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  • Cited by 6
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Woodside, Arch G. 2016. The good practices manifesto: Overcoming bad practices pervasive in current research in business. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 69, Issue. 2, p. 365.

    Fawcett, Tim W. Fallenstein, Benja Higginson, Andrew D. Houston, Alasdair I. Mallpress, Dave E.W. Trimmer, Pete C. and McNamara, John M. 2014. The evolution of decision rules in complex environments. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 153.

    Woodside, Arch G. 2011. Responding to the severe limitations of cross-sectional surveys: Commenting on Rong and Wilkinson’s perspectives. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 153.

    Gigerenzer, Gerd 2010. Moral Satisficing: Rethinking Moral Behavior as Bounded Rationality. Topics in Cognitive Science, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 528.

    Todd, Peter M. and Gigerenzer, Gerd 2007. Environments That Make Us Smart: Ecological Rationality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 167.

    Dhami, Mandeep K. Hertwig, Ralph and Hoffrage, Ulrich 2004. The Role of Representative Design in an Ecological Approach to Cognition.. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 130, Issue. 6, p. 959.


Shepard's mirrors or Simon's scissors?

  • Peter M. Todd (a1) and Gerd Gigerenzer (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2001

Shepard promotes the important view that evolution constructs cognitive mechanisms that work with internalized aspects of the structure of their environment. But what can this internalization mean? We contrast three views: Shepard's mirrors reflecting the world, Brunswik's lens inferring the world, and Simon's scissors exploiting the world. We argue that Simon's scissors metaphor is more appropriate for higher-order cognitive mechanisms and ask how far it can also be applied to perceptual tasks. [Barlow; Kubovy & Epstein; Shepard]

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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