Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Studying restoration of brain function with fetal tissue grafts: Optimal models

  • Rae Silver (a1) and Joseph LeSauter (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 04 February 2010

We concur that basic research on the use of CNS grafts is needed. Two important model systems for functional studies of grafts are ignored by Stein & Glasier. In the first, reproductive function is restored in hypogonadal mice by transplantation of GnRH-synthesizing neurons. In the second, circadian rhythmicity is restored by transplantation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

F. A. Abdulla , M. R. Calaminici , V. V. Raevsky , J. D. Sinden , J. A. Gray & J. D. Stephenson (1994) An iontopheretic study of the effects of AMPA lesions of the nucleus basalis magnoccllularis on cholinergic and GABAergic influences on frontal cortex neurones of rats. Experimental Brain Research 98:441–56. [aJDS]

P. Aebischer , S. R. Winn & P. M. Galletti (1988) Transplantation of neural tissue in polymer capsules. Brain Research 448:364–68. [rEAN]

J. E. Ahlskog , P. T. Kelly , J. A. Van Herdeen , S. L. Stoddard , G. M. Tyce , A. J. Windebank , P. A. Bailey , G. N. Bell , M. D. Blexrud , & S. W. Carmichael (1990) Adrenal medullary transplantation into the brain in treatment of Parkinson's disease: Clinical outcome of neurochemical studies. Mayo Clinical Proceedings 65:305–28. [aDGS]

S. Akli , C. Caillaud , E. Vigne , L. D. Stratford-Perricaudet , L. Poenaru , M. Perricaudet , A. Kahn & M. R. Peschanski (1993) Transfer of a foreign gene into the brain using adenovirus vectors. Nature Cenetics 3:224–28. [aEAN]

G. F. Alheid & L. Heimer (1988) New perspectives in basal forebrain organization of special relevance for neuropsychiatric disorders: The striatopallidal, amygdaloid, and corticopetal components of substantia innominata. Neuroscience 27:139. [aJDS]

Y. S. Allen , R. M. Marchbanks & J. D. Sinden (1988) Non-specific effects of the putative cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion in the rat brain examined by autoradiography, immunocytochemistry and gel electrophoresis. Neuroscience Letters 95:6974. [aJDS]

C. A. Altar , M. Armanini , M. Dugich-Djordjevic , G. L. Bennett , R. Williams , S. Feinglass , V. Anicetti , D. Sinicropi & C. Bakhit (1992) Recovery of cholinergic phenotype in the injured rat neostriatum: Roles for endogenous and exogenous nerve growth factor. Journal of Neurochemistry 59:2167–77. [rDGS]

D. M. Altmann & J. M. Trowsdale (1989) Major histocompatability complex: Structure and function. Current Opinion in Immunology 2:93102. [JPB]

D. G. Amaral & J. Kurz (1985) An analysis of the origins of the cholinergic and noncholinergic septal projections to the hippocampal formation of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 281:337–61. [aJDS]

J. K. Andersen , D. M. Frim , O. Isacson & X. O. Breakefield (1993) Herpesvirus-mediated gene delivery into the rat brain: Specificity and efficiency of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 13:503–15. [rEAN]

K. J. Anderson , R. B. Gibbs & C. W. Cotman (1988) Transmitter phenotype is a major determinant in the specificity of synapses formed by cholinergic neurons transplanted to the hippocampus. Neuroscience 25:1925. [aJDS]

K. J. Anderson , R. B. Gibbs , P. M. Salvaterra & C. W. Cotman (1986) Ultrastriictural characterisation of identified cholinergic neurons transplanted to the hippocampal formation of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 249:279–92. [aJDS]

G. Anfossi , A. M. Cewirtz & B. Calabretta (1989) An oligomer complementary to c-myb-encoded mRNA inhibits proliferation of human myeloid leukemia cell lines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86:3379–83. [LC]

G. J. Annas & S. Elias (1989) The politics of transplantation of human fetal tissue. New England Journal of Medicine 320:1079–82. [KAC]

G. Apostol & O. D. Creutzfeldt (1974) Cross-correlation between the activity of septal units and hippocampal EEC during arousal. Brain Research 67:6575. [aJDS]

S. H. Appel (1981) A unifying hypothesis for the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's disease. Annals of Neurology 10:499505. [EJM]

G. Arbuthnott , S. Dunnett & N. MacLeod (1985) Electrophysiological properties of single units in dopamine-rich mesencephalic transplants in rat brain. Neuroscience Letters 57:205–10. [JPB]

T. Arendt , Y. Allen , R. Marchbanks , M. M. Schugens , J. Sinden , P. L. Lantos & J. A. Gray (1989) Cholinergic system and memory in the rat: Effects of chronic ethanol, embryonic basal forebrain transplants and excitotoxic lesions of cholinergic basal forebrain projection systems. Neuroscience 33:435–62. [arJDS]

T. Arendt , Y. Allen , J. Sinden , M. M. Schugens , R. M. Marchbanks , P. L. Lantos & J. A. Gray (1988a) Cholinergic-rich brain transplants reverse alcohol-induced memory deficits. Nature 332:448–50. [aJDS]

T. Arendt , V. Bigl , A. Arendt & A. Tennstedt (1983) Loss of neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer's disease, paralysis agitans and Korsakoff's disease. Acta Neuropathologica 61:101–8. [aJDS]

T. Arendt , D. Hennig , J. A. Gray & R. M. Marchbanks (1988b) Loss of neurons in the rat basal forebrain projection system after prolonged intake of ethanol. Brain Research Bulletin 21:563–70. [aJDS]

M. J. Attella , A. Nattinville & D. G. Stein (1987) Hormonal state affects recovery from frontal cortex lesions in adult female rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology 48:352–67. [aDGS]

D. Attwell , B. Barbour & M. Szatkowski (1993) Nonvesicular release of neurotransmitter. Neuron 11:401–7. [WJF]

J. Bachevalier & M. Mishkin (1989) Mnemonic and neuropathological effects of occluding the posterior cerebral artery in Macaca mulatto. Ncuropsychologia 27:83105. [rJDS]

A. Baddeley , S. Bressi , Salla S. Delia , R. Logie & S. Spinnler (1991) The decline of working memory in Alzheimer's disease. Brain 114:2521–42. [BA]

R. H. Baisden , D. J. Paul , F. E. Hossler & M. L. Woodruff (1992) Surface morphology of fetal neural transplants into the lateral ventricles after hippocampal lesions. Experimental Neurology 115:335–46. [RHB]

G. Bajocchi , S. H. Feldman , R. G. Crystal & A. Mastrangeli (1993) Direct in vivo gene transfer to ependymal cells in the central nervous system using rccombinant adenovirus vectors. Nature Cenetics 3:229–34. [aEAN, LC]

C. A. Banker (1980) Trophic interactions between astroglial cells and hippocampal neurons in culture. Science 209:809–10. [aDGS, rDGS, KS–C]

K. S. Bankiewicz , R. J. Mandel & M. V. Sofroniew (1993) Trophism, transplantation and animal models of Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology 124:140–49. [rDGS]

K. S. Bankiewicz , R. J. Plunkett , D. M. Jacobowitz , I. J. Kopin & E. H. Oldfield (1991) Fetal nondopaminergic neural implants in Parkinsonian primates. Journal of Neurosurgery 74:97–14. [aDGS, rDGS, KS-C]

H. Barbeau , C. Chau & S. Rossignol (1993) Noradrenergic agonists and locomotor training affect locomotor recovery after cord transcction in adult cats. Brain Research Bulletin 30:387–93. [AP]

T. M. Barth & B. B. Stanfield (1994) Homotopic, but not heterotopic, fetal cortical transplants can result in functional sparing following neonatal damage to the frontal cortex in rats. Cerebral Cortex 4:271–78. [BBS]

R. T. Bartus , R. L. Dean , B. Beer & A. S. Lippa (1982) The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction. Science 217:408–17. [aDGS, aJDS]

R. Baserga , K. Reiss , H. Alder , Z. Pietrzkowski & E. Surmacz (1992) Inhibition of cell cycle progression by antisensc oligodeoxynucleotides. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 660:6469. [LC]

S. A. Bayer (1980) Development in the hippocampal region in the rat -1. Neurogenesis examined with 3H-thymidine autoradiography. Journal of Comparative Neurology 190:87114. [aJDS]

S. A. Bayer (1990) Development of the lateral and medial limbic cortices in the rat in relation to cortical phylogeny. Experimental Neurology 107:118–31. [YJL]

S. S. Beall , W. E. Biddison , D. E. McFarlin , H. F. McFarland , L. E. Hood (1993) Susceptibility for multiple sclerosis is determined in part by inheritance of a 175-kb region of the TcR V beta chain locus and HLA class II genes. Journal of Neuroimmunology 45:5360. [JPB]

N. P. Bechtereva , Y. G. Abdullaev & S. V. Medvedev (1992) Properties of neuronal activity in cortex and subcortical nuclei of the human brain during single-word processing. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 82:296301. [rDGS]

T. Beck , B. Lutz , U. Thole & A. Wree (1993) Assessing chronic brain damage by quantification of regional volumes in post ischemic rat brain. Brain Research 605:280–86. [HPD]

C. Behl , J. Winkler , U. Bogdahn , J. Meixensberger , K.-H. Schligensiepen & W. Brysch (1993) Autocrine growth regulation in neuroectodermal tumors as detected with oligodeoxynucleotide antisense molecules. Neurosurgery 33:679–84. [LC]

W. F. Benedict , H. J. Xu , S. X. Hu & R. Takahashi (1990) Role of the retinoblastoma gene in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Journal of Clinical Investigation 85:988–93. [GMS]

H. Bergman , T. Wichmann & M. R. DeLong (1990) Reversal of experimental Parkinsonism by lesions of the subthalamic nucleus. Science 249:1436–38. [aDGS]

W. E. Biddison , S. S. Beall , P. Concannon , P. Charmley , R. A. Gatti , L. E. Hood , H. F. McFarland , D. E. McFarlin (1989) The germline repertoire of T-cell receptor beta-chain genes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Research in Immunology 140:212—15. [JPB]

V. Bigl , N. J. Woolf & L. L. Butcher (1982) Cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain to frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and cingulate cortices: A combined fluorescent tracer and acetylcholinesterase analysis. Brain Research Bulletin 8:727–49. [YJL]

A. Björklund , O. Lindvall , O. Isacson , P. Brundin , K. Wictorin , R. E. Strecker , D. J. Clarke & S. B. Dunnett (1987) Mechanisms of action of intracerebral neural implants – studies on nigral and striatal grafts to the lesioned striatum. Trends in Neuroscience 10:509–16. [SBD]

A. Bjorklund & U. Stenevi (1981) In vivo evidence for a hippocampal adrenergic neuronotrophic factor specifically released on septal deafferentation. Brain Research 229:403–28. [SBD]

A. Bjorklund & U. Stenevi (1984) Intracerebral neural implants: Neuronal replacement and reconstruction of damaged circuitries. Annual Review of Neuroscience 7:279308. [MLW]

S. B. Blunt , P. Jenner & C. D. Marsden (1991) The effect of L-dopa and carbidopa treatment on the survival of rat fetal dopamine grafts assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and [H-3] mazindol autoradiography. Neuroscience 43:95110. [SBD]

M. C. Bohn , L. Cupit , F. Marciano & D. M. Gash (1987) Adrenal grafts enhance recovery of striatal dopaminergic fibers. Science 237:913–16. [SBD, MLW]

P. Boksa (1985) Acetylcholine synthesis by adult bovine adrenal chromaffin cell cultures. Journal of Neurochemistry 45:1254–61. [aJDS]

J. P. Bolam , T. F. Freund , A. Björklund , S. B. Dunnett & A. D. Smith (1987) Synaptic input and local output of dopaminergic neurons in grafts that functionally reinnervate the host neostriatum. Experimental Brain Research 68:131–46. [JPB]

N. W. Bond , J. Walton & J. Pruss (1989) Restoration of memory following septo-hippocampal grafts: A possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Biological Psychology 28:6787. [NWB]

D. M. Bowen , C. B. Smith , P. White & A. N. Davison (1976) Neurotransmitter-related enzymes and indices of hypoxia in senile dementia and other abiotrophies. Brain 99:459–96. [aJDS]

G. Boyarsky , B. Ransom , W.-R. Schlue , M. B. E. Davis & W. F. Boron (1993) Intracellular pH regulation in single cultured astrocytes from rat forebrain. Glia 8:241–48. [rDGS]

B. S. Bregman & H. Bernstein–Goral (1991) Both regenerating and latedeveloping pathways contribute to transplant-induced anatomical plasticity after spinal cord lesions at birth. Experimental Neurology 112:4963. [AP]

B. S. Bregman , E. Kunkel-Bagden , P. J. Reier , H. N. Dai , M. Mcatee & D. Gao (1993) Recovery of function after spinal cord injury – mechanisms underlying transplant-mediated recovery of function differ after spinal cord injury in newborn and adult rats. Experimental Neurology 123:316. [AP]

D. B. Brock , J. M. Guralnik & J. A. Brody (1990) Demography and epidemiology of aging in the United States. In: Handbook of the biology of aging, 3rd ed., ed. E. L. Schneider & J. W. Rowe . Academic Press. [MPL]

M. Brückner & T. Arendt (1992) Intracortical grafts of purified astrocytes ameliorate memory deficits in rat induced by chronic treatment with ethanol. Neuroscience Letters 141:251–54. [rDGS, aJDS]

P. Brundin , A. Bjorklund & O. Lindvall (1990) Practical aspects of the use of human fetal brain tissue for intracerebral grafting grafting. Progress in Brain Research 82:707–14. [KAC]

