Cognition 13:730–45.
L. T. Niemi , J. M. Suvisaari , J. K. Haukka & J. K. Lönnqvist (2005) Childhood growth and future development of psychotic disorder among Helsinki high-risk children. Schizophrenia Research 76:105–39.
K. Nishimura , K. Nakamura , A. Anitha , K. Yamada , M. Tsujii , Y. Iwayama , E. Hattori , T. Toyota , N. Takei , T. Miyachi , Y. Iwata , K. Suzuki , H. Matsuzaki , M. Kawai , Y. Sekine , K. Tsuchiya , G. Sugihara , S. Suda , Y. Ouchi , T. Sugiyama , T. Yoshikawa & N. Mori (2007a) Genetic analyses of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in autism. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 356:200–206.
T. Noesselt , J. Driver , H. J. Heinze & R. Dolan (2005) Asymmetrical activation in the human brain during processing of fearful faces. Current Biology 15:424–29.
E. L. Nurmi , Y. Bradford , Y. Chen , J. Hall , B. Arnone , M. B. Gardiner , H. B. Hutcheson , J. R. Gilbert , M. A. Pericak-Vance , S. A. Copeland-Yates , R. C. Michaelis , T. H. Wassink , S. L. Santangelo , V. C. Sheffield , J. Piven , S. E. Folstein , J. L. Haines & J. S. Sutcliffe (2001) Linkage disequilibrium at the Angelman syndrome gene UBE3A in autism families. Genomics 77:105–13.
A. Nydén , M. Carlsson , A. Carlsson & C. Gillberg (2004) Interhemispheric transfer in high-functioning children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: A controlled pilot study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 46:448–54.
L. Nylander & C. Gillberg (2001) Screening for autism spectrum disorders in adult psychiatric out-patients: A preliminary report. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 103:428–34.
A. G. O'Shea , D. A. Fein , A. H. Cillessen , A. Klin & R. T. Schultz (2005) Source memory in children with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology 27:337–60.
T. Ohnishi , H. Matsuda , T. Hashimoto , T. Kunihiro , M. Nishikawa , T. Uema & M. Sasaki (2000) Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism. Brain 123:1838–44.
C. B. M. Oudejans , J. Mulders , A. M. A. Lachmeijer , M. van Dijk , A. A. M. Könst , B. A. Westerman , I. J. van Wijk , P. A. J. Leegwater , H. D. Kato , T. Matsuda , N. Wake , G. A. Dekker , G. Pals , L. P. ten Kate & M. A. Blankenstein (2004) The parent-of-origin effect of 10q22 in pre-eclamptic females coincides with two regions clustered for genes with down-regulated expression in androgenetic placentas. Molecular Human Reproduction 10:589–98.
A. Palomino , A. Vallejo-Illarramendi , A. González-Pinto , A. Aldama , C. González-Gómez , F. Mosquera , G. González-García & C. Matute (2006) Decreased levels of plasma BDNF in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Schizophrenia Research 86:321–22.
S. Paradiso , N. C. Andreasen , B. Crespo-Facorro , D. S. O'Leary , G. L. Watkins , L. L. Boles Ponto & R. D. Hichwa (2003) Emotions in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia during evaluation with positron emission tomography. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:1775–83.
S. Park , M. F. Lenzenweger , J. Püschel & P. S. Holzman (1996) Attentional inhibition in schizophrenia and schizotypy, a spatial negative priming study. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 1:125–49.
H. E. Penn (2006) Neurobiological correlates of autism: A review of recent research. Child Neuropsychology 12:57–79.
S. U. Peters , A. L. Beaudet , N. Madduri & C. A. Bacino (2004) Autism in Angelman syndrome: Implications for autism research. Clinical Genetics 66(6):530–36.
A. Philippi , E. Roschmann , F. Tores , P. Lindenbaum , A. Benajou , L. Germain-Leclerc , C. Marcaillou , K. Fontaine , M. Vanpeene , S. Roy , S. Maillard , V. Decaulne , J. P. Saraiva , P. Brooks , F. Rousseau & J. Hager (2005) Haplotypes in the gene encoding protein kinase c-beta (PRKCB1) on chromosome 16 are associated with autism. Molecular Psychiatry 10:950–60.
