Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Smiling reflects different emotions in men and women

  • Simine Vazire (a1), Laura P. Naumann (a2), Peter J. Rentfrow (a3) and Samuel D. Gosling (a4)
Abstract
Abstract

We present evidence that smiling is positively associated with positive affect in women and negatively associated with negative affect in men. In line with Vigil's model, we propose that, in women, smiling signals warmth (trustworthiness cues), which attracts fewer and more intimate relationships, whereas in men, smiling signals confidence and lack of self-doubt (capacity cues), which attracts numerous, less-intimate relationships.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Brown S. L. & Schwartz G. E. (1980) Relationships between facial electromyography and subjective experience during affective imagery. Biological Psychology 11:4962.
Ekman P., Davidson R. J. & Friesen W. V. (1990) The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology: II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58:342–53.
Ekman P., Friesen W. V. & Ancoli S. (1980) Facial signs of emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39:1125–34.
Friedman S. & Miller-Herringer T. (1991) Nonverbal display of emotion in public and in private: Self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61:766–75.
Gehricke J. G. & Fridlund A. J. (2002) Smiling, frowning, and autonomic activity in mildly depressed and nondepressed men in response to emotional imagery of social contexts. Perceptual Motor Skills 94:141–51.
Hall J. A. & Horgan T. G. (2003) Happy affect and smiling: Is their relation moderated by interpersonal power? Emotion 3:303309.
Hecht M. A. & LaFrance M. (1998) License or obligation to smile: The effect of power and sex on amount and type of smiling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24:1332–42.
Hess U., Banse R. & Kappas A. (1995) The intensity of facial expression is determined by underlying affective state and social situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69:280–88.
Jakobs E., Manstead A. S. R. & Fischer A. H. (2001) Social context effects on facial activity in a negative emotional setting. Emotion 1:5169.
Kraut R. E. & Johnston R. E. (1979) Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:1539–53.
LaFrance M. & Hecht M. A. (2000) Gender and smiling: A meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling. In: Gender and emotion: Social Psychological Perspectives, ed. Fischer A. H., pp. 118–42. Cambridge University Press.
Larsen J. T., Norris C. J. & Cacioppo J. T. (2003) Effects of positive and negative affect on electromyographic activity over zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii. Psychophysiology 40:776–85.
Polk D. E., Cohen S., Doyle W. J., Skoner D. P. & Kirschbaum C. (2005) State and trait affect as predictors of salivary cortisol in healthy adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:261–72.
Ruiz-Belda M. A., Fernández-Dols J. M. & Carrera P. (2003) Spontaneous facial expression of happy bowlers and soccer fans. Cognition and Emotion 17:315–26.
Schwartz G. E., Brown S. L. & Ahern G. L. (1980) Facial muscle patterning and subjective experience during affective imagery: Sex differences. Psychophysiology 17:7582.
Watson D., Clark L. A. & Tellegen A. (1988) Development and validation of a brief measure of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:1063–70.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 23
Total number of PDF views: 42 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 259 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

A correction has been issued for this article: