Skip to main content Accessibility help

A socio-relational framework of sex differences in the expression of emotion

  • Jacob Miguel Vigil (a1)


Despite a staggering body of research demonstrating sex differences in expressed emotion, very few theoretical models (evolutionary or non-evolutionary) offer a critical examination of the adaptive nature of such differences. From the perspective of a socio-relational framework, emotive behaviors evolved to promote the attraction and aversion of different types of relationships by advertising the two most parsimonious properties of reciprocity potential, or perceived attractiveness as a prospective social partner. These are the individual's (a) perceived capacity or ability to provide expedient resources, or to inflict immediate harm onto others, and their (b) perceived trustworthiness or probability of actually reciprocating altruism (Vigil 2007). Depending on the unique social demands and relational constraints that each sex evolved, individuals should be sensitive to advertise “capacity” and “trustworthiness” cues through selective displays of dominant versus submissive and masculine versus feminine emotive behaviors, respectively. In this article, I introduce the basic theoretical assumptions and hypotheses of the framework, and show how the models provide a solid scaffold with which to begin to interpret common sex differences in the emotional development literature. I conclude by describing how the framework can be used to predict condition-based and situation-based variation in affect and other forms of expressive behaviors.



Hide All
Adolphs, R. & Tranel, D. (2004) Impaired judgments of sadness but not happiness following bilateral amygdala damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16:453–62.
Adolphs, R., Tranel, D. & Damasio, A. R. (1998) The human amygdala in social judgment. Nature 393:470–73.
Agrawal, A., Jacobson, K. C., Prescott, C. A. & Kendler, K. S. (2002) A twin study of sex differences in social support. Psychological Medicine 32:1155–64.
Agumadu, C. O., Yousufi, S. M., Malik, I. S., Nguyen, M. T., Jackson, M. A., Soleymani, K., Thrower, C. M., Peterman, M. J., Walters, G. W., Niemtzoff, M. J., Bartko, J. J. & Postolache, Y. T. (2004) Seasonal variation in mood in African American college students in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. American Journal of Psychiatry 161:1084–89.
Allen, N. B. & Badcock, P. B. T. (2003) The social risk hypothesis of depressed mood: Evolutionary, psychosocial, and neurobiological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin 129:887913.
Andersen, S. M. & Chen, S. (2002) The relational self: An interpersonal social-cognitive theory. Psychological Review 109:619–45.
Anderson, K. J. & Leaper, C. (1998) Meta-analyses of gender effects on conversational interruption: Who, what, when, where, and how. Sex Roles 39:225–52.
Arabin, B., Bos, R., Rijlaarsdam, R., Mohnhaupt, A. & van Eyck, J., (1996) The onset of inter-human contacts: Longitudinal ultrasound observations in early twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstetrics and Gynecology 8:166–73.
Archer, J. (2004) Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology 8:291322.
Arsenio, W. F., Cooperman, S. & Lover, A. (2000) Affective predictors of preschoolers' aggression and peer acceptance: Direct and indirect effects. Developmental Psychology 36:438–48.
Aureli, F. (1997) Post-conflict anxiety in nonhuman primates: The mediating role of emotion in conflict resolution. Aggressive Behavior 23:315–28.
Bachorowski, J. & Owren, M. J. (2001) Not all laughs are alike: Voiced but not unvoiced laughter readily elicits positive affect. Psychological Science 12:252–57.
Bandura, A., Ross, D. & Ross, S. A. (1961) Transmission of aggressions through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 63:575–82.
Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C. & Belmonte, M. K. (2005) Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science 310:819–23.
Baron-Cohen, S. & Wheelwright, S. (2004) The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:163–75.
Barrett, L. F. (1998) Discrete emotions or dimensions? The role of valence focus and arousal focus. Cognition and Emotion 12:579–99.
Bartels, A. & Zeki, S. (2004) The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. NeuroImage 21:1155–66.
Baumeister, R. F. & Sommer, K. L. (1997) What do men want? Gender differences and two spheres of belongingness: Comment on Cross and Madson (1997). Psychological Bulletin 122:3844.
Bayliss, A. P. & Tipper, S. P. (2006) Predictive gaze cues and personality judgments. Should I trust you? Psychological Science 17:514–20.
Becht, M. C. & Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M. (2002) Crying and mood change: A cross-cultural study. Cognition and Emotion 16:87101.
Belle, D. (1987) Gender differences in the social moderators of stress. In: Gender and stress, ed. Barnett, R. C., Biener, L. & Baruch, G. K., pp. 257–77. Free Press.
Benenson, J. F. (1993) Greater preference among females than males for dyadic interaction in early childhood. Child Development 64:544–55.
Benenson, J. F. & Christakos, A. (2003) The greater fragility of females' versus males' closest same-sex friendships. Child Development 74:1123–29.
Benenson, J. F., Maiese, R., Dolenszky, E., Dolensky, N., Sinclair, N. & Simpson, A. (2002) Group size regulates self-assertive versus self-depreciating responses to interpersonal competition. Child Development 73:1818–29.
Benenson, J. F. & Schinazi, J. (2004) Sex differences in reactions to outperforming same-sex friends. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 22:317–33.
Benetti-McQuoid, J. & Bursik, K. (2005) Individual differences in experiences of and responses to guilt and shame: Examining the lenses of gender and gender role. Sex Roles 53:133–42.
Ben-Ner, A., Putterman, L., Kong, F. & Magan, D. (2004) Reciprocity in a two-part dictator game. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 53:333–52.
Bente, G., Donaghy, W. C. & Suwelack, D. (1998) Sex differences in body movement and visual attention: An integrated analysis of movement and gaze in mixed-sex dyads. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 22:3158.
Besson, M., Magne, C. & Schön, D. (2002) Emotional prosody: Sex differences in sensitivity to speech melody. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:405407.
Birditt, K. S. & Fingerman, K. L. (2003) Age and gender differences in adults' descriptions of emotional reactions to interpersonal problems. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 58:237–45.
Blau, P. M. & Duncan, O. D. (1967) The American occupational structure. Wiley.
Bogner, H. R. & Gallo, J. J. (2004) Are higher rates of depression in women accounted for by differential symptom reporting? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 39:126–32.
Bolte, A., Goschke, T. & Kuhl, J. (2003) Emotion and intuition: Effects of positive and negative mood on implicit judgments of semantic coherence. Psychological Science 14:416–21.
Bonanno, G. A. & Keltner, D. (2004) The coherence of emotion systems: Comparing “on-line” measures of appraisal and facial expressions, and self-report. Cognition and Emotion 18:431–44.
Bond, M. H. (1993) Emotions and their expression in Chinese culture. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 17:245–62.
Boone, R. T. & Buck, R. (2003) Emotional expressivity and trustworthiness: The role of nonverbal behavior in the evolution of cooperation. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27:163–82.
Booth, A., Granger, D. A. & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2008) Gender- and age-related differences in the association between social relationship quality and trait levels of salivary cortisol. Journal of Research on Adolescence 18:239–60.
Breiger, R. L. (1995) Social structure and the phenomenology of attainment. Annual Review of Sociology 21:115–36.