M. L. Phillips , C. Senior & A. S. David (2000) Perception of threat in schizophrenics with persecutory delusions: An investigation using visual scan paths. Psychological Medicine 30:157–67.
M. L. Phillips , L. Williams , C. Senior , E. T. Bullmore , M. J. Brammer , C. Andrew , S. C. Williams & A. S. David (1999) A differential neural response to threatening and non-threatening negative facial expressions in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenics. Psychiatry Research 92:11–31.
M. Piccinelli & G. Wilkinson (2000) Gender differences in depression. Critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry 177:486–92.
G. J. Pickup (2006) Theory of mind and its relation to schizotypy. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 11(2):177–92.
M. Piefke & G. R. Fink (2005) Recollections of one's own past: The effects of aging and gender on the neural mechanisms of episodic autobiographical memory. Anatomy and Embryology 210:497–512.
A. A. Pieper , X. Wu , T. W. Han , S. J. Estill , Q. Dang , L. C. Wu , S. Reece-Fincanon , C. A. Dudley , J. A. Richardson , D. J. Brat & S. L. McKnight (2005) The neuronal PAS domain protein 3 transcription factor controls FGF-mediated adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:14052–57.
T. Pilowsky , N. Yirmiya , S. Arbelle & T. Mozes (2000) Theory of mind abilities of children with schizophrenia, children with autism, and normally developing children. Schizophrenia Research 42:145–55.
A. E. Pinkham , D. L. Penn , D. O. Perkins & J. Lieberman (2003) Implications for the neural basis of social cognition for the study of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:815–24.
D. Pizzagalli , D. Lehmann & P. Brugger (2001) Lateralized direct and indirect semantic priming effects in subjects with paranormal experiences and beliefs. Psychopathology 34:75–80.
D. Pizzagalli , D. Lehmann , L. Gianotti , T. Koenig , H. Tanaka , J. Wackermann & P. Brugger (2000) Brain electric correlates of strong belief in paranormal phenomena: Intracerebral EEG source and regional Omega complexity analyses. Psychiatry Research 100:139–54.
A. Plagge , E. Gordon , W. Dean , R. Boiani , S. Cinti , J. Peters & G. Kelsey (2004) The imprinted signaling protein XL alpha s is required for postnatal adaptation to feeding. Nature Genetics 36:818–26.
J. B. Potash (2006) Carving chaos: Genetics and the classification of mood and psychotic syndromes. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 14:47–63.
A. Preti , C. Sardu & A. Piga (2007) Mixed-handedness is associated with the reporting of psychotic-like beliefs in a non-clinical Italian sample. Schizophrenia Research 92:15–23.
F. H. Previc (2007) Prenatal influences on brain dopamine and their relevance to the rising incidence of autism. Medical Hypotheses 68:46–60.
L. Pring (2005) Savant talent. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 47:500–503.
J. Quintana , T. Davidson , E. Kovalik , S. R. Marder & J. C. Mazziotta (2001) A compensatory mirror cortical mechanism for facial affect processing in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:915–24.
J. L. Rapoport , A. M. Addington , S. Frangou & M. R. Psych (2005) The neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: Update 2005. Molecular Psychiatry 10:434–49.
E. Redcay & E. Courchesne (2005) When is the brain enlarged in autism? A meta-analysis of all brain size reports. Biological Psychiatry 58:1–9.
S. Rees & T. Inder (2005) Fetal and neonatal origins of altered brain development. Early Human Development 81:753–61.
W. Reik , M. Constancia , A. Fowden , N. Anderson , W. Dean , A. Ferguson-Smith , B. Tycko & C. Sibley (2003) Regulation of supply and demand for maternal nutrients in mammals by imprinted genes. Journal of Physiology 547:35–44.
A. J. Richardson (1994) Dyslexia, handedness and syndromes of psychosis-proneness. International Journal of Psychophysiology 18:251–63.
I. J. Rickard , A. F. Russell & V. Lummaa (2007) Producing sons reduces lifetime reproductive success of subsequent offspring in pre-industrial Finns. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 274:2981–88.
H. Riedel (2004) GRB10 exceeding the boundaries of a common signaling adapter. Frontiers in Bioscience 9:603–18.
J. K. Rilling & T. R. Insel (1999) Differential expansion of neural projection systems in primate brain evolution. Neuroreport 10:1453–59.