P. Brundin , H. Widner , O. G. Nilsson , R. E. Strecker & A. Björklund (1989) Intracerebral xenografts of dopamine neurons: The role of immunosuppression and the blood–brain barrier. Experimental Brain Research 75: 195207. [aDGS]

J. T. Burtchaell (1989) The use of aborted fetal tissue in research: A rebuttal. IRB: A Review of Human Subjects Research 11:912. [KAC]

G. Buzsaki , F. Bayards , R. Miles , K. S. Song & F. H. Gage (1989) The grafted hippocampus: An epileptic focus. Experimental Neurology 105:1022. [aDGS]

G. Buzsaki , F. H. Gage , J. Czopf & A. Bjorklund (1987) Restoration of rhythmic slow activity (theta) in the subcortically denervated hippocampus by fetal CNS transplants. Brain Research 400:334–47. [aJDS]

G. Buzsaki , J. Wiesner , S. J. Henriksen & F. H. Gage (1989) Long–term potentiation of evoked and spontaneous neuronal activity in the grafted hippocampus. Experimental Brain Research 76:401–08. [aJDS]

M. Calaminici , F. A. Abdulla , J. D. Sinden & J. D. Stephenson (1993) Direct evidence for axonal outgrowth from cholinergic grafts to cholinergically–deafferented rat cortex. Neuroreport 4:585–87. [aJDS]

F. Casamenti , C. Scali , M. G. Vannucchi , L. Bartolini , & G. Pepeu (1993) Long-term ethanol-consumption by rats – effect on aeetylcholine-release in-vivo, choline-acetyltransferase activity, and behavior. Neuroscience 56:465–71. [aJDS]

J. C. Cassel , C. Kelche , B. Neufang , B. E. Will , G. Hertting & R. Jackisch (1992b) Graft–derived cholinergic reinnervation of the hippocampus prevents a lasting increase of hippocampal noradrenaline concentration induced by septohippocampal damage in rats. Neuroscience Letters 138:3236. [aDGS]

J. C. Cassel , C. Kelche , G. M. Peterson , G. P. Ballough , I. Goepp & B. Will (1991) Graft-induced behavioral recovery from subcallosal septohippocampal damage in rats depends on maturity stage of donor tissue. Neuroscience 45:571–86. [aJDS]

J. C. Cassel , B. Neufang , C. Kelche , F. Aiple , B. E. Will , G. Hertting & R. Rackisch (1992c) Effects of septal and/or raphe cell suspension grafts on hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity, high affinity synaptosomal uptake of choline and serotonin, and behavior in rats with extensive septohippocampal lesions. Brain Research 585:243–54. [aDGS]

A. C. Chang , L. C. Triarhou , C. J. Alyea , W. C. Low & B. Ghetti (1989) Developmental expression of polypeptide PEP-19 in cerebellar cell suspensions transplanted into the cerebellum of pcd mutant mice. Experimental Brain Research 76:639–45. [PS]

A. Chatterjee , M. Morris , D. Bowers , D. Willamson , L. Doty & K. Heilman (1993) Cholinergic treatment of an amnesic man with a basal forebrain lesion: Theoretical implications. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 56:1282–89. [BA]

Y. M. Chino , J. H. Kaas , E. L. Smith III, A. L. Langston & H. Cheng (1992) Rapid reorganization of cortical maps in adult cats following restricted deafferentation in retina. Vision Research 32:789–96. [BBS]

D. J. Clarke , P. Brundin , R. E. Strecker , O. G. Nilsson , A. Björklund & O. Lindvall (1988) Human fetal dopamine neurons grafted in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: Ultrastructural evidence for synapse formation using tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry. Experimental Brain Research 73:115–26. [JPB]

D. J. Clarke & S. B. Dunnett (1986) Ultrastructural organisation of the choline-acetyltransferase-immunoreactive fibres innervating the neocortex from embryonic ventral forebrain grafts. Journal of Comparative Neurology 250:192205. [aJDS]

D. J. Clarke , F. H. Gage & A. Björklund (1986) Formation of cholinergic synapses by intrahippocampal septal grafts as revealed by cholineacetyltransferase immunocytochemistry. Brain Research 369:151–62. [aJDS]

D. J. Clarke , O. C. Nilsson , P. Brundin & A. Björklund (1990) Synaptic connections formed by grafts of different types of cholinergic neurons in the host hippocampus. Experimental Neurology 107:1122. [aDGS, aJDS]

P. J. Coffey , V. H. Perry , Y. Allen , J. Sinden & J. N. P. Rawlins (1988) Ibotenic acid induced demyelination in the central nervous system: A consequence of a local inflammatory response. Neuroscience Letters 84:178–84. [aJDS]