Brew, F. P., Hesketh, B. & Taylor, A. (2001) Individualistic-collectivist differences in adolescent decision making and decision styles with Chinese and Anglos. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 25:119.
Brody, L. R. & Hall, J. A. (2000) Gender, emotion, and expression. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M., pp. 338–49. Guilford Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.
Brown, G. W. (2000) Emotion and clinical depression: An environmental view. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M., pp. 7590. Guilford Press.
Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E., MacCarthy, B., Sturt, E. & Wykes, T. (1990) Gender, social support and recovery from depressive disorders: A prospective clinical study. Psychological Medicine 20:147–56.
Buck, R. (1999) The biological affects: A typology. Psychological Review 106:301–36.
Buckingham, G., DeBruine, L. M., Little, A. C., Welling, L. L. M. & Conway, C. A. (2006) Visual adaptation to masculine and feminine faces influences generalized preferences and perceptions of trustworthiness. Evolution and Human Behavior 27:381–89.
Bugental, D. B. (2000) Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: A domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126:187219.
Bugental, D. B. & Lewis, J. C. (1998) Interpersonal power repair in response to threats to control from dependent others. In: Personal control in action: Cognitive and motivational mechanisms, ed. Kofta, M., Weary, G. & Sedek, G., pp. 341–62. Plenum.
Burke, R. J., Weir, T. & Harrison, D. (1976) Disclosure of problems and tensions experienced by marital partners. Psychological Reports 38:531–42.
Bushman, B. J., Wang, M. C. & Anderson, C. A. (2005) Is the curve relating temperature to aggression linear or curvilinear? Assaults and temperature in Minneapolis reexamined. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89:6266.
Buss, K. A. & Kiel, E. J. (2004) Comparison of sadness, anger, and fear facial expressions when toddlers look at their mothers. Child Development 75:1761–73.
Cacioppo, J. T., Klein, D. J., Berntson, G. G. & Hatfield, E. (1993) The psychophysiology of emotion. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M., pp. 119–42. Guilford Press.
Caldwell, M. S., Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W. & Kim, D. (2004) Reciprocal influences among relational self-views, social disengagement, and peer stress during early adolescence. Child Development 75:1140–54.
Campanella, S., Rossignol, M., Mejias, S., Joassin, F., Mauage, P., Debatisse, D., Bruyer, R., Crommelinck, M. & Guérit, J. M. (2004) Human gender differences in an emotional visual oddball task: An event-related potentials study. Neuroscience Letters 367:1418.
Campbell, D. W. & Eaton, W. O. (1999) Sex differences in the activity level of infants. Infant and Child Development 8:117.
Camras, L. A., Holland, E. A. & Patterson, M. J. (1993) Facial expression. In: Handbook of emotions, 1st edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M., pp. 199208. Guilford Press.
Carson, R. C. (1969) Interaction concepts of personality. Aldine.
Cashdan, E. (1998) Smiles, speech, and body posture: How women and men display sociometric status and power. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 22:209–28.
Cellerino, A., Borghetti, D. & Sartucci, F. (2004) Sex differences in face gender recognition in humans. Brain Research Bulletin 63:443–49.
Chang, L. (2004) The role of classroom norms in contextualizing the relations of children's social behaviors to peer acceptance. Developmental Psychology 40:691702.
Chapman, A. J. (1973) Social facilitation of laughter in children. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 9:528–41.
Chapman, A. J. (1975) Humorous laughter in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31:4249.
Chen, E., Langer, D. A., Raphaelson, Y. E. & Mathews, K. A. (2004) Socioeconomic status and health in adolescents: The role of stress interpretations. Child Development 75:1039–52.
Cillessen, A. H. N. & Mayeux, L. (2004) From censure to reinforcement: Developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Development 75:147–63.
Cohen, S., Frank, E., Doyle, W. J., Skoner, D. P., Rabin, B. S. & Gwaltney, J. M. (1998) Types of stressors that increase susceptibility to the common cold in healthy adults. Health Psychology 17:214–23.
Cohn, L. D. (1991) Sex differences in the course of personality development: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 109:252–66.
Cole, D. A., Martin, J. M., Peeke, L. A., Seroczynski, A. D. & Fier, J. (1999) Children's over- and underestimation of academic competence: A longitudinal study of gender differences, depression, and anxiety. Child Development 70:459–73.
Collins, N. L. & Miller, L. C. (1994) Self-disclosure and liking: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin 116:457–75.
Cosmides, L. (1983) Invariances in the acoustic expression of emotion during speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 9:864–81.
Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (2000) Evolutionary psychology and the emotions. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M., pp. 91115. Guilford Press.
Costa, M., Dinsbach, W., Manstead, A. S. R. & Bitti, P. E. R. (2001) Social presence, embarrassment, and nonverbal behavior. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 25:225–40.
Cottrell, C. A., Neuberg, S. L. & Li, N. P. (2007) What do people desire in others? A sociofunctional perspective on the importance of different valued characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92:208–31.
Cramer, D., Henderson, S. & Scott, R. (1997) Mental health and desired social support: A four-wave panel study. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 14:761–75.
Crick, N. R. & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2003) The development of psychopathology in females and males: Current progress and future challenges. Development and Psychopathology 15:719–42.
Crusco, A. H. & Wetzel, C. G. (1984) The Midas touch. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 10:512–17.
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1988) Homicide. Aldine de Gruyter.
Darwin, C. (1859) On the origin of species by means of natural selection. John Murray.
Darwin, C. (1872) The expression of the emotions in man and animals. John Murray.
Darwin, C. (1882) The descent of man and selection in relation to sex, 2nd edition. John Murray.
Davidson, R. J. (1993) The neuropsychology of emotion and affective style. In: Handbook of emotions, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M., pp. 143–54. Guilford Press.
Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C. & Kalin, N. H. (2000) Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin 126:890909.
Davis, M. C., Matthews, K. A. & Twamley, E. W. (1999) Is life more difficult on Mars or Venus? A meta-analysis review of sex differences in major and minor life events. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 21:8397.
De Fruyt, F., (1997) Gender and individual differences in adult crying. Personality and Individual Differences 22:937–40.
de Graaf, R., van Dorsselaer, S., ten Have, M., Schoemaker, C., & Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2005) Seasonal variations in mental disorders in the general population of a country with a maritime climate: Findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 162:654–61.
de Jong, P. J. (1999) Communicative and remedial effects of social blushing. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 23:197217.
de Vliert, E. V., Huang, X. & Parker, P. M. (2004) Do colder and hotter climates make richer societies more, but poorer societies less, happy and altruistic? Journal of Environmental Psychology 24:1730.
de Waal, F. B. M. (1993) Sex differences in chimpanzee (and human) behavior: A matter of social values? In: The origin of values, ed. Hechter, M., Nadel, L. & Michod, R. E., pp. 285303. Aldine de Gruyter.
de Waal, F. B. M. (2000) Primates: A natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science 289:586–90.
Diala, C. C. & Muntaner, C. (2003) Mood and anxiety disorders among rural, urban, and metropolitan residents in the United States. Community Mental Health Journal 39:239–52.
Diener, E. & Seligman, E. P. (2002) Very happy people. Psychological Science 13:8184.