Y. Rim (1994) Impulsivity, venturesomeness, empathy and schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences 17:853–54.
J. Rimmer & B. Jacobsen (1976) Differential fertility of adopted schizophrenics and their half-siblings. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 54:161–66.
T. Rinaldi , G. Silberberg & H. Markram (2008) Hyperconnectivity of local neocortical microcircuitry induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid. Cerebral Cortex 18:763–70.
N. J. Rinehart , J. L. Bradshaw , A. V. Brereton & B. J. Tonge (2002a) A clinical and neurobehavioural review of high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 36:762–70.
N. J. Rinehart , J. L. Bradshaw , A. V. Brereton & B. J. Tonge (2002b) Lateralization in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder: A frontostriatal model. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32:321–31.
N. Ripoll , M. Bronnec & M. Bourin (2004) Nicotinic receptors and schizophrenia. Current Medical Research and Opinion 20:1057–74.
J. Ristic , L. Mottron , C. K. Friesen , G. Iarocci , J. A. Burack & A. Kingstone (2005) Eyes are special but not for everyone: The case of autism. Cognitive Brain Research 24:715–18.
S. J. Rogers , S. Hepburn & E. Wehner (2003) Parent reports of sensory symptoms in toddlers with autism and those with other developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:631–42.
A. Ronald , F. Happé , P. Bolton , L. M. Butcher , T. S. Price , S. Wheelwright , S. Baron-Cohen & R. Plomin (2006) Genetic heterogeneity between the three components of the autism spectrum: A twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45(6):691–99.
E. Roof , W. Stone , W. MacLean , I. D. Feurer , T. Thompson & M. G. Butler (2000) Intellectual characteristics of Prader-Willi syndrome: Comparison of genetic subtypes. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 44:25–30.
C. A. Ross , R. L. Margolis , S. A. J. Reading , M. Pletnikov & J. T. Coyle (2006a) Neurobiology of schizophrenia. Neuron 52:139–53.
R. G. Ross , S. Heinlein & H. Tregellas (2006b) High rates of comorbidity are found in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 88:90–95.
J. L. Rubenstein & M. M. Merzenich (2003) Model of autism: Increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes, Brain, and Behavior 2:255–67.
T. A. Russell , E. Reynaud , C. Herba , R. Morris & R. Corcoran (2006) Do you see what I see? Interpretations of intentional movement in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 81:101–11.
R. Sacco , R. Militerni , A. Frolli , C. Bravaccio , A. Gritti , M. Elia , P. Curatolo , B. Manzi , S. Trillo , C. Lenti , M. Saccani , C. Schneider , R. Melmed , K. L. Reichelt , T. Pascucci , S. Puglisi-Allegra & A. M. Persico (2007) Clinical, morphological, and biochemical correlates of head circumference in autism. Biological Psychiatry 62:1038–47.
A. T. Sack , G. van de Ven Vincent , S. Etschenberg , D. Schatz & D. E. J. Linden (2005) Enhanced vividness of mental imagery as a trait marker of schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin 31:97–104.
T. Sahoo , S. U. Peters , N. S. Madduri , D. G. Glaze , J. R. German , L. M. Bird , R. Barbieri-Welge , T. J. Bichell , A. L. Beaudet & C. A. Bacino (2006) Microarray based comparative genomic hybridization testing in deletion bearing patients with Angelman syndrome: Genotype-phenotype correlations. Journal of Medical Genetics 43:512–16.
J. Salazar-Fraile , R. Tabarés-Seisdedos , G. Selva-Vera , V. Balanzá-Martinez , A. Martínez-Aran , J. Catalán , T. Baldeweg , C. Vilela-Soler , C. Leal-Cercós , E. Vieta & M. Gomez-Beneyto (2004) Recall and recognition confabulation in psychotic and bipolar disorders: Evidence for two different types without unitary mechanisms. Comprehensive Psychiatry 45:281–82.
J. E. Salem & A. M. Kring (1998) The role of gender differences in the reduction of etiologic heterogeneity in schizophrenia. Clinical Psychology Review 18:795–819.
R. C. Samaco , A. Hogart & J. M. LaSalle (2005) Epigenetic overlap in autism-spectrum neurodevelopmental disorders: MECP2 deficiency causes reduced expression of UBE3A and GABRB3. Human Molecular Genetics 14:483–92.
