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  • Cited by 2
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Shipley, Thomas F. Tikoff, Basil Ormand, Carol and Manduca, Cathy 2013. Structural geology practice and learning, from the perspective of cognitive science. Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 54, p. 72.

    Struiksma, Marijn E. Noordzij, Matthijs L. and Postma, Albert 2009. What is the link between language and spatial images? Behavioral and neural findings in blind and sighted individuals. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 132, Issue. 2, p. 145.


Spatial symbol systems and spatial cognition: A computer science perspective on perception-based symbol processing

  • Christian Freksa (a1), Thomas Barkowsky (a1) and Alexander Klippel (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 1999

People often solve spatially presented cognitive problems more easily than their nonspatial counterparts. We explain this phenomenon by characterizing space as an inter-modality that provides common structure to different specific perceptual modalities. The usefulness of spatial structure for knowledge processing on different levels of granularity and for interaction between internal and external processes is described. Map representations are discussed as examples in which the usefulness of spatially organized symbols is particularly evident. External representations and processes can enhance internal representations and processes effectively when the same structures and principles can be implicitly assumed.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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