Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Basile, Benjamin M. Hampton, Robert R. Suomi, Stephen J. and Murray, Elisabeth A. 2009. An assessment of memory awareness in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Animal Cognition, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 169.

    Smith, J. David 2009. The study of animal metacognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 13, Issue. 9, p. 389.

    Paukner, Annika Anderson, James R. and Fujita, Kazuo 2006. Redundant food searches by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): a failure of metacognition?. Animal Cognition, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 110.

    Smith, J. David Beran, Michael J. Redford, Joshua S. and Washburn, David A. 2006. Dissociating uncertainty responses and reinforcement signals in the comparative study of uncertainty monitoring.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol. 135, Issue. 2, p. 282.


Significant uncertainty is common in nature

  • Donald R. Griffin (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2003

In animals' natural lives, uncertainty is normal; and certainty, exceptional. Evaluating ambiguous information is essential for survival: Does what is seen, heard, or smelled mean danger? Does that gesture mean aggression or fear? Is he confident or uncertain? If they are conscious of anything, the content of animals' awareness probably includes crucial uncertainties, both their own and those of others.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *