Abramson, J. & Franklin, B. (1986) Where they are now. The story of the women of Harvard Law 1974. Doubleday.
Adelson, J. (1985) What we don't know about sex differences. New Perspectives (Spring): 9–13.
Aiken, L. R. Jr, (1972) Research on attitudes toward mathematics. Arithmetic Teacher 19:229–234.
Aiken, L. R. Jr, & Dreger, R. M. (1961) The effect of attitudes on performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology 52:19–24.
Anastasi, A. (1982) Psychological testing. Macmillan.
Anastasi, A. (1985) Reciprocal relations between cognitive and affective development with implications for sex differences. In: Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1984: Psychology and gender, ed. Sonderegger, T. B., University of Nebraska Press.
Anderson, D. K., Rhees, R. W. & Fleming, D. E. (1985) Effects of stress on differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of the rat brain. Brain Research 332:113–118.
Angoff, W., ed. (1971) The College Board Admissions Testing Program. Princeton, N.J.: College Entrance Examination Board.
Annett, M. & Kilshaw, D. (1982) Mathematical ability and lateral asymmetry. Cortex 18:547–568.
Arbeiter, S. (1985) Profiles, college-bound seniors, 1984. Princeton, N.J.: College Entrance Examination Board.
Arjmand, O., Benbow, C.P. & Lorenz, F. (in preparation) Attitude and parental encouragement patterns among intellectually talened males and females.
Armstrong, J. M. (1981) Achievement and participation of women in mathematics: Results of two national surveys. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 12:356–372.
Armstrong, J. M. (1985) A national assessment of particiapation and achievement of women in mathematics. In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M.. Erlbaum.
Arnold, A. P. & Gorski, R. A. (1984) Gonadal steroid induction of structural sex differences in the central nervous system. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience 7:413–442.
Ashton, G. C. (1983) Myopia and cognitive ability. Behavior Genetics 13:526.
Ashton, G. C. (1986) Blood polymorphisms and cognitive abilities. Behavior Genetics 16:517–529.
Backman, M. E. (1972) Patterns of mental abilities: Ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences. American Educational Research Journal 9:1–12.
Barlow, F. (1969) Mental prodigies. Greenwod.
Bartsocas, C. S. & Kastrantas, A. D. (1981) X-linked form of myopia. Human Hereditas 31:199–200.
Basu, S. K. & Jindal, A. (1983) Genetic aspects of myopia among the Shia Muslim Dawoodi Bohras of Udaipur, Rajsthan. Human Hereditas 33:163–169.
Battle, E. S. (1966) Motivational determinants of academic competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4:634–642.
Beatty, W. W. (1979) Gonadal hormones and sex differences in nonreproductive behaviors in rodents: Organizational and activational influences. Hormones and Behavior 12:112–163.
Becker, B. J. (1978) The relationship of spatial ability to sex differences in the performance of mathematically precocious youths on the mathematical sections of the Scholastic Aptitude Test. Master's thesis. The Johns Hopkins University.
Becker, B. J. & Hedges, L. V. (1984) Meta-analysis of cognitive gender differences: A comment on an analysis by Rosenthal and Rubin. Journal of Educational Psychology 76:587–587.
Bell, A. D. & Variend, S. (1985) Failure to demonstrate sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum in childhood. Journal of Anatomy 143:143–147.
Bern, S. L. (1974) The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 42:155–162.
Benbow, C. P. (1978) Sex-related differences in spatial ability. Master's thesis, The Johns Hopkins University.
Benbow, C. P. (1981) Development of superior mathematical ability during adolescence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University.
Benbow, C. P. (1983) Adolescence of the mathematically precocious: A five-year longitudinal study. In: Academic precocity: Aspects of its development, ed. Benbow, C. P. & Stanley, J. C.. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Benbow, C. P. (1986a) Home environments and toy preferences of extremely precocious students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Benbow, C. P. (1986b) Physiological correlates of extreme intellectual precocity. Neuropsychologia 24:719–725.
Benbow, C. P. (1986c) Book review of Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M.. In: Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography 60:61.
Benbow, C. P. (1987a) Factors associated with high achievement in mathematics and science among mathematically talented students: A longitudinal study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D. C.
Benbow, C. P. (1987b) Possible biological correlates of precocious mathematical reasoning ability. Trends in Neuroscience 10:17–20.
Benbow, C. P. (1988) Neuropsychological perspectives on mathematical talent. In: The exceptional brain: Neuropsychology of talent and special abilities, ed. Obler, L. K. & Fein, D.. Guilford Press.
Benbow, C. P. (in preparation) Factors associated with high achievement in mathematics and science among mathematically talented students: A longitudinal study.
Benbow, C. P. & Benbow, R. M. (1984) Biological correlates of high mathematical reasoning ability. In: Sex differences in the brain – The relation between structure and function. Progress in Brain Research, vol. 61, ed. DeVries, G. J., DeBruin, J. P. C., Uylings, H. B. M. & Corner, M. A.. Elsevier Press.
Benbow, C. P. (1987) Extreme mathematical talent: A hormonally induced ability? In: Duality and unity of the brain (Vol. 47 of Wenner-Gren Center international symposium series), ed. Ottoson, D.. Macmillan.
Benbow, C. P., Hoff, E. & O'Boyle, M. (in preparation) Difference in brain organization between extremely intellectually talented students and average-ability students.
Benbow, C. P. & Minor, L. L. (1986) Mathematically talented students and achievement in the high school sciences. American Educational Research Journal 23:425–436.
Benbow, C. P. & Stanley, J. C. (1980) Sex differences in mathematical ability: Fact or artifact? Science 210:1262–1264.
Benbow, C. P. (1981) Mathematical ability: Is sex a factor? (Letter) Science 212:118–119.
Benbow, C. P. (1982a) Consequences in high school and college of sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability: A longitudinal perspective. American Educational Research Journal 19:598–622.
Donlon, T. F. (1982b) Intellectually talented boys and girls: Educational profiles. Gifted Child Quarterly 26:82–88.
Donlon, T. F. (1983a) Differential course taking hypothesis revisited. (A commentary) American Educational Research Journal 20:469–73.
Donlon, T. F. (1983b) Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability: More facts. Science 222:1029–1031.
Donlon, T. F. (1984) Gender and the science major. In: Advances in motivation and achivement, vol. 2, ed. Steinkamp, M. W. & Maehr, M. L.. JAI Press.
Benbow, C. P., Stanley, J. C., Zonderman, A. B. & Kirk, M. K. (1983) Structure of intelligence of intellectually precocious children and of their parents. Intelligence 7:129–152.
Berrebi, A. S., Fitch, R. H., Ralphe, D. L., Denenberg, J. O., Friedrich, V. L. Jr, & Denenberg, V. H. (1988) Corpus callosum: Region-specific effects of sex, early experience, and age. Brain Research 438:216–224
Besag, F. D. (1987) Gender, race, and ethnicity and math avoidance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C.
Bieri, J., Bradburn, W. & Gallinsky, M. (1958) Sex differences in perceptive behavior. Journal of Personality 26:1–12.
Block, N. J. & Dworkin, G. (1974) IQ: Heritability and inequality, Part 1. Philosophy and Public Affairs 3:331–408.
Bloom, B. S., ed. (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook I: The cognitive domain. David McKay.
Boli, J., Allen, M. L. & Payne, A. (1985) High-ability women and men in undergraduate mathematics and chemistry courses. American Educational Research Journal 22:605–626.
Boller, F. & Grafman, J. (1985) Acalculia. In: Handbook of clinical neurology. Vol. 45: Clinical neuropsychology, ed. Vinken, P. J., Bruyn, G. W. & Klawans, H. L.. Elsevier.
Bornstein, R. A. (1984) Unilateral lesions and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised: No sex differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 52:604–608.