R. C. Samaco , R. P. Nagarajan , D. Braunschweig & J. M. LaSalle (2004) Multiple pathways regulate MeCP2 expression in normal brain development and exhibit defects in autism-spectrum disorders. Human Molecular Genetics 13:629–39.
D. Sander , J. Grafman & T. Zalla (2003) The human amygdala: An evolved system for relevance detection. Reviews in the Neurosciences 14:306–16.
L. A. Sass & J. Parnas (2003) Schizophrenia, consciousness, and the self. Schizophrenia Bulletin 29:427–44.
L. F. Saugstad (1998) Cerebral lateralization and rate of maturation. International Journal of Psychophysiology 28:37–62.
L. F. Saugstad (1999) A lack of cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia is within the normal variation in brain maturation but indicates late, slow maturation. Schizophrenia Research 39:183–96.
A. Saxena , D. Frank , P. Panichkul , I. B. Van den Veyver , B. Tycko & H. Thaker (2003) The product of the imprinted gene IPL marks human villous cytotrophoblast and is lost in complete hydatidiform mole. Placenta 24:835–42.
N. C. Schanen (2006) Epigenetics of autism spectrum disorders. Human Molecular Genetics 15(S2):r138–r150.
J. Schiffman , S. Pestle , S. Mednick , M. Ekstrom , H. Sorensen & S. Mednick (2005) Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A prospective investigation. Schizophrenia Research 72:151–60.
F. Schneider , U. Weiss , C. Kessler , J. B. Salloum , S. Posse , W. Grodd & H. W. Müller-Gärtner (1998) Differential amygdala activation in schizophrenia during sadness. Schizophrenia Research 34:133–42.
U. Schneider , M. Borsutzky , J. Seifert , F. M. Leweke , T. J. Huber , J. D. Rollnik & H. M. Emrich (2002) Reduced binocular depth inversion in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Research 53:101–108.
P. T. Schoenemann (2006) Evolution of the size and functional areas of the human brain. Annual Review of Anthropology 35:379–406.
P. T. Schoenemann , M. J. Sheehan & L. D. Glotzer (2005) Prefrontal white matter volume is disproportionately larger in humans than in other primates. Nature Neuroscience 8:242–52.
R. J. Schroer , M. C. Phelan , R. C. Michaelis , E. C. Crawford , S. A. Skinner , M. Cuccaro , R. J. Simensen , J. Bishop , C. Skinner , D. Fender & R. E. Stevenson (1998) Autism and maternally derived aberrations of chromosome 15q. American Journal of Medical Genetics 76:327–36.
C. M. Schumann , J. Hamstra , B. L. Goodlin-Jones , L. J. Lotspeich , H. Kwon , M. H. Buonocore , C. R. Lammers , A. L. Reiss & D. G. Amaral (2004) The amygdala is enlarged in children but not adolescents with autism; the hippocampus is enlarged at all ages. Journal of Neuroscience 24:6392–401.
F. Schürhoff , A. Laguerre , A. Szöke , A. Méary & M. Leboyer (2005) Schizotypal dimensions: Continuity between schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Schizophrenia Research 80:235–42.
C. E. Schwartz , C. I. Wright , L. M. Shin , J. Kagan & S. L. Rauch (2003a) Inhibited and uninhibited infants “grown up”: Adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science 300:1952–53.
C. E. Schwartz , C. I. Wright , L. M. Shin , J. Kagan , P. J. Whalen , K. G. McMullin & S. L. Rauch (2003b) Differential amygdalar response to novel versus newly familiar neutral faces: A functional MRI probe developed for studying inhibited temperament. Biological Psychiatry 53:854–62.
M. L. Seal , A. Aleman & P. K. McGuire (2004) Compelling imagery, unanticipated speech and deceptive memory: Neurocognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 9:43–72.
P. Seeman , D. Weinshenker , R. Quirion , L. K. Srivastava , S. K. Bhardwaj , D. K. Grandy , R. T. Premont , T. D. Sotnikova , P. Boksa , M. El-Ghundi , B. F. O'Dowd , S. R. George , M. L. Perreault , P. T. Männistö , S. Robinson , R. D. Palmiter & T. Tallerico (2005) Dopamine supersensitivity correlates with D2High states, implying many paths to psychosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:3513–18.