Dimitrovsky, L., Spector, H. & Levi-Schiff, R. (2000) Stimulus gender and emotion difficulty level: Their effect on recognition of facial expressions of affect in children with and without LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities 33:410–16.
Dindia, K. (1987) The effects of sex of subject and sex of partner on interruptions. Human Communication Research 13:345–71.
Dindia, K. & Allen, M. (1992) Sex differences in self-disclosure: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 112:106–24.
DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Brand, S., Philips, R. S. C. & Lease, A. M. (1996) Early adolescent self-esteem: A developmental-ecological framework and assessment strategy. Journal of Research on Adolescence 6:543–79.
Dunn, J. (2003) Emotional development in early childhood: A social relationship perspective. In: The handbook of affective science, ed. Davidson, R., Goldsmith, H. H. & Scherer, K., pp. 332–46. Oxford University Press.
Eagly, A. H., Ashmore, R. D., Makhijani, M. G. & Longo, L. C. (1991) What is beautiful is good, but … : A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin 110:109–28.
Eagly, A. H. & Crowley, M. (1986) Gender and helping behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin 100:283308.
Eaton, W. O. & Enns, L. R. (1986) Sex differences in human motor activity level. Psychological Bulletin 100:1928.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Karbon, M., Murphy, B. C., Carlo, G. & Wosinski, M. (1996) Relations of school children's comforting behavior to empathy-related reactions and shyness. Social Development 5:330–51.
Eisenberg, N. & Lennon, R. (1983) Sex differences in empathy and related capacities. Psychological Bulletin 94:101–30.
Eisenberg, N., Losoya, S. & Spinrad, T. (2003) Affect and prosocial responding. In: The handbook of affective science, ed. Davidson, R., Goldsmith, H. H. & Scherer, K., pp. 787803. Oxford University Press.
Ekehammar, B., Akrami, N. & Araya, T. (2003) Gender differences in implicit prejudice. Personality and Individual Differences 34:1509–23.
Elfenbein, H. & Ambady, N. (2003) Universals and cultural differences in recognizing emotions. Current Directions in Psychological Science 12:159–64.
Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., Goldsmith, H. H. & Van Hulle, C. A. (2006) Gender differences in temperament: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 132:3372.
Engell, A. D., Haxby, J. V. & Todorov, A. (2007) Implicit trustworthiness decisions: Automatic coding of face properties in the human amygdala. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19:1508–19.
Eysenck, H. J. (1976) Sex and personality. Open Books.
Fabes, R. A., Carlo, G., Kupanokk, K. & Laible, D. (1999) Early adolescence and prosocial/moral behavior: I. The role of individual processes. Journal of Early Adolescence 19:516.
Fabes, R. A. & Eisenberg, N. (1998) Meta-analyses of age and sex differences in children's and adolescents' prosocial behavior. In: Handbook of child psychology, vol. 3: Socialization, personality, and social development, ed. Eisenberg;, N.5th edition, ed. Eisenberg;, N.Wiley. Available at:
Farmer, T. W., Bishop, D. B., O'Neal, K. K. & Cairns, B. D. (2003) Rejected bullies or popular leaders? The social relations of aggressive subtypes of rural African American early adolescents. Developmental Psychology 39:9921004.
Feingold, A. (1994) Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 116:429–56.
Feingold, A. & Mazzella, R. (1998) Gender differences in body image are increasing. Psychological Science 9:190–95.
Fiske, S. T. (1993a) Controlling other people: The impact of power on stereotyping. American Psychologist 48:621–28.
Fiske, S. T. (1993b) Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology 44:155–94.
Flinn, M. V. & England, B. G. (2003) Childhood stress: Endocrine and immune responses to psychosocial events. In: Social and cultural lives of immune systems, ed. Wilce, J. M., pp. 107–47. Routledge.
Forgas, J. P. (2003) Affective influences on attitudes and judgments. In: The handbook of affective science, ed. Davidson, R., Goldsmith, H. H. & Scherer, K., pp. 596619. Oxford University Press.
Fournier, M. A., Moskowitz, D. S. & Zuroff, D. C. (2002) Social rank strategies in hierarchical relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83:425–33.
Fox, E., Lester, V., Russo, R., Bowles, R. J., Pichler, A. & Dutton, K. (2000) Facial expressions of emotion: Are angry faces detected more efficiently? Cognition and Emotion 14:6192.
Fredrickson, B. L. & Joiner, T. (2002) Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science 13:172–75.
Fridlund, A. J. (1991) Sociality of solitary smiling: Potentiation by an implicit audience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60:229–40.
Fridlund, A. J., Sabini, J., Hedlund, L. E., Schaut, J. A., Shenker, J. I. & Knauer, M. J. (1990) Audience effects on solitary faces during imagery: Displaying to the people in your head. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 14:113–37.
Frijda, N. H. (1993) Moods, emotion episodes, and emotions. In: Handbook of emotions, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M., pp. 381403. Guilford Press.
Fuller, B. F. (2002) Infant gender differences regarding acute established pain. Clinical Nursing Research 11:190203.
Garber, J. (2000) Development and depression. In: Handbook of developmental psychopathology, 2nd edition, ed. Sameroff, A. J., Lewis, M. & Miller, S. M., pp. 467–90. Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
Gault, B. A. & Sabini, J. (2000) The roles of empathy, anger, and gender in predicting attitudes toward punitive, reparative, and preventative public policies. Cognition & Emotion 14:495520.
Ge, X., Conger, R. D. & Elder, G. H. (2001) Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology 37:404–17.
Ge, X., Kim, I. J., Brody, G. H., Conger, R. D., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X. & Cutrona, C. E. (2003) It's about timing and change: Pubertal transition effects on symptoms of major depression among African American youths. Developmental Psychology 39:430–39.
Geary, D. C. (2002) Sexual selection and human life history. Advances in Child Development and Behavior 30:41101.
Geary, D. C. (2009) Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences, 2nd editionAmerican Psychological Association.
Geary, D. C., Byrd-Craven, J., Hoard, M. K., Vigil, J. & Numtee, C. (2003) Evolution and development of boys' social behavior. Developmental Review 23:444–70.
Geary, D. C. & Flinn, M. V. (2001) Evolution of human parental behavior and the human family. Parenting: Science and Practice 1:561.
Geary, D. C. & Flinn, M. V. (2002) Sex differences in behavioral and hormonal response to social threat: Commentary on Taylor et al. (2000). Psychological Review 109:745–50.
Geary, D. C., Vigil, J. & Byrd-Craven, J. (2004) Evolution of human mate choice. Journal of Sex Research 41:2742.
Girdle, S., Turner, J., Sherwood, A. & Light, K. (1990) Gender difference in blood pressure control during a variety of behavioral stressors. Psychosomatic Medicine 52:571–91.
Gold, S. R., Fultz, J., Burke, C. H., Prisco, A. G. & Willet, J. A. (1992) Vicarious emotional responses of macho college males. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 7:165–74.
Goldshmidt, O. T. & Weller, L. (2000) “Talking emotions”: Gender differences in a variety of conversational contexts. Symbolic Interaction 23:117–34.
Goos, L. M. & Silverman, I. (2002) Sex related factors in the perception of threatening facial expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 26:2741.