Boswell, S. L. (1985) The influence of sex-role stereotyping on women's attitudes and achievement in mathematics. In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M.. Erlbaum.
Bradshaw, J. L. & Nettleton, N. C. (1981) The nature of hemispheric specialization in man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:51–91.
Bradshaw, J. L. & Nettleton, N. C. (1983) Human cerebral asymmetry. Prentice-Hall.
Brody, L. E. (1985) The effects of an intensive summer program on the SAT scores of gifted seventh graders. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University.
Broverman, D. M., Broverman, I. K., Vogel, W., Palmer, R. D. & Klaiber, E. L. (1964) The automatization cognitive style and physical development. Child Development 35:1343–1359.
Brush, L. R. (1978) A validation study of the mathematics anxiety rating scale (MARS). Educational and Psychological Measurement 38:485–490.
Brush, L. R. (1980) Encouraging girls in mathematics: The problem and the solution. Abt Books.
Bryden, M. P. (1986) Dichotic listening performance, cognitive ability, and cerebral organization. Canadian Journal of Psychology 40:445–456.
Bryden, M. P., Hécaen, H. & Deagostini, M. (1983) Patterns of cerebral organization. Brain and Language 20:249–262.
Burnett, S. A. (1986) Sex-related differences in spatial ability: Are they trivial? American Psychologist 41:1012–1013.
Burnett, S. A., Lane, D. M. & Draft, L. M. (1979) Spatial visualiżation and sex differences in quantitative ability. Intelligence 3:345–354.
Burnett, S. A., Lane, D. M. & Draft, L. M. (1982) Spatial ability and handedness. Intelligence 6:57–68.
Burnett, S. A. & Peters, D. (1985) Spatial ability and visual memory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association. San Antonio, Texas.
Byne, W., Bleier, R. & Houston, L. (1986) Individual, age and sex-related differences in human corpus callosum: A study using magnetic resonance imaging. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 12:719.
Caplan, P. J., Macpherson, G. M. & Tobin, P. (1985) Do sex-related differences in spatial abilities exist? American Psychologist 40:786–789.
Caramazza, A., Gordon, J., Zuriff, G. E. & Deluca, D. (1976) Right-hemispheric damage and verbal problem solving behavior. Brain and Language 3:41–46.
Carey, G. L. (1958) Sex differences in problem-solving performance as a function of attitude differences. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 56:256–260.
Center for the Advancement of Academically Talented Youth (1983) The CTY 1983 Talent Search Report. Baltimore: CTY.
Center for the Advancement of Academically Talented Youth (1984) The CTY 1984 Talent Search Report. Baltimore: CTY.
Center for the Advancement of Academically Talented Youth (1985) The CTY 1985 Talent Search Report. Baltimore: CTY.
Center for the Advancement of Academically Talented Youth (1986) The CTY 1986 Talent Search Report. Baltimore: CTY.
Chi, J. G., Dooling, D. C. & Gilles, F. H. (1977) Gyral development of the human brain. Annals of Neurology 1:86–93.
Chi, M. T. H. (1978) Knowledge structures and memory development. In: Children's thinking: What develops? ed. Siegler, R. S.. Erlbaum.
Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M., eds. (1985) Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation. Erlbaum.
Chipman, S. F. & Thomas, V. G. (1985) Women's participation in mathematics: Outlining the problem. In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M.. Erlbaum.
Chipman, S. F. & Thomas, V. G. (in press) The participation of women and minorities in mathematical, scientific, and technical fields. Review of Research in Education, vol. 14.
Chipman, S. F. & Wilson, D. M. (1985) Understanding mathematics course enrollment and mathematics achievement: A synthesis of the research. In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M.. Erlbaum.
Clark, A. S., Maclusky, N. J. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1986) Steroid hormone binding and metabolism in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures of the developing rhesus monkey brain. Society for Neuroscience 12:1217 (Abstract).
Clark, R. W. (1971) Einstein: The life and times. World Publishing.
Cockroft, W. H. (1980) Mathematics counts: Report of the committee of inquiry into teaching of mathematics. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Cohen, J. (1977) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Academic Press.
Cohn, S. J. (1977) Cognitive characteristics of the top-scoring participants in SMPY's 1976 Talent Search. Gifted Child Quarterly 22:416–421.
Cohn, S. J., Cohn, C. M. G. & Jensen, A. R. (in press) Speed of information processing and myopia in academically gifted youths and their siblings. Intelligence.
College Board (1985) College-bound seniors, 1984–1982. Princeton, N. J.: College Board.
Connor, J. M. & Serbin, L. A. (1985) Visual-spatial skill: Is it important for mathematics? Can it be taught? In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M., Erlbaum.
Cooper, H. M. (1984) The integrative research review: A systematic approach. Sage.
Coren, S., Searleman, A. & Porac, C. (1986) Rate of physical maturation and handedness. Developmental Neuropsychology 2:17–23.
D'amico, C. & Kimura, D. (1987) Different subgroups of adextrals based on speech lateralization and ability patterns. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 9:278 (Abstract).
Datta, L. (1985) Foreword. In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M., Erlbaum.
Davis, J. A. (1965) Undergraduate career decisions: Correlates of academic choice. NORC Monograph in Social Research, No. 2.
Dawson, J. L. M. B. (1977) An anthropological perspective on the evolution and lateralization of the brain. In: Evolution and lateralization of the brain, ed. Dimond, S. J. & Blizard, D. A.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 299.
Deaux, K. (1985) Sex and gender. Annual Review of Psychology 36:49–81.
De Lacoste-Utamsing, C. & Holloway, R. L. (1982) Sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum. Science 216:1431–1432.
Demeter, S., Ringo, J. & Doty, R. W. (1985) Sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum? Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 11:868.
DeRenzi, E. (1982) Disorders of space exploration and cognition. Wiley.
Deutsch, D. (1980) Handedness and memory for tonal pitch. In: Neuropsychology of left-handedness, ed. Herron, J.. Academic Press.
Devries, G. J., Debruin, J. P. C., Uylings, H. B. M. & Corner, M. A., eds. (1984) Sex differences in the brain – the relation between structure and function. Progress in brain research, vol. 26. Elsevier Press.
Devries, G. J., Debruin, J. P. C., Uylings, H. B. M. & Corner, M. A., (1984a) Sex differences in the brain. Progress in brain research, vol. 61. Elsevier Press.
Diamond, M. C., Dowling, G. A. & Johnson, R. E. (1981) Morphologic cerebral cortical asymmetry in male and female rats. Experimental Neurology 71:261–268.
Diamond, M. C., Murphy, G. M. Jr, Akiyama, K. & Johnson, R. E. (1982) Morphological hippocampal asymmetry in male and female rats. Experimental Neurology 76:553–566.
Diamond, S. J. & Beaumont, J. G. (1974) Hemisphere function in the human brain. Paul Elek.
Dix, L. (1987) Women: Their underrepresentation and career differentials in science and engineering. National Research Council.
Donlon, T. F. (1973) Content factors in sex differences in test questions. Educational Testing Service Research Monograph.
Donlon, T. F., Ekstrom, R. B. & Lockheed, M. (1976) Comparing the sexes on achievement test items of varying content. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.
Donovan, B. T. & Van Der Werff Ten Bosch, J. J. (1965) Physiology of puberty. Arnold.
Dornbusch, S. (1974) To try or not to try. Stanford Magazine 2:50–54.
Dougherty, K., Herbert, M., Edenhart-Pepe, M. & Small, A. (1980) Sex-related differences in mathematics, grades 2–5. Unpublished manuscript.
Dreger, R. M. & Aiken, L. R. Jr, (1957) The identification of number anxiety in a college population. Journal of Educational Psychology 48:344–351.
Dunphy, E. B. (1970) The biology of myopia. New England Journal of Medicine 283:796–800.