D. Collerton (1986) Cholinergic function and intellectual decline in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience 19:128. [aJDS]

T. J. Collier , D. Gayle & J. R. Sladek Jr, (1988) Transplantation of norepinephrine neurons into aged rats improves performance of a learned task. Brain Research 448:7787. [aDGS]

P. Colombo , H. P. Davis & B. T. Volpe (1989) Spatial and tactile memory impairments iu rats with dorsal caudate nucleus lesions are affected by preoperative training. Behavioral Neuroscience 103:1742–50. [HPD]

M. C. Comelli , D. Guidolin , M. S. Seren , R. Zanoni , R. Canella , R. Rubini & H. Manev (1993) Time course, localization and pharmacological modulation of immediate early inducible genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and trkB messenger RNAs in the rat brain following photochemical stroke. Neuroscience 55:473–90. [rJDS]

D. Cook & R. P. Kesner (1988) Caudate nucleus and memory for egocentric localization. Behavioral and Neural Biology 49:332–43. [rJDS]

L. Corey & P. G. Spear (1986) Infections with herpes simplex viruses. New England Journal of Medicine 314:749–56. [aEAN]

L. C. Cork , J. F. Munnell , M. D. Lorenz , J. V. Murphy , H. J. Baker & M. C. Rattazzi (1977) GM ganglioside lysosomal storage disease in cats with B-Hexosaminidase deficiency. Science 196:1014–17. [aEAN]

J. T. Coyle , D. L. Price & M. R. Delong (1983) Alzheimer's disease: A disorder of cortical cholinergic innervation. Science 219:1184–90. [aDGS]

D. Cramon , H. Markowitsch & U. Schuri (1993) The possible contribution of the septal region to memory. Neuropsychologia 31:1159–80. [BA]

K. W. Culver , Z. Ram , S. Wallbridge , H. Ishii , E. H. Oldfield & R. M. Blaese (1992) In vivo gene transfer with retroviral vector-producer cells for treatment of experimental brain tumors. Science. 256:1549–52. [aEAN]

E. J. Curran & J. B. Becker (1991) Changes in blood–brain barrier permeability are associated with behavioral and neurochemical indices of recovery following intraventricular adrenal medulla grafts in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology 114:184–92. [WJF]

J. C. Dalrymple-Alford , C. Kelche , J. C. Cassel , G. Toniolo , V. Pallage & B. E. Will (1988) Behavioral deficits after intrahippocampal fetal septal grafts in rats with selective fimbria–fornix lesions. Experimental Brain Research 69:545–58. [aDGS]

A. Damasio , N. Graff-Radford , P. Eslinger , H. Damasio & N. Kassell (1985) Amnesia following basal forebrain lesions. Archives of Neurology 42:263–71. [BA]

J. K. Daniloff , R. P. Bodony , W. C. Low & J. Wells (1985) Cross–species embryonic septal transplants: The restoration of conditioned learning behavior. Brain Research 346:176–80. [YJL]

I. Date , D. L. Felten & S. Y. Felten (1990a) Long-term effect of MPTP in the mouse brain in relation to aging: Neurochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. Brain Research 519:266–76. [DLF]

I. Date , S. Y. Felten & D. L. Felten (1989) Exogenous GM1 gangliosides induce partial recovery of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in MPTP-treated young mice but not in aging mice. Neuroscience Letters 106:282–86. [DLF]

I. Date , S. Y. Felten D. L. Felten (1990b) Limited recovery of striatal dopaminergic fibers by adrenal medullary grafts in MPTP–treated aging mice. Experimental Neurology 107:197207. [DLF]

I. Date , S. Y. Felten D. L. Felten (1991a) Cografts of adrenal medulla with peripheral nerve enhance the survivability of transplanted adrenal chromaffin cells as well as recovery of the host nigrostriatal dopminergic system in MPTP-treated young mice. Brain Research 537:3339. [DLF]

I. Date , S. Y. Felten D. L. Felten (1991b) The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in MPTP-treated mice shows more prominent recovery by a syngeneic adrenal medullary graft than by an allogeneic or xenogeneic graft. Brain Research 545:191–98. [DLF]

I. Date , M. F. D. Notter , S. Y. Felten & D. L. Felten (1990c) MPTP-treated young mice but not aging mice show partial recovery of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system by stereotaxic injection of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). Brain Research 526:156–60. [DLF]

I. Date , M. F. D. Notter , S. Y. Felten & D. L. Felten (1991c) Stereotaxic injection of GDla ganglioside induces limited recovery of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in MPTP–treated aging mice. Journal of Neuroscience Research 28:525–30. [DLF]

B. L. Davidson , E. D. Allen , K. F. Kozarsky , J. M. Wilson & B. J. Roessler (1993) A model system for in vivo gene transfer into the central nervous system using an adenoviral vector. Nature Cenetics 3:219– 23. [arEAN]

B. L. Davidson , S. E. Doran , D. S. Sewach , J. M. Latta , J. W. Hartman or B. J. Roessler (1994) Expression of Escherichia coli–galactosidase and rat HPRT in the CNS of Macaco mulatto following adenoviral mediated gene transfer. Experimental Neurology 125:258–67. [rEAN]

I. Davidson & N. D. Stow (1985) Expression of an immediate early polypeptide and activation of a viral origin of DNA replication in cells containing a fragment of herpes simplex virus DNA. Virology 141:7788. [aEAN]

G. S. Dawe , J. A. Gray , J. D. Sinden , J. D. Stephenson & M. Segal (1993) Evidence from extracellular recordings for the connectivities of fetal dentate gyrus and CA1 hippocampal subfield transplants to the colchicine–lesioned rat dentate gyrus. Brain Research 625:6374. [arJDS]

V. L. Dawson , F. H. Gage , M. A. Hunt & J. K. Wamsley (1989) Normalization of subtype–specific muscarinic receptor binding in the denervated hippocampus by septodiagonal band grafts. Experimental Neurology 106:115–24. [aJDS]

M. W. Decker & J. L. McGaugh (1991) The role of interactions between the cholinergic system and other neuromodulatory systems in learning and memory. Synapse 7:151–68. [aDGS]

S. DeKosky & S. Scheff (1990) Synapse loss in frontal cortex biopsies in Alzheimer's disease: Correlation with cognitive severity. Annals of Neurology 27:457–64. [BA]

W. A. den Hartog Jager (1970) Histochemistry of adrenal bodies in Parkinson's disease. Archives of Neurology 23:528–33. [aDGS]

J. A. Deutsch The cholinergic synapse and the site of memory. Science 174:788–94. [HPD]

P. S. DiStefano , B. Friedman , A. C. Radziejieski , P. Boland , C. M. Schick , R. M. Lindsay & S. J. Wiegand (1992) The neurotrophin BDNF, NT–3, and NGF display distinct patterns of retrograde axonal transport in peripheral and central neurons. Neuron 8:983–93. [EJM]

G. Dienal (1984) Regional accumulation of calcium in post ischemic rat brain. Journal of Neurochemistry 43:913–25. [HPD]

B. Dobkin & R. Hanlon (1993) Dopamine agonist treatment of antegrade amnesia from a mediobasal forebrain injury. Annals of Neurology 33:313–16. [BA]

A. T. Dobson , T. P. Margolis , F. Sedarati , J. G. Stevens & L. T. Feldman (1990) A latent, nonpathogenic HSV–1 derived vector stably expresses-galactosidase in mouse neurons. Neuron 5:353–60. [arEAN]

L. C. Doering (1992) Peripheral nerve segments promote consistent longterm survival of adrenal medulla transplants in the brain. Experimental Neurology 118:253–60. [aDGS]

L. C. Doering & P. L. Chang (1991) Expression of a novel gene produced by transplants of genetically modified primary fibroblasts in the central nervous system. Journal of Neuroscience Research 29:292–98. [RHB]

G. Doucet , Y. Murata , P. Brundin , O. Bosler , N. Mons , M. Geffard , C. C. Ouimet & A. Bjorklund (1989) Host afferent into intrastriatal transplants of fetal ventral mesencephalon. Experimental Neurology 106:119. [JPB]

W. -M. Duan , H. Widner , A. Bjorklund & P. Brundin (1993) Sequential intrastriatal grafting of allogeneic embryonic dopamine–rich neuronal tissue in adult rats: Will the second graft be rejected? Neuroscience 57:261–74. [rDGS]

V. Dubovik , M. Faigon , J. Feldon & D. M. Michaelson (1993) Decreased density of forebrain cholinergic neurons in experimental autoimmune dementia. Neuroscience 56:7582. [aJDS]

G. L. Dunbar & D. G. Stein (1988) Gangliosides and functional recovery from brain injury. In: Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of brain and spinal cord injury, ed. D. G. Stein & B. Sabel . Plenum Press. [aDGS]

I. D. Duncan , J. P. Hammang , K. F. Jackson , P. M. Wood , R. P. Bunge & L. Langford (1988) Transplantation of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells into the spinal cord of the myelin–deficient rat. Journal of Neurocytology 17:351–6. [RHB]

I. D. Duncan , C. Paino , D. R. Archer & P. M. Wood (1992) Functional capacities of transplanted cell–sorted adult oligodendrocytes. Developmental Neuroscience 14:114–22. [RHB]

S. B. Dunnett (1985) Comparative effects of cholinergic drugs and lesions of the nucleus basalis and fimbria–fomix on delayed matching in rats. Psychopharmacology 87:357–63. [aJDS]

S. B. Dunnett (1990) Neural transplantation in animal models of dementia. European Journal of Neuroscience 2:567–87. [aJDS]

S. B. Dunnett (1991) Neural transplants as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease? Psychological Medicine 21:825–30. [SBD]

S. B. Dunnett , F. Badman , D. C. Rogers , J. L. Evenden & S. D. Iversen (1988) Cholinergic grafts in the neocortex or hippocampus of aged rats: Reduction of delay–dependent deficits in the delayed non–matching to position task. Experimental Neurology 102:5764. [arJDS]

S. B. Dunnett , A. Bjorklund , U. Stenevi & S. D. Iversen (1981) Behavioral recovery following transplantation of substantia nigra in rats subjected to 6-OHDA lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway. 1. Unilateral lesions. Brain Research 215:147–61. [aJDS]

S. B. Dunnett , B. J. Everitt & T. W. Robbins (1991) The basal forebraincortical cholinergic system: Interpreting the functional consequences of excitotoxic lesions. Trends in Neuroscience 14:494–51. [arJDS, SBD]

S. B. Dunnett , W. C. Low , S. D. Iversen , U. Stenevi & A. Bjorklund (1982) Septal transplants restore maze learning in rats. Brain Research 251:335–48. [aDGS, NWB, YJL]

S. B. Dunnett , C. N. Ryan , P. D. Levin , M. Reynolds & S. T. Bunch (1987) Functional consequences of embryonic neocortex transplanted to rats with prefrontal cortex lesions. Behavioral Neuroscience 101:489. [SBD]

S. B. Dunnett , G. Toniolo , A. Fine , C. N. Ryan , A. Bjorklund & S. D. Iversen (1985) Transplantation of embryonic ventral forebrain neurons to the neocortex of rats with lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis – II. Sensorimotor and learning impairments. Neuroscience 16:787–97. [aDGS, aJDS]

S. B. Dunnett , I. Q. Whishaw , S. T. Bunch & A. Fine (1986) Acetylcholine–rich neuronal grafts in the forebrain of rats: Effects of environmental enrichment, neonatal noradrenaline depletion, hostc transplantation site and regional source of embryonic donor cells on graft size and acetyleholinesterase –positive fibre outgrowth. Brain Research 378:357–73. [arJDS]

S. B. Dunnett , I. Q. Whishaw , D. C. Rogers & G. H. Jones (1987) Dopamine–rich grafts ameliorate whole body motor asymmetry and sensory neglect but not independent limb use in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. Brain Research 415:6378. [aJDS]

M. J. During , A. Freese , A. Y. Deutch , P. G. Kibat , B. A. Sabel , R. Langer & R. H. Roth (1992) Biochemical and behavioral recovery in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease following stereotactic implantation of dopamine-containing liposomes. Experimental Neurology 115:193–9. [rEAN]

P. Dutar , O. Roscol , A. Jobert & Y. Lamour (1986) Comparison of septohippocampal with basalo–cortical projection neurons in the rat: An electrophysiological approach. Neuroscience Letters 63:8690. [aJDS]

J. C. Eccles , R. M. Eccles & P. Fatt (1956) Pharmacological investigations on a central synapse operated by acetylcholine. Journal of Physiology (London) 131:154–69. [aJDS]

F. P. Eckenstein , R. W. Baughman & J. Quinn (1988) An anatomical study of cholinergic innervation in rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience 25:457–74. [YJL]

F. F. Eide , D. H. Lowenstein & L. F. Reichardt (1993) Neurotrophins and their receptors – current concepts and implications for neurologic disease. Experimental Neurology 121:200214. [rDGS, EJM]

D. F. Emerich , B. A. Black , J. P. Kesslak , C. W. Cotman & T. J. Walsh (1992) Transplantation of fetal cholinergic neurons into the hippocampus attenuates the cognitive and neurochemical deficits induced by AF64A. Brain Research Bulletin 28:219–26. [aJDS]

C. J. Emmett , J. M. Lawrence & P. J. Seeley (1988) Visualisation of migration of transplanted astrocytes using polystyrene microspheres. Brain Research 447:223–33. [aJDS]

M. Eriksdotter-Nilsson , S. Skirboll , T. Ebendal , L. Hersh , J. Grassi , J. Massoulie & L. Olson (1989) NGF treatment promotes development of basal forebrain tissue grafts in the anterior chamber of the eye. Experimental Brain Research 74:8998.[aJDS]