Grammer, K. & Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1990) The ritualisation of laughter. In: Natürlichkeit der Sprache und der Kultur: Acta Colloquii, ed. Koch, W. A., pp. 192214. Brockmeyer.
Gray, J. R. (2002) Does a prosocial-selfish distinction help explain the biological affects? Comment on Buck (1999). Psychological Review 109:729–38.
Grossman, M. & Wood, W. (1993) Sex differences in intensity of emotional experience: A social role interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65:1010–22.
Guastella, A. J., Mitchell, P. B. & Dadds, M. R. (2008) Oxytocin increases gaze to the eye region of human faces. Biological Psychiatry 63:35.
Guinsberg, R., de Araújo Peres, C., Branco de Almeida, M. F., de Cássia Xavier Balda, R., Cássia Berenguel, R., Tonelotto, J., & Kopelman, B. I. (2000) Differences in pain expression between male and female newborn infants. Pain 85:127–33.
Hagen, E. H. (2003) The bargaining model of depression. In: Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, ed. Hammerstein, P., pp. 95123. MIT Press.
Haidt, J. (2001) The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review 108:814–34.
Hall, J. A. (1984) Nonverbal sex differences: Communication accuracy and expressive style. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hall, J. A. & Matsumoto, D. (2004) Gender differences in judgments of multiple emotions from facial expressions. Emotion 4:201206.
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour: II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1752.
Hamm, A. O., Schupp, H. T. & Weike, A. I. (2003) Motivational organization of emotions: Autonomic changes, cortical responses, and reflex modulation. In: The handbook of affective science, ed. Davidson, R., Goldsmith, H. H. & Scherer, K., pp. 187211. Oxford University Press.
Hammer, M. F., Karafet, T. M., Redd, A. J., Jarjanazi, H., Santachiara-Benerecetti, S., Soodyall, H. & Zequra, S. L. (2001) Hierarchical patterns of global human y-chromosome diversity. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18:1189–203.
Hartup, W. W. (1996) The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development 67:113.
Hepper, P. G., Shannon, E. A. & Dornan, J. C. (1997) Sex differences in fetal mouth movements. The Lancet 350:2027.
Hojjat, M. (2000) Sex differences and perceptions of conflict in romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 17:598617.
Holekamp, K. E. (2006) Questioning the social intelligence hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11:6569.
Holinger, P. C. (1980) Violent deaths as a leading cause of mortality: An epidemiologic study of suicide, homicide, and accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry 137:472–76.
Horn, S. S. (2003) Adolescents' reasoning about exclusion from social groups. Developmental Psychology 39:7184.
Hubbard, J. A. (2001) Emotion expression processing in children's peer interaction: The role of peer rejection, aggression, and gender. Child Development 72:1426–38.
Hubbard, J. A., Smithmyer, C. M., Ramsden, S. R., Parker, E. H., Flanagan, K. D., Dearing, K. F., Relyea, N. & Simons, R. F. (2002) Observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children's anger: Relations to reactive versus proactive aggression. Child Development 73:1101–18.
Ireland, J. L. (1999) Bullying behaviors among male and female prisoners: A study of adult and young offenders. Aggressive Behavior 25:161–78.
Isen, A. M. (2000) Positive affect and decision making. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M., pp. 417–35. Guilford Press.
Izard, C. E. (1993) Organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. In: Handbook of emotions, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M., pp. 631–41. Guilford Press.
Jackson, Y. & Warren, J. S. (2000) Appraisal, social support, and life events: Predicting outcome behavior in school-age children. Child Development 71:1441–57.
Jaffee, S. & Hyde, J. S. (2000) Gender differences in moral orientation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 126:703–26.
Jakobs, E., Manstead, A. S. R. & Fischer, A. H. (1996) Sociality effects on facial displays of sadness: Friends versus strangers. Poster presented at the 11th General Meeting of the European Association for Experimental Social Psychology, Gmunden, Austria, July 1996.
Jakupcak, M., Salters, K., Gratz, K. L. & Roemer, L. (2003) Masculinity and emotionality: An investigation of men's primary and secondary emotional responding. Sex Roles 49:111–20.
James, W. (1884) What is an emotion? Mind 9:188205.
Jones, M. B., Peacock, M. P. & Christopher, J. (1992) Self-reported anger in black high school adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 13:461–65.
Kaniasty, K. & Norris, F. H. (1995) Mobilization and deterioration of social support following natural disasters. Current Directions in Psychological Science 4:9498.
Keller, M. C. & Nesse, R. M. (2005) Is low mood an adaptation? Evidence for subtypes with symptoms that match precipitants. Journal of Affective Disorders 86:2735.
Keltner, D., Capps, L., Kring, A. M., Young, R. C. & Heerey, E. A. (2001) Just teasing: A conceptual analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin 127:229–48.
Kenny, D. A., Mohr, C. D. & Levesque, M. J. (2001) A social relations variance partitioning of dyadic behavior. Psychological Bulletin 127:128–41.
Kenrick, D. T., Li, N. L. & Butner, J. (2003) Dynamical evolutionary psychology: Individual decision rules and emergent social norms. Psychological Review 110:328.
Khan, A. A., Gardner, C. O., Prescott, C. A. & Kendler, K. S. (2002) Gender differences in the symptoms of major depression in opposite-sex dizygotic twin pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1427–29.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. & Newton, T. L. (2001) Marriage and health: His and hers. Psychological Bulletin 127:472503.
Kim, U., Triandis, H. C., Kagitcibasi, C., Choi, S.-C. & Yoon, G. (1994) Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Sage.
Kivlighan, K. T., Granger, D. A. & Booth, A. (2005) Gender differences in testosterone and cortisol response to competition. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:5871.
Kling, K. C., Hyde, J. S., Showers, C. J. & Buswell, B. N. (1999) Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 125:470500.
Knauft, B. M. (1991) Violence and sociality in human evolution. Current Anthropology 32:391428.
Kneidinger, L. M., Maple, T. L. & Tross, S. A. (2001) Touching behavior in sport: Functional components, analysis of sex differences, and ethological considerations. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 25:4362.
Knight, G. P., Guthrie, I. K., Page, M. C. & Fabes, R. A. (2002) Emotional arousal and gender differences in aggression: A meta-analysis. Aggressive Behavior 28:366–93.
Kovalenko, P. A., Hoven, C. W., Wicks, J., Moore, R. E., Mandell, D. J. & Liu, H. (2000) Seasonal variations in internalizing, externalizing, and substance use disorders in youth. Psychiatry Research 94:103–19.
Kraut, R. E. & Johnston, R. E. (1979) Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:1539–53.
Kring, A. M. & Gordon, A. H. (1998) Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:686703.
Kunz-Ebrecht, S. R., Mohamed-Ali, V., Feldman, P. J., Kirschbaum, C. & Steptoe, A. (2003) Cortisol responses to mild psychological stress are inversely associated with proinflammatory cytokines. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 17:373–83.
Kurzban, R. (2001) The social psychophysics of cooperation: Nonverbal communication in a public goods game. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 25:241–59.
Kurzban, R. & Leary, M. R. (2001) Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The function of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin 127:187208.
LaFrance, M. & Hecht, M. A. (2000) Gender and smiling: A meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling. In: Gender and emotion: Social Psychological Perspectives, ed. Fischer, A. H., pp. 118–42. Cambridge University Press.
LaFrance, M., Hecht, M. A. & Paluck, B. L. (2003) The contingent smile: A meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling. Psychological Bulletin 129( 2):305–34.
Lagattuta, K. H. & Wellman, H. M. (2002) Differences in early parent-child conversations about negative versus positive emotions: Implications for the development of psychological understanding. Developmental Psychology 38:564–80.
Lakin, J. L. & Chartrand, T. L. (2003) Using nonconscious behavioral mimicry to create affiliation and rapport. Psychological Science 14:334–39.
Larkin, K. T., Martin, R. R. & McClain, S. E. (2002) Cynical hostility and the accuracy of decoding facial expressions of emotions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 25:285–92.
Lazarsfeld, P. & Merton, R. K. (1954) Friendship as a social process: A substantive and methodological analysis. In: Freedom and control in modern society, ed. Berger, M., Abel, T. & Page, C. H., pp. 1866. Van Nostrand.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991) Emotion and adaptation. Oxford University Press.
Leaper, C. & Smith, T. E. (2004) A meta-analytic review of gender variations in children's language use: Talkativeness, affiliative speech, and assertive speech. Developmental Psychology 40:9931027.
Leaper, C., Tenenbaum, H. R. & Shaffer, T. G. (1999) Communication patterns of African American girls and boys from low-income, urban backgrounds. Child Development 70:1489–503.
Leary, T. (1957) Interpersonal diagnosis of personality. Ronald.
LeDoux, J. E. (1996) The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. Simon and Schuster.
Lee, V. & Wagner, H. (2002). The effect of social presence on the facial and verbal expression of emotion and the interrelationships among emotion components. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 26:325.
Leman, P. J., Ahmed, S. & Ozarow, L. (2005) Gender, gender relations, and the social dynamics of children's conversations. Developmental Psychology 41:6474.
Lever, J. (1978) Sex differences in the games children play. American Sociological Review 43:471–83.
Levy, D. P. (2005) Hegemonic complicity, friendship, and comradeship validation and causal processes among white, middle-class, middle-aged men. Journal of Men's Studies 13:199224.
Lewis, M. & Ramsay, D. (2002) Cortisol response to embarrassment and shame. Child Development 73:1034–45.
Li, N. P., Bailey, J. M., Kenrick, D. T. & Linsenmeier, J. A. (2002) The necessities and luxuries of mate preferences: Testing the trade-offs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82:947–55.
Lobel, T. E., Gruber, R., Govrin, N. & Mashraki-Pedhatzur, S. (2001) Children's gender-related inferences and judgments: A cross-cultural study. Developmental Psychology 37:839–46.
Lombardo, W. K., Cretser, G. A. & Roesch, S. C. (2001) For crying out loud: The differences persist in the ’90s. Sex Roles 45:529–47.
Maccoby, E. E. (2002) Gender and group processes: A developmental perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11:5558.
Mann, L., Radford, M., Burnett, P., Ford, S., Bond, M., Leung, K., Nakamura, H., Vaughan, G. & Yang, K. (1998) Cross-cultural differences in self-reported decision-making style and confidence. International Journal of Psychology 33:325–35.
Marlowe, F. W. (2004) Marital residence among foragers. Current Anthropology 45:277–84.
Marsh, A. A., Adams, R. B. & Kleck, R. E. (2005) Why do fear and anger look the way they do? Form and social function in facial expressions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:7386.
Marsh, A. A., Elfenbein, H. A. & Ambady, N. (2003) Nonverbal “accents”: Cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. Psychological Science 14:373–76.
Martin, R. B. (1998) The effect of voluntary eye movements on associations and mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology 54:545–53.
Marttunen, M., Henriksson, M. M., Hillevi, M. A., Heikkinen, M. E., Isometsa, E. T. & Lonnqvist, J. K. (1995) Suicide among female adolescents: Characteristics and comparison with males in the age group 13–22. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34:1297–307.
Mast, M. S. & Hall, J. A. (2004) Who is the boss and who is not? Accuracy of judging status. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 28:145–65.
Matsumoto, D. (1993) Ethnic differences in affect intensity, emotion judgments, display rule attitudes, and self-reported emotional expression in an American sample. Motivation and Emotion 17:107–23.
Matsumoto, D. & Ekman, P. (1989) American-Japanese cultural differences in intensity ratings of facial expressions of emotion. Motivation and Emotion 13:143–57.
Matthews, G. & Deary, I. J. (1998) Personality traits. Cambridge University Press.
Mazur, A. (1985) A biosocial model of status in face-to-face primate groups. Social Forces 64:377402.
McCart, M. R., Davies, H., Harris, R., Wincek, J., Calhoun, A. D. & Melzer-Lange, M. D. (2005) Assessment of trauma symptoms among adolescent assault victims. Journal of Adolescent Health |v36:70.e713.
McClure, E. B. (2000) A meta-analytic review of sex differences in facial expression processing and their development in infants, children, and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin 126( 3):424–53.
McClure, E. B., Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., Zarahn, E., Leibenluft, E., Bilder, R. M., Charney, D. S., Ernst, M. & Pine, D. S. (2004) A developmental examination of gender differences in brain engagement during evaluation of threat. Biological Psychiatry 55:1047–55.
McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K. C., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E. L., Brown, S. W. & Hight, T. L. (1998) Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:1586–603.
McElwain, N. L. & Volling, B. L. (2002) Relating individual control, social understanding, and gender to child-friend interaction: A relationships perspective. Social Development 11:362–85.
McEwen, B. S. & Seeman, T. (1999) Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896:3047.
McGuire, T. R. (1993) Emotion and behavior genetics in vertebrates and invertebrates. In: Handbook of emotions, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M., pp. 155–66. Guilford Press.
McLaughlin, K. A., Hilt, L. M. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2007) Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 35:801–16.
Mignault, A. & Chaudhuri, A. (2003) The many faces of a neutral face: Head tilt and perception of dominance and emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27:111–32.
Miller, J. L., Macedonia, C. & Sonies, B. C. (2006) Sex differences in prenatal oral-motor function and development. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 48:465–70.
Miller, R. S. (2004) Emotion as adaptive interpersonal communication: The case of embarrassment. In: The social life of emotions, ed. Tiedens, L. Z. & Leach, C. W., pp. 87104. Cambridge University Press.
Mogg, K. & Bradley, B. P. (1999) Orienting of attention to threatening facial expressions presented under conditions of restricted awareness. Cognition and Emotion 13:713–40.
Montepare, J. M. & Dobish, H. (2003) The contribution of emotion perceptions and their overgeneralizations to trait impressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27:237–54.
Moors, A. & De Houwer, J., (2005) Automatic processing of dominance and submissiveness. Experimental Psychology 52:296302.
Morton, J. B. & Trehub, S. E. (2001) Children's understanding of emotion in speech. Child Development 3:834–43.
Mroczek, D. K. & Kolarz, C. M. (1998) The effect of age on positive and negative affect: A developmental perspective on happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:1333–49.
Murdock, G. P. (1981) Atlas of world cultures. University of Pittsburgh Press.
Murphy, F. C., Nimmo-Smith, I. & Lawrence, A. D. (2003) Functional neuroanatomy of emotions: A meta-analysis. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 3:207–33.
Myers, C. D., Riley, J. L. & Robinson, M. E. (2003) Psychosocial contributions to sex-correlated differences in pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain 19:225–32.
Nail, P. R., MacDonald, G. & Levy, D. A. (2000) Proposal of a four-dimension model of social response. Psychological Bulletin 126:454–70.
Neff, L. A. & Karney, B. R. (2005) Gender differences in social support: A question of skill or responsiveness? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88:7990.
Nesse, R. M. (1990) Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Human Nature 1:261–89.
Nesse, R. M. (2005) Natural selection and the regulation of defense: A signal detection analysis of the smoke detector principle. Evolution and Human Behavior 26:88105.
Newcomb, M. D. (1990) Social support and personal characteristics: A developmental and interactional perspective. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 9:5468.
Newcomb, M. D. & Chou, C. (1989) Social support among young adults: Latent-variable models of quantity and satisfaction within six life areas. Multivariate Behavioral Research 24:233–56.
Nishina, A. & Juvonen, J. (2005) Daily reports of witnessing and experiencing peer harassment in middle school. Child Development 76:435–50.
Ohbuchi, K. I., Fukushima, O. & Tedeschi, J. T. (1999) Cultural values in conflict management: Goal orientation, goal attainment, and tactical decision. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 30:5171.
Öhman, A. (2002) Automaticity and the amygdala: Nonconscious responses to emotional faces. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11:6266.
Öhman, A., Flykt, A. & Esteves, F. (2001) Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130:466–78.
Öhman, A. & Wiens, S. (2003) On the automaticity of autonomic responses in emotion: An evolutionary perspective. In: Handbook of affective sciences, ed. Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K. & Goldsmith, H. H., pp. 256–75. Oxford University Press.
Okawa, M., Shirakawa, S., Uchiyama, M., Oguri, M., Kohsaka, M., Mishima, K., Sakamoto, K., Inoue, H., Kamei, K. & Takahashi, K. (1996) Seasonal variation of mood and behaviour in a healthy middle-aged population in Japan. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 94:211–16.
Ortony, A. & Turner, T. J. (1990) What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review 97:315–31.
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M. & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002) Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin 128:372.
Panksepp, J. (2000) Emotions as natural kinds within the mammalian brain. In: Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. M., pp. 137–56. Guilford Press.
Panksepp, J. (2003) Can anthropomorphic analyses of separation cries in other animals inform us about the emotional nature of social loss in humans? Comment on Blumberg and Sokoloff (2001). Psychological Review 110:376–88.
Parslow, R. A., Jorm, A. F. & Christensen, H. (2006) Associations of pre-trauma attributes and trauma exposure with screening positive for PTSD: Analysis of a community-based study of 2,085 young adults. Psychological Medicine 36:387–95.
Pasternak, B., Ember, M. & Ember, C. R. (1997) Sex, gender, and kinship: A cross-cultural perspective. Prentice Hall.
Patterson, M. L. (2003) Evolution and nonverbal behavior: Functions and mediating processes. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27:201207.
Patterson, M. L., Foster, J. L. & Bellmer, C. D. (2001) Another look at accuracy and confidence in social judgments. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 25:207–19.
Pinquart, M. & Sörensen, S. (2006) Gender differences in caregiver stressors, social resources, and health. Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 61:3345.
Pollak, S. D. & Sinha, P. (2002) Effects of early experience on children's recognition of facial displays of emotion. Developmental Psychology 38:784–91.
Probst, J. C., Laditka, S. B., Moore, C. G., Harun, N., Powell, M. P. & Baxley, E. G. (2006) Rural-urban differences in depression prevalence: Implications for family medicine. Family Medicine 38:653–60.
Provine, R. R. (1993) Laughter punctuates speech: Linguistic, social, and gender contexts of laughter. Ethology 95:291–98.
Provine, R. R. (2004) Laughing, tickling, and the evolution of speech and self. Current Directions in Psychological Science 13:215–18.
Puts, D. A., Hodges, C. R., Cárdenas, R. A. & Gaulin, S. J. C. (2007) Men's voices as dominance signals: Vocal fundamental and formant frequencies influence dominance attributions among men. Evolution and Human Behavior 28:340–44.
Ramírez-Maestre, C., Martinez, A. E. L. & Zarazaga, R. E. (2004) Personality characteristics as differential variables of the pain perception. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 27:147–65.
Ramsey, J. L., Langlois, J. H. & Marti, N. C. (2005) Infant categorization of faces: Ladies first. Developmental Review 25:212–46.
Rehdanz, K. & Maddison, D. (2005) Climate and happiness. Ecological Economics 52:111–25.
Rodkin, P. C., Farmer, T. W., Pearl, R. & Van Acker, R., (2000) Heterogeneity of popular boys: Antisocial and prosocial configurations. Developmental Psychology 36:1424.
Rose, A. J. (2002) Co-rumination in the friendships of girls and boys. Child Development 73:1830–43.
Rose, A. J. & Asher, S. R. (2004) Children's strategies and goals in response to help-giving and help-seeking tasks within a friendship. Child Development 75:749–63.
Rose, A. J. & Rudolph, K. D. (2006) A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: Potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin 132:98131.
Rosip, J. C. & Hall, J. A. (2004) Knowledge of nonverbal cues, gender, and nonverbal decoding accuracy. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 28:267–86.
Roth-Isigkeit, A., Thyen, U., Stöven, H., Schwarzenberger, J. & Schmucker, P. (2005) Pain among children and adolescents: Restrictions in daily living and triggering factors. Pediatrics 115:e152–62.
Rottenberg, J., Gross, J. J., Wilhelm, F. H., Najmi, S. & Gotlib, I. H. (2002) Crying threshold and intensity in major depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111:302–12.
Rotton, J. & Dubitsky, S. S. (2002) Immune function and affective states following a natural disaster. Psychological Reports 90:521–24.
Rudman, L. A. (2004) Sources of implicit attitudes. Current Directions in Psychological Science 13:7982.
Rudolph, K. D., Caldwell, M. S. & Conley, C. S. (2005) Need for approval and children's well-being. Child Development 76:309–23.
Rudolph, U., Roesch, S. C., Greitemeyer, T. & Weiner, B. (2004) A meta-analytic review of help giving and aggression from an attributional perspective: Contributions to a general theory of motivation. Cognition and Emotion 18:815–48.
Russac, R. J., Gatliff, C. R. M. & Spottswood, D. (2007) Death anxiety across the adult years: An examination of age and gender effects. Death Studies 31:549–61.
Rutter, M., Caspi, A. & Moffitt, T. E. (2003) Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: Unifying issues and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44:1092–115.
Sabini, J., Siepmenn, M. & Stein, J. (2001) The really fundamental attribution error in social psychological research. Psychological Inquiry 12:115.
Salokangas, R. K. R., Vaahtera, K., Pacriev, S., Sohlman, B. & Lehtinen, V. (2002) Gender differences in depressive symptoms: An artifact caused by measurement instruments? Journal of Affective Disorders 68:215–20.
Salvador, A. (2005) Coping with competitive situations in humans. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29:195205.
Sapolsky, R. M. (1994) Why zebras don't get ulcers. W. H. Freeman.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2004) Social status and health in humans and other animals. Annual Review of Anthropology 33:393418.
Scheib, J. E., Gangestad, S. W. & Thornhill, R. (1999) Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 22:1913–17.
Scherer, K. R., Johnstone, T. & Klasmeyer, G. (2003) Vocal expression of emotion. In: Handbook of the affective sciences, ed. Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K. R. & Goldsmith, H., pp. 433–56. Oxford University Press.
Schimmack, U. (1996) Cultural influences on the recognition of emotion by facial expressions: Individualistic or Caucasian cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 27:3750.
Schneider, D. J. (1973) Implicit personality theory: A review. Psychological Bulletin 79:294309.
Seals, D. & Young, J. (2003) Bullying and victimization: Prevalence and relationship to gender, grade level, ethnicity, self-esteem, and depression. Adolescence 38:735–47.
Segerstrom, S. C. & Miller, G. E. (2004) Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychological Bulletin 130:601–30.
Seielstad, M., Minch, E. & Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1998) Genetic evidence for a higher female migration rate in humans. Nature Genetics 20:278–80.
Seielstad, M. T. (2000) Asymmetries in the maternal and paternal genetic histories of Colombian populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 67:1062–66.
Semino, O., Passarino, G., Oefner, P. J., Lin, A. A., Arbuzova, S., Beckman, L. E., De Benedictis, G., Francalacci, P., Kouvatsi, A., Limborska, S., Marcikiae, M., Mika, A., Mika, B., Primorac, D., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & Underhill, P. A. (2000) The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: A Y chromosome perspective. Science 290:1155–59.
Shackelford, T. K., Buss, D. M. & Bennett, K. (2002) Forgiveness or breakup: Sex differences in responses to a partner's infidelity. Cognition and Emotion 16:299307.
Shipman, K. L., Zeman, J., Nesin, A. E. & Fitzgerald, M. (2003) Children's strategies for displaying anger and sadness: What works with whom? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 49:100–22.
Sidanius, J., Levin, S., Liu, J. & Pratto, F. (2000) Social dominance orientation, anti-egalitarianism and the political psychology of gender: An extension and cross-cultural replication. European Journal of Social Psychology 20:4167.
Sidanius, J., Pratto, F. & Bobo, L. (1994) Social dominance orientation and the political psychology of gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67:9981011.
Simpson, J. A. & Gangestad, S. W. (1991) Individual differences in sociosexuality: Evidence for convergent and discriminate validity. Personality and Social Psychology 60:870–83.
Sloman, L. & Gilbert, P. (2000) Subordination and defeat. An evolutionary approach to mood disorders. Erlbaum.
Snowdon, C. T. (2003) Expression of emotion in non-human animals. In: Handbook of affective sciences, ed. Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K. R. & Goldsmith, H. H., pp. 457–80. Oxford University Press.
Snyder, M., Simpson, J. A. & Gangestad, S. (1986) Personality and sexual relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51:181–90.
Solomon, Z., Gelkopf, M. & Bleich, A. (2005) Is terror gender-blind? Gender differences in reaction to terror events. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 40:947–54.
Sourander, A., Santalahti, P., Haavisto, A., Piha, J., Ikäheimo, K. & Helenius, H. (2004) Have there been changes in children's psychiatric symptoms and mental health service use? A 10-year comparison from Finland. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:1134–45.
Southwick, S. M., Vythilingam, M. & Charney, D. S. (2005) The psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: Implications for prevention and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1:255–91.
Sprecher, S. (2001) A comparison of emotional consequences of and changes in equity over time using global and domain-specific measures of equity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 18:477501.
Stapley, J. C. & Haviland, J. M. (1989) Beyond depression: Gender differences in normal adolescents’ emotional experiences. Sex Roles 20:295308.
Sternglanz, R. W. & DePaulo, B. M. (2004) Reading nonverbal cues to emotions: The advantages and liabilities of relationship closeness. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 28:245–66.
Stetsenko, A., Little, T. D., Gordeeva, T., Grasshof, M. & Oettingen, G. (2000) Gender effects in children's beliefs about school performance: A cross-cultural study. Child Development 71:517–27.
Strayer, J. & Roberts, W. (2004) Empathy and observed anger and aggression in five-year-olds. Social Development 13:113.
Stroud, L. R., Salovey, P. & Epel, E. S. (2002) Sex differences in stress responses: Social rejection versus achievement stress. Biological Psychiatry 52:318–27.
Sutter, A. L., Leroy, V., Dallay, D., Verdoux, H. & Bourgeois, M. (1997) Post-partum blues and mild depressive symptomatology at days three and five after delivery. Journal of Affective Disorders 44:14.
Sy, S. R., DeMeis, D. K. & Scheinfield, R. E. (2003) Pre-school children's understanding of the emotional consequences for failures to act prosocially. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 21:259–72.
Taylor, S. E., Cousino, L., Lewis, B. P., Gruenwald, T. L., Gurung, R. A. R. & Updegraff, T. L. (2000) Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review 107:411–29.
Terwogt, M. M. (2002) Emotional states in self and others as motives for helping in 10-year-old children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 20:131–47.
Thoma, S. J. (1986) Estimating gender differences in the comprehension and preference of moral issues. Developmental Review 6:165–80.
Thunberg, M. & Dimberg, U. (2000) Gender differences in facial reactions to fear-relevant stimuli. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 24:4551.
Tiedens, L. Z. & Fragale, A. R. (2003) Power moves: Complementarity in dominant and submissive nonverbal behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84:558–68.
Timmers, M., Fischer, A. H. & Manstead, A. S. R. (1998) Gender differences in motives for regulating emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24:974–85.
Todorov, A. (2008) Evaluating faces on trustworthiness: An extension of systems for recognition of emotions signaling approach/avoidance behaviors. Annuals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1124:208–24.
Todorov, A., Mandisodza, A. N., Goren, A. & Hall, C. C. (2005) Inferences of competence from faces predict election outcomes. Science 308:1623–26.
Tolin, D. F. & Foa, E. B. (2006) Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative review of 25 years of research. Psychological Bulletin 132:959–92.
Tracy, J. L. & Robins, R. W. (2007) The psychological structure of pride: A tale of two facets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92:506–25.
Trivers, R. L. (1971) The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology 46:3557.
Tronick, E. Z. (1989) Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist 44:112–19.
Twenge, J. M. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002) Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort differences on the Children's Depression Inventory: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111:578–88.
Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T. & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1996) The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychological Bulletin 119:488531.
Uhart, M., Chong, R. Y., Oswald, L., Lin, P. & Wand, G. S. (2006) Gender differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 31:642–52.
Underwood, M. K., Schockner, A. E. & Hurley, J. C. (2001) Children's responses to same- and other-gender peers: An experimental investigation with 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds. Developmental Psychology 37:362–72.
Updegraff, K. A., McHale, S. M. & Crouter, A. C. (2000) Adolescent's sex-typed friendship experiences: Does having a sister versus a brother matter? Child Development 71:1597–610.