Dunteman, G. H., Wisenbaker, J. & Taylor, M. E. (1979) Race and sex differences in college science program participation. Report submitted to the National Science Foundation under contract NO. SED77–18728.
Dutton, W. H. (1956) Attitudes of junior high school pupils toward arithmetic. School Review 64:18–22.
Dutton, W. H. & Blum, M. P. (1968) The measurement of attitudes toward arithmetic with a Likert-type test. Elementary School Journal 68:259–264.
Dweck, C. S. (1986) Motivational problems affecting learning. American Psychologist 41:1040–1048.
Dweck, C. S., Davidson, W., Nelson, S. & Enna, B. (1978) Sex differences in learned helplessness; II. The contingencies of evaluative feedback in the classroom; and III. An experimental analysis. Developmental Psychology 14:268–276.
Dwyer, C. A. (1974) Influence of children's sex-role standards on reading and arithmetic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology 66:811–816.
Eaton, W. D. & Enns, L. R. (1986) Sex differences in human activity level. Psychological Bulletin 100:19–28.
Eccles, J. (1985) Sex differences in achievement patterns. In: Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1984: Psychology and gender, ed. Sonderegger, T. B., University of Nebraska Press.
Eccles, J., Adler, T. & Meece, J. (1984) Sex differences in achievement: A test of alternate theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46:26–43.
Ehrhardt, A. A. & Baker, S. W. (1974) Fetal androgens, human CNS differentiation, and behavior sex differences. In: Sex differences in behavior, ed. Friedman, R. C., Richart, R. M. & Van de Wiele, R. L.. Wiley.
Eisenberg, L. (1986) Mindlessness and brainlessness in psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry 148:497–508.
Ellis, T. H. N. (1986) Restriction fragment length polymorphism markers in relation to quantitative characters. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 72:1–2.
Ernest, J. (1976) Mathematics and sex. American Mathematical Monthly 83:595–612.
Ethington, C. A. & Wolfle, L. M. (1984) Sex differences in a causal model of mathematics achievement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 15:361–377.
Ethington, C. A. & Wolfle, L. M. (1986) A structural model of mathematics achievement for men and women. American Educational Research Journal 23:65–75.
Fairweather, H. (1976) Sex differences in cognition. Cognition 4:231–280.
Farmer, H. S. (1987) A multivariate model for explaining gender differences in career and achievement motivation. Educational Researcher 16(2):5–9.
Fennema, E. (1974) Mathematics learning and the sexes: A review. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 5:126–139.
Fennema, E. (1976) Influences of selected cognitive, affective, and educational variables on sex-related differences in mathematics learning. Prepared for National Institute of Education.
Fennema, E. & Sherman, J. (1977) Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement, spatial visualization, and sociocultural factors. American Educational Research Journal 14:51–71.
Fennema, E. (1978) Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement and related factors: A further study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 9:189–203.
Fennema, E. & Tartre, L. A. (1985) The use of spatial visualization in mathematics by girls and boys. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 16:184–206.
Ferry, G. (1982) How women figure in science. New Scientist 94:10–13.
Fischbein, S. (1981) Heredity-environment influences of growth and development during adolescence. In: Twin research 3- Intelligence, personality, and development, ed. Gedda, L. et al. Alan, R. Liss.
Fitch, R. H., Berrebi, A. S. & Denenberg, V. H. (1987) Corpus callosum: Masculinized via perinatal testosterone. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 13:688.
Flanagan, J. C., Dailey, J. T., Shaycoft, M. F., Gorham, W. A., Orr, D. B. & Goldberg, I. (1962) Design for a study of American youth. Houghton Mifflin.
Fleming, D. E., Anderson, R. H., Rhees, R. W., Kinghorn, E. & Bakaitis, J. (1986) Effects of prenatal stress on sexually dimorphic asymmetries in the cerebral cortex of the male rat. Brain Research Bulletin 16:395–398.
Fox, L. H. (1975) Career interests and mathematical acceleration for girls. Paper presented at annual meeting of American Psychological Association, Chicago.
Fox, L. H. (1976) Sex differences in mathematical precocity: Bridging the gap. In: Intellectual talent: Research and development, ed. Keating, D. P.. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fox, L. H. (1977) The effects of sex-role socialization on mathematics participation and achievement. In: Women and mathematics: Research perspectives for change, ed. Schoemaker, J.. National Institute of Education Papers in Education and Work, No. 8. Washington, D.C.: Education and Work Group, The National Institute of Education, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Fox, L. H. (1982) Sex differences among the mathematically gifted. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
Fox, L. H., Benbow, C. P. & Perkins, S. (1983) An accelerated mathematics program for girls: A longitudinal evaluation. In: Academic precocity: Aspects of its development, ed. Benbow, C. P. & Stanley, J. C.. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fox, L. H., Brody, L. & Tobin, D. (1979) Women and mathematics: The impact of early intervention upon course-taking and attitudes in high school. Final report to the National Institute of Education, Grant No. NIE 6–77–0062.
Fox, L. H. eds. (1980) Women and the mathematical mystique. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fox, L. H. (1982) The study of social processes that inhibit or enhance the development of competence and interest in mathematics among highly able young women. Report to the National Institute of Education.
Fox, L. H. (1985) The impact of early intervention programs upon course-taking and attitudes in high school. In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M.. Erlbaum.
Fox, L. H. & Richmond, L. J. (1979) Gifted females: Are we meeting their counseling needs? Personnel and Guidance Journal 57:256–59.
Fox, L. H., Tobin, D. & Brody, L. (1979) Sex-role socialization and achievement in mathematics. In: Sex-related differences in cognitive functioning: Developmental issues, ed. Wittig, M. & Petersen, A.. Academic Press.
Fraser, E. J. P. & Cormack, S. (in press) Women and mathematics: A different picture. Teaching mathematics and its applications.
Freed, N. H. (1983) Forseeable equivalent math skill of men and women. Psychological Reports 52:334.
Freter, S. H., Mikolowski, A., Fitch, R. H., Berrebi, A. S., Yutzey, D. A. & Dennenberg, V. H. (1987) Handling stimulation in infancy and gender: Effects upon maze learning and behavioral asymmetry. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 13.
Friedman, A. & Poison, M. C. (1981) Hemispheres as independent resource systems: Limited-capacity processing and cerebral specialization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 7:1031–1058.
Frieze, I., Whiteley, B., Hanusa, B. & McHugh, M. (1982) Assessing the theoretical models for sex differences in causal attributions for achievement and failure. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 8:333–344.
Garai, J. E. & Scheinfeld, A. (1968) Sex differences in mental and behavioral traits. Genetic Psychology Monographs 77:169–129.
Gardner, H. (1983) Frames of mind. Basic Books.
Gardner, H., Brownell, H. H., Wapner, W. & Michelow, D. (1983) Missing the point: The role of the right hemisphere in the processing of complex linguistic materials. In: Cognitive processing in the right hemisphere, ed. Perecman, E., Academic Press.
Garfinkel, A. S. (1982) Genetic and environmental influences on the development of Piagetían logico-mathematical concepts and other specific cognitive abilities: A twin study. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 31:10–61.
Garvey, C. (1977) Play. Harvard University Press.
Geschwind, N. (1982) Why Orton was right. Annals of Dyslexia 32:13–30.
Geschwind, N. & Behan, P. (1982) Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 79:5097–5100.
Geschwind, N. & Behan, P. (1984) Laterality, hormones, and immunity. In: Cerebral dominance: The biological foundations, ed. Geschwind, N. & Galaburda, A.. Harvard University Press.
Geschwind, N. & Galaburda, A. M. (1986) Cerebral lateralization. MIT Press.
Gilligan, C. (1982) In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Harvard University Press.
Ginsburg, H. P. (1983) (Ed.) The development of mathematical thinking. Academic Press.
Glass, G. V., McGaw, B. & Smith, M. L. (1981) Meta-analysis in social research. Sage.
