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    Stanlaw, James 2010. Language, contact, and vantages: fifteen hundred years of Japanese color terms. Language Sciences, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 196.

    ATHANASOPOULOS, PANOS 2009. Cognitive representation of colour in bilinguals: The case of Greek blues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Vol. 12, Issue. 01, p. 83.

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul and Rzhetsky, Andrey 2008. Six senses in the literature. The bleak sensory landscape of biomedical texts. EMBO reports, Vol. 9, Issue. 3, p. 212.

    Wierzbicka, Anna 2008. Why there are no ‘colour universals’ in language and thought. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 14, Issue. 2, p. 407.

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    Jameson, Kimberly A. and Alvarado, Nancy 2003. Differences in color naming and color salience in Vietnamese and English. Color Research & Application, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 113.

    Saunders, B.A.C. and Brakel, J. van 2002. The Trajectory of Color. Perspectives on Science, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 302.

    Kay, Paul 2000. In Defense of Color Categories in Thought and Language (Hardin and Maffi, eds.): A Response to B. A. C. Saunders's Review. American Anthropologist, Vol. 102, Issue. 2, p. 321.

    Levinson, Stephen C. 2000. Yeli Dnye and the Theory of Basic Color Terms. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 3.

    Kay, Paul and Maffi, Luisa 1999. Color Appearance and the Emergence and Evolution of Basic Color Lexicons. American Anthropologist, Vol. 101, Issue. 4, p. 743.

    Moore, Carmella C. Romney, A. Kimball Hsia, Ti-Lien and Rusch, Craig D. 1999. The Universality of the Semantic Structure of Emotion Terms: Methods for the Study of Inter- and Intra-Cultural Variability. American Anthropologist, Vol. 101, Issue. 3, p. 529.

    Saunders, Barbara A. C. 1999. Color Categories in Thought and Language:Color Categories in Thought and Language.. American Anthropologist, Vol. 101, Issue. 3, p. 657.


Science ≠ imperialism: There are nontrivial constraints on color naming

  • Paul Kay (a1) and Brent Berlin (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 1997

Saunders & van Brakel's claim that Berlin and Kay (1969) assumed a language/vision correlation in the area of color categorization and disguised this assumption as a finding is shown to be false. The methodology of the World Color Survey, now nearing completion, is discussed and the possibility of an additional language/vision correlation in color categorization is suggested.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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