Van Baaren, R. B., Holland, R. W., Kawakami, K. & van Knippenberg, A., (2004) Mimicry and prosocial behavior. Psychological Science 15:7174.
Van Tilburg, M. A. L., Unterberg, M. L. & Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M. (2002) Crying during adolescence: The role of gender, menarche, and empathy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 20:7787.
Vigil, J. M. (2007) Asymmetries in the friendship preferences and social styles of men and women. Human Nature 18:143–61.
Vigil, J. M. (2008) Sex differences in affect behaviors, desired social responses, and accuracy at understanding the social desires of other people. Evolutionary Psychology 6:506–22.
Vigil, J. M., Brophy, S., Garrett, E. & McMurry, S. (submitted) Protracted facial processing biases and psychological correlates of victimization reports in healthy adults.
Vigil, J. M. & Geary, D. C. (2007) A preliminary investigation of family coping styles and psychological well-being among adolescent survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Family Psychology 22:176–80.
Vigil, J. M., Geary, D. C. & Byrd-Craven, J. (2006) Trade-offs in low-income women's mate preferences: Within-sex differences in reproductive strategy. Human Nature 17:319–36.
Vigil, J. M., Geary, D. C., Granger, D. A. & Flinn, M. V. (in press) Sex differences in salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and psychological functioning following Hurricane Katrina. Child Development.
Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M., Cornelius, R. R., Van Heck, G. L., & Becht, M. C. (2000) Adult crying: A model and review of the literature. Review of General Psychology 4:354–77.
Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M. & Scheirs, J. G. M. (2000) Sex differences in crying: Empirical findings and possible explanations. In: Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives. Studies in emotion and social interaction, vol. 2, ed. Fischer, A. H., pp. 143–65. Cambridge University Press.
Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M. & Van Heck, G. L. (1990) Gender, coping and psychosomatic symptoms. Psychological Medicine 20:125–35.
Wagner, J. D., Flinn, M. V. & England, B. G. (2002) Hormonal response to competition among male coalitions. Evolution and Human Behavior 23:437–42.
Wainwright, N. W. J. & Surtees, P. G. (2004) Area and individual circumstances and mood disorder prevalence. British Journal of Psychiatry 185:227–32.
Walters, K., Breeze, E., Wilkinson, P., Price, G. M., Bulpitt, C. J. & Fletcher, A. (2004) Local area deprivation and urban–rural differences in anxiety and depression among people older than 75 years in Britain. American Journal of Public Health 94:1768–74.
Warden, D. & MacKinnon, S. (2003) Prosocial children, bullies and victims: An investigation of their sociometric status, empathy and social problem-solving strategies. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 21:367–85.
Waters, A. M., Lipp, O. V. & Spence, S. H. (2005) The effects of affective picture stimuli on blink modulation in adults and children. Biological Psychology 68:257–81.
Webbink, P. (1986) The power of the eyes. Springer.
Weich, S., Holt, G., Twigg, L., Jones, K. & Lewis, G. (2003) Geographic variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders in Britain: A multilevel investigation. American Journal of Epidemiology 157:730–37.
Weiss, A., Bates, T. C. & Luciano, M. (2008) The genetics of personality and well-being in a representative sample. Psychological Science 19:205–10.
Wells, B., Peppé, S. & Goulandris, N. (2004) Intonation development from five to thirteen. Journal of Child Language 31:749–78.
Wells, R. S., Yuldasheva, N., Ruzibakiev, R., Underhill, P. A., Evseeva, I., Blue-Smith, J., Jin, L., Su, B., Pitchappan, R., Shanmugalakshmi, S., Balakrishnan, K., Read, M., Pearson, N. M., Zerjal, T., Webster, M. T., Zholoshvili, I., Jamarjashvili, E., Gambarov, S., Nikbin, B., Dostiev, A., Aknazarov, O., Zalloua, P., Tsoy, I., Kitaev, M., Mirrakhimov, M., Chariev, A. & Bodmer, W. F. (2001) The Eurasian heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:10244–49.
West, S. A., Pen, I. & Griffin, A. S. (2002) Cooperation and competition between relatives. Science 296:7275.
Wester, S. R., Vogel, D. L., Pressly, P. K. & Heesacker, M. (2002) Sex differences in emotion: A critical review of the literature and implications for counseling psychology. Counseling Psychologist 30:630–52.
Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2002) Gender and preschoolers' perception of emotion. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 48:248–62.
Williams, D. G. (1982) Weeping by adults: Personality correlates and sex differences. Journal of Psychology 110:217–26.
Williams, D. G. & Morris, G. H. (1996) Crying, weeping or tearfulness in British and Israeli adults. British Journal of Psychology 87:479505.
Williams, G. C. (1957) Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11:398411.
Willis, F. N. & Hamm, H. K. (1980) The use of interpersonal touch in securing compliance. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 5:4955.
Willis, J. & Todorov, A. (2006) First impressions: Making up your mind after 100 ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science 17:592–98.
Wilson, J. F., Weiss, D. A., Richards, M., Thomas, M. G., Bradman, N. & Goldstein, D. B. (2001) Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:5078–83.
Winston, J. S., Strange, B. A., O'Doherty, J. & Dolan, R. J. (2002) Automatic and intentional brain response during evaluation of trustworthiness of faces. Nature 5:277–83.
Wood, W. (1987) Meta-analytic review of sex differences in group performance. Psychological Bulletin 102:5371.
Wood, W. & Eagly, A. H. (2002) A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin 128:699727.
Wrangham, R. & Peterson, D. (1996) Demonic males: Apes and the origins of human violence. Houghton Mifflin.
Xu, Y. & Zhang, Z. (2007) Distinguishing proactive and reactive aggression in Chinese children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36:539–52.
Yale, M. E., Messinger, D. S., Cobo-Lewis, A. B. & Delgado, C. F. (2003) The temporal coordination of early infant communication. Developmental Psychology 39:815–24.
Zaalberg, R., Manstead, A. S. R. & Fischer, A. H. (2004) Relations between emotions, display rules, social motives, and facial behaviour. Cognition and Emotion 18:183207.
Zak, P. J., Kurzban, R. & Matzner, M. T. (2004) The neurobiology of trust. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1032:224–27.
Zald, D. H. (2003) The human amygdala and the emotional evaluation of sensory stimuli. Brain Research Reviews 41:88123.
Zeifman, D. M. (2001) An ethnological analysis of human infant crying: Answering Tinbergen's four questions. Psychobiology 39:265–85.
Zimmermann, L. K. & Stansbury, K. (2003) The influence of temperamental reactivity and situational context on the emotion-regulatory abilities of 3-year-old children. Journal of Genetic Psychology 164:389409.
Zuckerman, M., Tushup, R. & Finner, S. (1976) Sexual attitudes and experience: Attitude and personality correlates and changes produced by a course in sexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 44:719.
Zuroff, D. C., Fournier, M. A. & Moskowitz, D. S. (2007) Depression, perceived inferiority, and interpersonal behavior: Evidence for the involuntary defeat strategy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 26:751–78.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A socio-relational framework of sex differences in the expression of emotion

  • Jacob Miguel Vigil (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.