Glennon, V. J. & Gallahan, L. G. (1968) A guide to current research: Elementary school mathematics. Washington, D.C.: Association for Supervisional Curriculum Development.
Goldman, P. S. & Brown, R. (1975) The influence of neonatai androgen on the development of cortical function in the rhesus monkey. Society for Neuroscience 1:494 (Abstract).
Goldman, P. S., Crawford, H. T., Stokes, L. P., Galkin, T. W. & Rosvold, H. E. (1974) Sex-dependent behavioral effects of cerebral cortical lesions in the developing rhesus monkey. Science 186:540–542.
Goldman, P. S. & Rakic, P. T. (1979) Impact of the outside world upon the developing primate brain. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 43:20–28.
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1987) Circuitry of the primate prefrontal cortex and the regulation of behavior by representational memory. In: Handbook of physiology, ed. Mountcastle, V. & Plum, F., and American Physiological Society 5:373–417.
Goleman, D. (1987) Girls and math: Is biology really destiny? New York Times Education Supplement: 42–43.
Gordon, H. W. & Galatzer, A. (1980) Cerebral organization in patients with gonadal dysgenesis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 5:235–244.
Gorski, R. A., Gordon, J. H., Shyrne, J. E. & Southam, A. M. (1978) Evidence for a morphological sex difference within the medial preoptic area of the rat brain. Brain Research 148:333–346.
Goy, R. W. & McEwen, B. S. (1981) Sexual differentiation of the brain. MIT Press.
Graf, G. & Ruddell, J. (1972) Sex differences in problem-solving as a function of problem content. Journal of Educational Research 65(10):451–452.
Green, P. R. (1980) Mechanical considerations in myopia: Relative effects of accommodation, convergence, intraocular pressure, and the extraocular muscles. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 57:902–914.
Hahn, W. K. (1987) Cerebral lateralization of function: From infancy through childhood. Psychological Bulletin 101:376–392.
Hall, K. R. L. & Devore, I. (1965) Baboon social behavior. In: Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes, ed. DeVore, I., Holt, Rinehart & Winston, .
Halpern, D. F. (1986a) Sex differences in cognitive abilities. Erlbaum.
Halpern, D. F. (1986b) A different answer to the question “Do sex differences in spatial abilities exist?” American Psychologist 41:1014–1015.
Hampson, E. & Kimura, D. (in press) Reciprocal effects of hormonal fluctuations on human motor and perceptuo-spatial skills. Behavioral Neuroscience.
Hardvek, C. (1977) A model of individual differences in hemispheric functioning. In: Studies in neurolinguistics, vol. 3, ed. Whitaker, H. & Whitaker, H. A.. Academic Press.
Hardyek, C., Petrinovich, L. F. & Goldman, R. F. (1976) Left-handedness and cognitive deficit. Cortex 12:266–279.
Harris, L. J. (1978) Sex differences in spatial ability: Possible environmental, genetic, and neurological factors. In: Asymmetrical function of the brain, ed. Kinsbourne, M.. Cambridge University Press.
Harris, L. J. (1980) Left-handedness: Early theories, facts, and fancies. In: Neuropsychology of left-handedness, ed. Herron, J.. Academic Press.
Harris, M. J. & Rosenthal, R. (1985) Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: Thirty-one meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin 97:363–386.
Harshman, R. A. & Hampson, E. (1987) Normal variation in human brain organization: Relation to handedness, sex and cognitive abilities. In: Duality and unity of the brain (vol. 47 of Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium Series), ed. Ottoson, D.. Macmillan.
Harshman, R. A., Hampson, E. & Berenbaum, S. A. (1983) Individual differences in cognitive abilities and brain organization. Part I: Sex and handedness differences in ability. Canadian Journal of Psychology 37:144–192.
Haven, E. W. (1971) Factors associated with the selection of advanced academic mathematics courses by girls in high school. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Dissertation Abstracts International 32:1747A.
Heath, A. C., Berg, K., Eaves, L. J., Solast, M., Corey, L. A., Sundet, J., Magnus, P. & Nance, W. E. (1985) Education policy and the heritability of educational attainment. Nature 314:734–735.
Hedges, L. V. & Olkin, I. (1985) Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Academic Press.
Heller, K. A. & Parsons, J. E. (1981) Sex differences in teachers' evaluative feedback and students' expectancies for success in mathematics. Child Development 52:1015–1019.
Herring, S. & Reitan, R. M. (1986) Sex similarities in verbal and performance IQ deficits following unilateral cerebral lesions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54:537–541.
Hier, D. B. & Crowley, W. F. Jr, (1982) Spatial ability in androgen deficient men. New England Journal of Medicine 306:1201–1205.
Hilton, T. L., Beaton, A. E. & Bower, C. P. (1971) Stability and instability in academic growth – a compilation of longitudinal data. Educational Testing Service.
Hilton, T. L. & Berglund, G. W. (1974) Sex differences in mathematics achievement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Research 67:231–237.
Hines, M. (1982) Prenatal gonadal hormones and sex differences in human behavior. Psychological Bulletin 92:56–80.
Hines, M. & Gorski, R. A. (1985) Hormonal influences on the development of neural asymmetries. In: The dual brain, ed. Benson, D. F. & Zaidel, E.. Guilford Press.
Hines, M. & Shipley, C. (1984) Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and the development of sexually dimorphic cognitive abilities and cerebral lateralization. Developmental Psychology 20:81–94.
Holden, C. (1987) Female math anxiety on the wane. Science 236:600–601.
Holloway, R. L. & De Lacoste, M. C. (1986) Sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum: An extension and replication study. Human Neurobiology 5:87–91.
Hubbard, R., Henifin, M. S. & Fried, B. (1982) Biological woman: The convenient myth. Schenkman.
Humphreys, L. G., Davey, T. C. & Kashima, E. (1986) Experimental measures of cognitive privilege/deprivation and some of their correlates. Intelligence 10:355–376.
Hungerman, A. D. (1967) Achievement and attitude of sixth-grade pupils in conventional and contemporary mathematics programs. Arithmetic Teacher 14:30–39.
Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L. & Jackson, G. B. (1982) Meta-analysis. Sage.
Husén, T. (1959). Psychological twin research 1: A methodological study. Almquist & Wiskells.
Husén, T. (1960) Abilities of twins. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 1:125–135.
Husén, T. ed. (1967) International study of achievement in mathematics, vol. 2. Wiley.
Hyde, J. S. (1981) How large are cognitive gender differences? A meta-analysis using w2 and d. American Psychologist 36:892–901.
Jackson, R. (1980) The Scholastic Aptitude Test: A reply to Slack and Porter's “Critical Appraisal.” Harvard Educational Review 50:282–391.
Jensen, A. R. (1969) How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series No. 2:1–123.
Johnson, M. M. (1963) Sex-role learning in the nuclear family. Child Development 34:319–324.
Johnson, N. L. & Kotz, S. (1970) Distributions in statistics: Continuous univariate distributions-1. Wiley.
Jones, L. V. (1987) The influence on mathematics test scores, by ethnicity and sex, of prior achievement and high school mathematics courses. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 18:180–186.
Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (1985) Cognitive coordinate systems: Accounts of mental rotation and individual differences in spatial ability. Psychological Review 92:137–172.
Kail, R., Carter, P. & Pellegrino, J. (1979) The locus of sex differences in spatial ability. Perception and Psychophysics 26:182–186.
Karlsson, J. L. (1973) Genetic relationship between giftedness and myopia. Hereditas 73:85–86.
Karlsson, J. L. (1975) Influence of the myopia gene on brain development. Clinical Genetics 8:314–316.
Keating, D. P. (1974) The study of mathematically precocious youth. In: Mathematical talent: Discovery, description, and development, ed. Stanley, J. C., Keating, D. P. & Fox, L. H.. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Keating, D. P. & Stanley, J. C. (1972) Extreme measures for the exceptionally gifted in mathematics and science. Educational Researcher 1(9):3–7.