L. J. Seidman , H. W. Thermenos , R. A. Poldrack , N. K. Peace , J. K. Koch , S. V. Faraone & M. T. Tsuang (2006) Altered brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in adolescents and young adults at genetic risk for schizophrenia: An fMRI study of working memory. Schizophrenia Research 85:58–72.
F. J. Serajee , R. Nabi , H. Zhong & A. H. M. Mahbubul Huq (2003) Association of INPP1:PIK3CG, and TSC2 gene variants with autistic disorder: Implications for phosphatidylinositol signalling in autism. Journal of Medical Genetics 40:e119.
S. G. Shamay-Tsoory , S. Shur , L. Barcai-Goodman , S. Medlovich , H. Harari & Y. Levkovitz (2007) Dissociation of cognitive from affective components of theory of mind in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 149:11–23.
R. P. Sharma , S. M. Dowd & P. G. Janicak (1999) Hallucinations in the acute schizophrenic-type psychosis: Effects of gender and age of illness onset. Schizophrenia Research 37:91–95.
J. Shaw , G. Claridge & K. Clark (2001) Schizotypy and the shift from dextrality: A study of handedness in a large non-clinical sample. Schizophrenia Research 50:181–89.
P. Shaw , E. J. Lawrence , C. Radbourne , J. Bramham , C. E. Polkey & A. S. David (2004) The impact of early and late damage to the human amygdala on “theory of mind” reasoning. Brain 127:1535–48.
B. A. Shaywitz , S. E. Shaywitz , K. R. Pugh , R. T. Constable , P. Skudlarski , R. K. Fulbright , R. A. Bronen , J. M. Fletcher , D. P. Shankweiler & L. Katz (1995) Sex differences in the functional organization of the brain for language. Nature 373:607–609.
B. B. Sheitman , J. E. Kraus , J. W. Bodfish & H. Carmel (2004) Are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia consistent with an autistic spectrum illness? Schizophrenia Research 69:119–20.
E. H. Sherr , R. Owen , D. G. Albertson , D. Pinkel , P. D. Cotter , A. M. Slavotinek , S. W. Hetts , R. J. Jeremy , G. Schilmoeller , K. Schilmoeller , M. Wakahiro & A. J. Barkovich (2005) Genomic microarray analysis identifies candidate loci in patients with corpus callosum anomalies. Neurology 65:1496–98.
O. Shirakawa , N. Kitamura , X. H. Lin , T. Hashimoto & K. Maeda (2001) Abnormal neurochemical asymmetry in the temporal lobe of schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 25:867–77.
P. J. Siekmeier & R. E. Hoffman (2002) Enhanced semantic priming in schizophrenia: A computer model based on excessive pruning of local connections in association cortex. British Journal of Psychiatry 180:345–50.
N. E. Silberberg & M. C. Silberberg (1971) Hyperlexia – The other end of the spectrum. Journal of Special Education 5:233–42.
T. J. Silk , N. Rinehart , J. L. Bradshaw , B. Tonge , G. Egan , M. W. O'Boyle & R. Cunnington (2006) Visuospatial processing and the function of prefrontal-parietal networks in autism spectrum disorders: A functional MRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry 163:1440–43.
T. J. Simon , C. E. Bearden , E. M. Moss , E. Z. McDonald-McGinn & P. P. Wang (2002) Cognitive development in VCFS. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 15:109–17.
J. L. Simpson , F. de la Cruz , R. S. Swerdloff , C. Samango-Sprouse , N. E. Skakkebaek , J. M. Graham Jr., T. Hassold , M. Aylstock , H. F. Meyer-Bahlburg , H. F. Willard , J. G. Hall , W. Salameh , K. Boone , C. Staessen , D. Geschwind , J. Giedd , A. S. Dobs , A. Rogol , B. Brinton & C. A. Paulsen (2003) Klinefelter syndrome: Expanding the phenotype and identifying new research directions. Genetics in Medicine 5:460–68.
M. K. Singh , L. L. Giles & H. A. Nasrallah (2006) Pain insensitivity in schizophrenia: Trait or state marker? Journal of Psychiatric Practice 12:90–