Keeves, J. (1973) Differences between the sexes in mathematics and science courses. International Review of Education 19:47–63.
Keller, E. F. (1985) Reflections on gender and science. Yale University Press.
Kelly, A. (1979) Girls and science: An international study of sex differences in school science achievement. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell.
Kelly, D. D. (1985) Sexual differentiation of the nervous system. In: Principles of neural science, ed. Kandel, E. R. & Schwartz, J. H.. Elsevier Press.
Kenrick, D. T. (1987) Gender, genes, and the social environment: A biosocial interactionist perspective. In: Review of personality & social psychology. Vol. 8: Sex and gender, ed. Shaver, P. C. & Hendrick, C.. Sage Press.
Kessen, W. (1965) The child. Basic Books.
Kimura, D. (1987) Are men's and women's brains really different? Canadian Psychology 28:133–147.
Kinsbourne, M. (1974) Mechanisms of hemispheric interaction in man. In: Hemispheric cerebral function, ed. Kinsbourne, M. & Thomas, L. Smith. Charles.
Kolata, G. B. (1980) Math and sex: Are girls born with less ability? Science 210:1262.
Kolata, G. B. (1983) Math genius may have hormonal basis. Science 222:1312.
Kornbrot, D. E. (in press) Degree performance as a function of discipline studied, parental occupation, and gender. Higher Education.
Lansman, M., Donaldson, G., Hunt, E. & Yantis, S. (1982) Ability factors and cognitive processes. Intelligence 6:347–386.
Lawrence, G. (1984) A synthesis of learning style research involving the MBTI. Journal of Psychological Type 8:2–15.
Levy, J. (1976) Cerebral lateralization and spatial ability. Behavior Genetics 6:171–188.
Levy, J. & Gur, R. C. (1980) Individual differences in psychoneurological organization. In: Neuropsychology of left-handedness, ed. Herron, J.. Academic Press.
Levy, J. & Reid, M. (1978) Variations in cerebral organization as a function of handedness, hand posture in writing, and sex. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 107:119–144.
Lewis, R. S. & Kamptner, N. L. (1987) Sex differences in spatial task performance of patients with and without unilateral cerebral lesions. Brain and Cognition 6:142–152.
Light, R. J. & Pillemer, D. B. (1984) Summing up: The science of reviewing research. Harvard University Press.
Linn, M. C. & Peterson, A. C. (1985) Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: A meta-analysis. Child Development 56:1479–1498.
Loehlin, J. C. & Nichols, R. C. (1976) Heredity, environment, and personality: A study of 850 sets of twins. University of Texas Press.
Long, R. L. & Murray, M. E. (1982) Review: Neurophysiological aspects of developmental dyslexia. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 3:2–6.
Luchins, E. H. & Luchins, A. S. (1980) Female mathematicians: A contemporary appraisal. In: Women and the mathematical mystique, ed. Fox, L. H., Brody, L. & Tobin, D.. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lyon, M. F. (1961) Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse (Mus musculus L.). Nature 190:S.372–373.
Maccoby, E. E. (1966) The development of sex differences. Stanford University Press.
Maccoby, E. E., Doering, C. H., Jacklin, C. N. & Kraemer, H. (1979) Concentrations of sex hormones in umbilical-cord blood: Their relation to sex and birth order of infants. Child Development 50:632–642.
Maccoby, E. E. & Jacklin, C. N. (1974) The psychology of sex differences. Stanford University Press.
Maclusky, N. J., Naftolin, F. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1986) Estrogen formation and binding in the cerebral cortex of the developing rhesus monkey. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83:513–516.
Marshall, S. P. (1983) Sex differences in mathematical errors: An analysis of distractor choices. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 14:325–336.
Martinez, D. & Halpern, D. F. (1987) Effects of sex and handedness on cognitive abilities. Paper presented at the Sixty-sixth Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, Long Beach, Calif.
Mateer, C. A., Polen, S. B. & Ojemann, G. A. (1982) Sexual variation in cortical localization of naming as determined by stimulation mapping. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:310–311.
Mayer, R. E. (1983) Thinking, problem solving, cognition. Freeman.
Mayer, R. E. (1985) Mathematical ability. In: Human abilities: An information-processing approach, ed. Sternberg, R.. Freeman, W. H..
McCall, J. R. (1955) Sex differences in intelligence: A comparative factor study. The Catholic University of America Press.
McGee, M. G. (1979) Human spatial abilities: Psychometric studies and environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neurological influences. Psychological Bulletin 86:889–918.
McGlone, J. (1980) Sex differences in human brain asymmetry: A critical analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:215–263.
McKeever, W. F., Seitz, K. S., Hoff, A. L., Marino, M. F. & Diehl, J. A. (1983) Interacting sex and familial sinistrality characteristics influence both language lateralization and spatial ability in right-handers. Neuropsychologia 21:661–668.
McKeever, W. F., Vandeventer, A. D. & Suberi, M. (1973) Avowed-, assessed-, and familial-handedness and differential processing of brief sequential and nonsequential visual stimuli. Neuropsychologia 11:235–238.
Mebert, C. J. & Michel, G. F. (1980) Handedness in artists. In: Neuropsychology of left-handedness, ed. Herron, J.. Academic Press.
Meece, J. L., Parsons, J. E., Kaczala, C. M., Goff, S. B. & Futterman, R. (1982) Sex differences in math achievement: Toward a model of academic choice. Psychological Bulletin 91:324–348.
Millar, M. J. & Whitaker, H. A. (1983) The right hemisphere's contribution to language. In: Language functions and brain organization, ed. Millar, M. J. & Whitaker, H. A.. Academic Press.
Mills, C. J. (1981) Sex roles, personality, and intellectual abilities in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 10:85–112.
Mills, C. J. (1984) Sex differences in self-concept and self-esteem for mathematically precocious adolescents. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
Mills, C. J. (1985) Psychological type and learning style differences in a gifted and normative population of adolescents. Paper presented at the Northeastern Educational Researchers Organization meeting, Rockport, Maine.
Minor, L. L. & Benbow, C. P. (1986) Construct validity of the SAT-M: A comparative study of high school students and gifted seventh graders. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Mokros, J. R. & Koff, E. (1978) Sex-stereotyping of children's success in mathematics and reading. Psychological Reports 42:1287–1293.
Money, J. (1964) Two cytogenetic syndromes: Psychologic comparisons, 1. Intelligence and specific-factor quotients. Journal of Psychiatry Research 2:223–231.
Money, J. & Lewis, V. (1966) IQ, genetics and accelerated growth: Adrenogenital syndrome. Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 118:365–373.
Moore, E. G. J. & Smith, A. W. (1987) Sex and ethnic group differences in mathematics achievement: Results from the National Longitudinal Study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 18:25–36.
Moore, M. A., Dubas, J. S. & Newcombe, N. (1987) Biological and experiential factors in sex-related differences in spatial ability. Paper presented to the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore.
Mullen, B. & Rosenthal, R. (1985) BASIC meta-analysis: Procedures and programs. Erlbaum.
Mura, R. (1987) Sex-related differences in expectations of success in undergraduate mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 18:15–24.
Nasrallah, H. A., Andreasen, N. C., Coffman, J. A., Olson, S. C., Dunn, V. D., Ehrhardt, J. C. & Chapman, S. M. (1986) A controlled magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum thickness in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 21:274–282.
Nass, R., Baker, S., Speiser, P., Virdis, R., Balsamo, A., Cacciari, E., Loche, A., Dumic, M. & New, M. (1987) Hormones and handedness – Left-hand bias in female congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients. Neurology 37:711–714.
National Assessment of Educational Progress (1975) Males dominate in educational success. NAEP Newsletter 8:insert.
National Assessment of Educational Progress (1979) Mathematical knowledge and skills: Selected results from the second assessment of mathematics. Denver, Colorado: Education Commission of the States.
National Commission for Excellence in Education (1983) A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. U.S. Department of Education.
National Institute of Education (1977) Grants for research on education and work. Washington, D. C.: National Institute of Education.
Nesher, P. (1986) Learning mathematics: A cognitive perspective. American Psychologist 41:1114–1121.
Newcombe, N. (1982) Sex-related differences in spatial ability: Problems and gaps in current approaches. In: Spatial abilities: Development and physiological foundations, ed. Potegal, M.. Academic Press.
Newcombe, N. & Dubas, J. S. (1987) Individual differences in cognitive ability: Are they related to timing of puberty? In: Biological-psychosocial interactions in early adolescence, ed. Lerner, R. M. & Foch, T. T.. Erlbaum.
Nicholls, J. (1980) A re-examination of boys and girls causal attributions for success and failure based on New Zealand data. In: Achievement motivation: Recent trends in theory and research, ed. Fyans, L.. Plenum.
Nielsen, J., Nyborg, H. & Dahl, G. (1977) Turner's syndrome. A psychiatric-psychological study of 45 women with Turner's syndrome, compared with their sisters and women with normal karyotype, growth retardation, and primary amenorrhoea. Acta Jutlandica, Medicine Series 21. Aarhus University Press.
Nochlin, L. (1972) Why are there no great women artists? In: Woman in sexist society, ed. Gornick, V. & Moran, B.. New American Library.
Nordeen, E. J. & Yahr, P. (1982) Hemispheric asymmetries in the behavioral and hormonal effects of sexually differentiating mammalian brain. Science 218:391–393.
Nyborg, H. (1979) Sex chromosome abnormalities and cognitive performance. V. Female sex hormones and discontinuous cognitive development. Paper presented at the fifth biennial meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development, Lund, Sweden.
Nyborg, H. (1983) Spatial ability in men and women: Review and new theory. Advances in Behavioural Research and Therapy 5:89–140.
Nyborg, H. (1984) Performance and intelligence in hormonally-different groups. In: Sex differences in the brain – the relation between structure and function. Progress in brain research, vol. 61, ed. DeVries, G. J., DeBruin, J. P. C., Uylings, H. B. M. & Corner, M. A.. Elsevier Press.
Nyborg, H. (1986) Sex chromosomes, sex hormones, and developmental disturbances: In search of a model. Paper presented at the 152nd Annual National Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia.
Nyborg, H. (1987) Covariant trait development across races, and within individuals. Paper presented at the third meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Toronto, Canada.
Nyborg, H. (submitted) Principles of sex hormonal regulation of body, brain and behavioral development.
Byborg, H. & Nielsen, J. (1981) Sex hormone treatment and spatial ability in women with Turner's syndrome. In: Human behavior and genetics, ed. Schmid, W. & Nielsen, J.. Elsevier.
O'boyle, M. W. & Hoff, E. J. (1987) Gender and handedness differences in mirror-tracing random forms. Neuropsychologia 25:977–982.
Oldfield, R. C. (1971) The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory. Neuropsychologia 9:97–113.
Oppenheim, J. S., Lee, B. C. P., Nass, R. & Gazzaniga, M. S. (1987) No sex-related differences in human corpus callosum based on magnetic resonance imagery. Annals of Neurology 21:604–605.
Paige, J. R. & Simon, H. (1966) Cognitive processes in solving algebra word problems. In: Problem solving: Research, method, and theory, ed. Kleinmuntz, B.. Wiley.
Pallas, A. M. & Alexander, K. L. (1983) Sex differences in quantitative SAT performance: New evidence on the differential coursework hypothesis. American Educational Research Journal 20:165–182.
Parsons, J. E., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J. L. & Midgley, C. (1983) Expectancies, values, and academic behavior. In: Achievement and achievement motives: Psychological and sociological approaches, ed. Spence, J. T., Freeman, W. H..
Parsons, J. E., Adler, T. F. & Kaczala, C. (1982) Socialization of achievement attitudes and beliefs: Parental influences. Child Development 53:310–321.
Parsons, J. E., Kaczala, C. & Meece, J. (1982) Socialization of achievement attitudes and beliefs: Classroom influences. Child Development 53:322–39.
Pattison, P. & Grieve, N. (1984) Do spatial skills contribute to sex differences in different types of mathematical problems? Journal of Educational Psychology 76:678–89.
Paulsen, K. & Johnson, M. (1983) Sex-role attitudes and mathematical ability in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students from a high socioeconomic area. Developmental Psychology 19:210–214.
Pederson, K., Elmore, P. & Bleyer, D. (1986) Parent attitudes and student career interests. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 17:49–59.
Pedro, J. D., Wolleat, P., Fennema, E. & Becker, A. D. (1981) Election of high school mathematics by females and males: Attributions and attitudes. American Educational Research Journal 18:207–218.
Pellegrino, J. W. & Kair, R. Jr, (1982) Process analyses of spatial aptitude. In: Advances in the psychology of human intelligence, vol. 1, ed. Steinberg, R. J.. Erlbaum.
Petersen, A. C. (1976) Physical androgeny and cognitive functioning in adolescence. Developmental Psychology 12:524–533.
Peterson, P. L. & Fennema, E. (1985) Effective teaching, student engagement in classroom activities, and sex-related differences in learning mathematics. American Educational Research Journal 22:309–336.
Petrusic, W. M., Varro, L. & Jamieson, D. G. (1978) Mental rotation validation of two spatial ability tests. Psychological Research 40:39–148.
Plomin, R. & Daniels, D. (1987) Why are children in the same family so different from each other? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:1–59.
Poffenberger, T. & Norton, D. (1959) Factors in the formation of attitudes toward mathematics. Journal for Educational Research 52:171–176.
Poltrock, S. E. & Brown, P. (1984) Individual differences in visual imagery and spatial ability. Intelligence 8:93–138.
Pomerantz, S. M., Fox, T., Sholl, S. A., Vito, C. C. & Goy, R. (1985) Androgen and estrogen receptors in fetal rhesus monkey brain and anterior pituitary. Endocrinology 116:83–89.
Porac, C. & Coren, S. (1981) Lateral preferences and human behavior. Springer-Verlag.
Porac, C., Coren, S. & Searleman, A. (1986) Environmental factors in hand preference formation: Evidence from attempts to switch the preferred hand. Behavior Genetics 16:251–261.
Posner, M. I., Boies, S. J., Eichelman, W. H. & Taylor, R. L. (1969) Retention of visual and name codes of single letters. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79:1–16.
Potter, S. (1950) Lifemanship. Henry Holt.
Ray, W. J., Newcombe, N., Semon, J. & Cole, P. M. (1981) Spatial abilities, sex differences and EEG functioning. Neuropsychologia 19:719–722.
Raymond, C. L. & Benbow, C. P. (1986) Gender differences in mathematics: A function of parental support and sex-typing? Developmental Psychology 22:808–819.
Raymond, C. L. & Benbow, C. P. (submitted) Educational encouragement by parents: Its relationship to children's aptitude and perceptions and gender differences.
Read, D. B. (1981) Solving deductive reasoning problems after unilateral temporal lobectomy. Brain and Language 12:116–127.
Reinisch, J. M. (1984) Prenatal gonadal steroid influences on gender-related behavior. In: Progress in brain research, vol. 61, ed. De Vries, G. J., DeBruin, J. P. C., Uylings, H. B. M. & Corner, M. A.. Elsevier Press.
Reinisch, J. M. & Gandelman, R. (1978) Human research in behavioral endocrinology: Methodological and theoretical considerations. In: Hormones and brain development, ed. Dorner, G.. Elsevier Press.
Reinisch, J. M., Gandelman, R. & Spiegel, F. S. (1979) Prenatal influences on cognitive abilities: Data from experimental animals and human and endocrine syndromes. In: Sex-related differences in cognitive functioning: Developmental issues, ed. Wittig, M. & Petersen, A. C.. Academic Press.
Reinisch, J. M. & Sanders, S. A. (1984) Prenatal gonadal steroidal influences on gender-related behavior. Progress in Brain Research 61:407–416.
Reis, S. M. (1987) We can't change what we don't recognize: Understanding the special needs of gifted females. Gifted Child Quarterly 31(2):83–89.
Reschly, D. J. & Jipson, F. J. (1976) Ethnicity, geographic locale, age, sex, and urban-rural residence as variables in the prevalence of mind retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 81:154–161.
Resnick, L. B. & Ford, W. W. (1981) The psychology of mathematics for instruction. Erlbaum.
Resnick, S. M., Berenbaum, S. A., Gottesman, I. I. & Bouchard, T. J. Jr, (1986) Early hormonal influences on cognitive functioning in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Developmental Psychology 22:191–198.
Resnick, S. M. & Gottesman, I. I. (1978) Prenatal hormones and IQ: Need for sibling controls. British Journal of Psychiatry 132:205–206.
Robinson, H. B. (1983) A case for radical acceleration: Programs of The Johns Hopkins University and the University of Washington. In: Academic precocity: Aspects of its development, ed. Benbow, C. & Stanley, J.. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Robitaille, D. F. (1977) A comparison of boys and girls feelings of self-confidence in arithmetic computation. Canadian Journal of Education 2:15–22.
Roland, P. E. & Friberg, L. (1985) Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking. Journal of Neurophysiology 53:1219–1243.
Rose, R. M., Holaday, J. W. & Bernstein, I. (1971) Plasma testosterone, dominance rank, and aggressive behavior in male rhesus monkeys. Nature 231:366–368.
Roselli, C. & Resko, J. (1986) Effects of gonadectomy and androgen treatment on aromatase activity in the fetal monkey brain. Biology of Reproduction 35:106–112.
Rosenthal, K. & Kimura, D. (1987) Hormonal influences on cognitive ability patterns. Department of Psychology Research Bulletin No. 653, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Rosenthal, R., ed. (1980) Quantitative assessment of research domains. (New Directions for Methodology of Social and Behavioral Science, No. 5.) Jossey-Bass.
Rosenthal, R., ed. (1984) Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Sage.
Rosenthal, R., ed. (1987) Judgment studies: Design, analysis, and meta-analysis. Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R. (1985) Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data-analysis. McGraw-Hill.
Rosenthal, R. & Rubin, D. B. (1982) Further meta-analytic procedures for assessing cognitive gender differences. Journal of Educational Psychology 74:708–712.
Rossiter, M. W. (1982) Women scientists in America. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rovet, J. & Netley, C. (1982) Processing deficits in Turner's Syndrome. Developmental Psychology 18:77–94.
Rushton, J. P. (in press) Race differences in behaviour: A review and evolutionary analysis. Personality and Individual Differences.
Sanders, B., Scares, M. P. & D'aquila, J. M. (1982) The sex difference on one test of spatial visualization: A nontrivial difference. Child Development 53:1106–1110.
Sapoisky, R. M. (1987) The case of the falling nightwatchman. Discover 8:42–45.
Satz, P. & Soper, H. (1986) Left-handedness, dyslexia, and autoimmune disorder: A critique. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 8:453–458.
Scarr, S. & Saltzman, L. C. (1982) Genetics and intelligence. In: Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press.
Schachter, S. C., Ransil, B. J. & Geschwind, N. (1987) Association of handedness with haircolor and learning disabilities. Neuropsychologia 25:269–276.
Schaub, W. (1971) Die genealogische Datenbank im Dienste der Wissenschaft. Genealogie 20:577–585, 630–638.
Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985) Mathematical problem solving. Academic Press.
Searleman, A., Herrman, D. J. & Coventry, A. K. (1984) Cognitive abilities and left-handedness: An interaction between familial sinistrality and strength of handedness. Intelligence 8:295–304.
Segalowitz, S. J. & Bryden, M. P. (1983) Individual differences in hemispheric representation of language. In: Language functions and brain organization, ed. Segalowitz, S. J.. Academic Press.
Senk, S. & Usiskin, Z. (1983) Geometry proof writing: A new view of sex differences in mathematics ability. Journal of Educational Research 91:187–201.
Sergent, J. (1982) The cerebral balance of power: Confrontation or cooperation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 8:253–272.
Sherman, J. A. (1967) The problem of sex differences in space perception and aspects of individual functioning. Psychological Review 74:290–299.
Sherman, J. A. (1974) Field articulation, sex, spatial visualization, dependency, practice, laterality of the brain and birth order. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38:1223–1235.
Sherman, J. A. (1977) Effects of biological factors on sex-related differences in mathematics achievement. Women and mathematics: Research perspectives for change. NIE papers in Education and Work: No. 8.
Sherman, J. A. (1980) Mathematics, spatial visualization and related factors: Changes in girls and boys, grades 8–11. Journal of Educational Psychology 72:476–482.
Sherman, J. A. & Fennema, E. (1977) The study of mathematics by high school girls and boys: Related variables. American Educational Research Journal 14:159–168.
Siegler, R. J. (in press) Individual differences in strategy choices: Good students, not-so-good students, and perfectionists. Child Development.
Signorella, M. L. & Jamison, W. (1986) Masculinity, femininity, androgyny, and cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 100:207–228.
Smith, I. M. (1964) Spatial ability. The University of London Press.
Sofaer, J. & Emery, A. (1981) Genes for super-intelligence. Journal of Medical Genetics 18:410–413.
Sprafkin, C., Serbin, S. A., Denier, C. & Connor, J. M. (1983) Sex-differentiated play: Cognitive consequences and early interventions. In: Social and cognitive skills, ed. Liss, M. B.. Academic Press.
Stafford, R. E. (1964) Sex differences in spatial visualization as evidence of sex-linked inheritance. Perceptual and Motor Skills 13:4–28.
Stanley, J. C. (1982) Identification of intellectual talent. In: Measurement, guidance, and program improvement New directions for testing and measurement series, No. 13:97–109.
Stanley, J. C. (1987) Sex differences on cognitive tests: A summary. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C.
Stanley, J. C. (1987a) Gender differences on the College Board Achievement Tests and the Advanced Placement Examinations: Effect sizes versus some upper-tail ratios. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C.
Stanley, J. C. (1987b) Summary of points made in the symposium. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C.
Stanley, J. C. & Benbow, C. P. (1983) 15:1 isn't “catching up”! Psychological Reports 52:656.
Stanley, J. C. & Benbow, C. P. (1986) Youths who reason exceptionally well mathematically. In: Conceptions of giftedness, ed. Sternberg, R. J. & Davison, J., Cambridge University Press.
Stanley, J. C., Brody, L. E., Dauber, S. L., Lupkowski, A. E. & Benbow, C. P. (1987) Sex differences in cognitive abilities and achievements. A symposium presentation at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C.
Stanley, J. C., Huang, Jia-Fen & Zu, Xue-Min (1986) SAT-M scores of highly selected students in Shanghai tested when less than 13 years old. College Board Review 140:10–13, 28–29.
Steen, L. A. (1987) Mathematics education: A predictor of scientific competitiveness. Science 237:251
Stein, A. H. (1971) The effects of sex-role standards for achievement and sex-role preference on three determinants of achievement motivation. Developmental Psychology 4:219–231.
Stein, A. A. & Smithells, J. (1969) Age and sex differences in children's sex role standards about achievement. Developmental Psychology 1:252–259.
Stevenson, H. W., Lee, S.-Y. & Stigler, J. W. (1986) Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children. Science 231:693–699.
Stright, V. M. (1960) A study of the attitudes toward mathematics of students and teachers in the third, fourth, and sixth grades. Arithmetic Teacher 7:280–286.
Sturt, E. & McGuffin, P. (1985) Can linkage and marker associations resolve the genetic aetiology of psychiatric disorders? Review and argument. Psychological Medicine 15:455–462.
Suydam, M. N. & Weaver, J. F. (1975) Using research: A key to elementary school mathematics. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education Clearinghouse in cooperation with the Center for Science and Mathematics.
Symons, D. (1979) The evolution of human sexuality. Oxford University Press.
Symons, D. (1987) The evolutionary approach: Can Darwin's view of life shed light on human sexuality? In: Theories of human sexuality, ed. Geer, J. H. & O'Donohue, W. T.. Plenum.
Tapley, S. M. & Bryden, M. P. (1977) An investigation of sex differences in spatial ability: Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Canadian Journal of Psychology 31:122–130.
Terman, L. M. (1954) Scientists and nonscientists in a group of 800 gifted men. Psychological Monographs 68(7):1–44.
Terman, L. M. & Oden, M. H. (1959) The gifted group at midlife. Genetic studies of genius, vol. 5. Stanford University Press.
Tiger, L. (1987) The manufacture of evil: Ethics, evolution, and the industrial system. Harper and Row.
Tiger, L. & Shepher, J. (1975) Women in the kibbutz. Harcourt, Brace, and Jovanovich.
Tobias, S. (1978) Overcoming math anxiety. Norton.
Tobias, S. & Weissbrod, C. (1980) Anxiety and mathematics: An update. Harvard Educational Review 50:63–70.
Tobin, D. (1986) A longitudinal study of values and career interests of mathematically gifted students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University.
Toran-Allerand, D. (1986) Sexual differentiation of the brain. In: Developmental neuropsychobiology, ed. Greenough, W. T. & Juraska, J. M.. Academic Press.
Troup, G. A., Bradshaw, J. L. & Nettleton, N. C. (1983) The lateralization of arithmetic and number processing: A review. International Journal of Neuroscience 19:231–242.
Trune, D. (1982) Influence of neonatal cochlear removal on the development of mouse cochlear nucleus. 1. Number, size, and density of its neurons. Journal of Comparative Neurology 209:409–424.
Turner, H. (1938) A syndrome of infantilism, congenital webbed neck, and cubitus valgus. Endocrinology 23:566–574.
University of London (1985) General Certificate of Education Examination: Statistics. University of London Press.
U.S. Department of Education (1986) What works: Research about teaching and learning. Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation (1979) Uniform Crime Reports of the United States, 1979. U.S. Government Printing Office.
Vandenberg, S. G. & Kuse, A. R. (1979) Spatial ability: A critical review of the sex-linked major gene hypotheses. In: Determinants of sex-related differences in cognitive functioning, ed. Wittig, M. C. & Petersen, A. C.. Academic Press.
Van Haaren, F. & Van De Poll, N. E. (1984) The effect of a choice alternative on sex differences in passive avoidance behavior. Physiology and Behavior 32:211–216.
Van Hest, A., Van Haaren, F. & Van De Poll, N. E. (1987) Behavioral differences between male and female Wistar rats on DRL schedules: Effects of stimuli providing collateral activities. Physiology and Behavior 39:255–261.
Vellutino, F. R. (1979) Dyslexia: Theory and research. MIT Press.
Very, P. S. (1967) Differential factor structures in mathematical ability. Genetic Psychology Monographs 75(2): 169–207.
Villardita, C. (1987) Verbal memory and semantic clustering in right brain-damaged patients. Neuropsychologia 25:277–280.
Waber, D. P. (1976) Sex differences in mental abilities: A function of maturation rate? Science 192:572–574.
Waber, D. P. (1977) Sex differences in mental abilities, hemispheric lateralization, and rate of physical growth at adolescence. Developmental Psychology 13:29–38.
Waber, D. P., Mann, M. B., Merola, J. & Moylan, D. M. (1985) Physical maturation rate and cognitive performance in early adolescence: A longitudinal evaluation. Developmental Psychology 21:666–681.
Walberg, H. J. (1983) Scientific literacy and economic productivity in international perspective. Daedalus 112:1–28.
Walberg, H. J. (1984) Improving the productivity of America's schools. Educational Leadership 41(8):19–27.
Walberg, H. J. & Tsai, S.-L. (1983) Matthew effects in education. American Educational Research Journal 20:359–373.
Warrington, E. K. (1982) The fractionation of arithmetic skills: A single case study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 34A:31–51.
Weber, G. & Weis, S. (1986) Morphometric analysis of the human corpus callosum fails to reveal sex-related differences. Journal für Hirnforschung 2:237–240.
Webster, D. & Webster, M. (1977) Neonatal sound deprivation affects brain stem auditory nuclei. Archives of Otolaryngology 103:392–396.
Weiss, V. (1982) Psychogenetik. Jena: Gustar Fischer.
Werts, C. E. (1967) Career changes in college. Sociology of Education 40:90–95.
Wiesel, T. N. (1982) Postnatal development of the visual cortex and the influence of environment. Nature 299:583–592.
Williams, D. A. (1980) Do males have a math gene? Newsweek, December 15.
Wilson, J. W. (1972) Patterns of mathematics achievement in grade 11:Z population. National Longitudinal Study of Mathematical Abilities. Report No. 17. Stanford, Calif: School Mathematics Study Group.
Wilson, M. & Daly, M. (1985) Competitiveness, risk-taking, and violence: The young male syndrome. Ethology and Sociobiology 6:59–73.
Wise, L. L. (1985) Project Talent: Mathematics course participation in the 1960s and its career consequences. In: Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation, ed. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R. & Wilson, D. M., Erlbaum.
Wise, L. L., Steel, L. & Macdonald, C. (1979) Origins and career consequences of sex differences in high school mathematics achievement. American Institute for Research.
Witelson, S. F. (1976) Sex and the single hemisphere: Specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial processing. Science 193:425–427.
Witelson, S. F. (1985) The brain connection: The corpus callosum is larger in left-handers. Science 229:665–668.
Witelson, S. F. (1985a) An exchange on “gender” with R. C. Lewontin. New York Review of Books 32 (October 24):53–55.
Witelson, S. F. (1986) Wires of the mind: Anatomical variation in the corpus callosum in relation to hemispheric specialization and integration. Neurology and Neurobiology 17:117–138.
Witelson, S. F. (1987a) Neurobiological aspects of language in children. Child Development 58:653–688.
Witelson, S. F. (1987b) Hand preference and sex differences in the isthmus of the corpus callosum. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 13:48.
Witelson, S. F. & Kigar, D. L. (1987) Individual differences in the anatomy of the corpus callosum: Sex, hand preference, schizophrenia and hemisphere specialization. In: Individual differences in hemisphere specialization, ed. Glass, A.. NATO ASI Series, 130. Plenum.
Witelson, S. F. & Kigar, D. L. (1988) Anatomical development of the human corpus callosum: A review with reference to sex and cognition. In: Developmental implications of brain lateralization, ed. Molfese, D. L. & Segalowitz, S. J.. Guilford Press.
Wolf, F. M. (1986) Meta-analysis: Quantitative methods for research synthesis. Sage.
Wolins, L. & Benbow, C. P. (in preparation) Item performance on the SAT-M: Differences by gender and between seventh graders and high school students.
Woolf, V. (1929) A room of one's own. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Zaidel, E. (1978) Lexical organization in the right hemisphere. In: Cerebral correlates of conscious experience, ed. Buser, and Rougeul-Buser. INSERM Symposium No. 6. Elsevier Press.
Zimmerman, W. (1984) The reliability and validity of the Bern Sex Role Inventory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University.
Zolog, A. (1983) Speech disturbances in parietal lobe lesions. Neurologie et Psychiatrie 21(3):165–167.