P. Ernfors , T. Ebendal , L. Olson , P. Mouton , I. Stromberg & H. Persson (1989) A cell line producing recombinant nerve growth factor evokes growth responses in intrinsic and grafted central cholinergic neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 86:4756–60. [aJDS]

M. Escobar , J. Fernandez , R. Guevara-Aguilar & F. Bermudez-Rattoni (1989) Fetal brain grafts induce recovery of learning deficits and connectivity in rats with gustatory neocortex lesion. Brain Research 478:368–74. [aJDS]

B. J. Everitt , T. W. Robbins , J. L. Evenden , H. M. Marston , G. H. Jones & T. E. Sirkia (1987) The effects of excitotoxic lesions of the substantia innominata, ventral and dorsal globus pallidus on the acquisition and retention of a conditional visual discrimination: Implications for cholinergic hypotheses of learning and memory. Neuroscience 22:441–69. [aJDS]

B. J. Everitt , T. E. Sirkia , A. C. Roberts , G. H. Jones & T. W. Robbins (1988) Distribution and some projections of cholinergic neurones in the brain of the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Journal of Comparative Neurology 271:533–58. [aJDS, RMR]

S. Fahn (1992) A pilot trial of high-dose alpha-tocopherol and aseorbate in early Parkinson's disease. Annals of Neurology (supplement) 32:S128–32. [rDCS]

H. J. Federoff , M. D. Geschwind , A. I. Geller & J. A. Kessler (1992) Expression of NGF in vivo from a defective herpes simplex virus 1 vector prevents effects of axotomy on sympathetic neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89:1636–40. [aEAN]

D. L. Felten , S. Y. Felten , R. W. Fuller , T. D. Romano , E. G. Smalstig , D. T. Wong & J. A. Clemens (1992a) Chronic dietary pergolide preserves nigrostriatal neuronal integrity in aged Fischer 344 rats. Neurobiology of Aging 13:339–51. [DLF]

D. L. Felten , S. Y. Felten , K. Steece-Collier , Date, I. & J. A. Clemens (1992b) Age-related decline in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system: The oxidative hypothesis and protective strategies. Annals of Neurology 32:S133–36. [DLF]

M. S. Fiandaca , J. H. Kordower , J. T. Hansen , S.-S. Jiao & D. M. Gash (1988) Adrenal medullary autografts into the basal ganglia of Cebus monkeys: Injury-induced regeneration. Experimental Neurology 102:7691. [WJF]

H. Fibiger (1991) Cholinergic mechanisms in learning, memory, and dementia: A review of recent evidence. Trends in Neuroscience 14:220–23. [BA]

P. M. Field , P. J. Seeley , M. Frotscher & G. Raisman (1991) Selective innervation of embryonic hippocampal transplants by adult host dentate granule cell axons. Neuroscience 41:713–27.[arJDS]

A. Fine (1988) The ethics of fetal tissue transplants. Hastings Center Report 18(3):58. [KAC]

A. Fine (1990) Transplantation of adrenal tissue into the central nervous system. Brain Research Reviews 15:121–33. [aDGS]

A. Fine , S. B. Dunnett , A. Björklund & S. D. Iversen (1985) Cholinergic ventral forebrain grafts into the neocortex improve passive avoidance memory in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82:5227–30. [aJDS]

D. Fink , R. Lawrence , L. Sternberg , P. Weber , M. Marina , W. Goins & J. Glorioso (1992) In vivo expression of-galactosidase in hippocampal neruons by HSV- mediated gene transfer. Human Gene Therapy 3:1119. [aEAN]

L. J. Fisher , A. Jinnal , L. D. Kale , G. A. Higgins & F. H. Gage (1991a) Survival and function of intrastriatally grafted primary fibroblasts genetically modified to produce L-dopa. Neuron 6:371–80. [LC]

L. J. Fisher , S. J. Young , J. M. Tepper , P. M. Grobes & F. H. Gage (1991b) Electrophysiological characteristics of cells within mesencephalon suspension grafts. Neuroscience 40:109–22. [JPB]

R. A. Fleischman (1991) Southwestern internal medicine conference: Human gene therapy. American Journal of Medical Science 301:353–63. [aEAN]

D. D. Flynn & D. C. Mash (1986) Characterisation of L-[3H] nicotine binding in human cerebral cortex: Comparison between Alzheimer's disease and the normal. Journal of Neurochemistry 47:1948–86. [aJDS]

L. S. Forno & J. W. Langston (1991) Unfavorable outcome of adrenal medullary transplant for Parkinson's disease. Acta Neuropathologica 81:691–94. [aDGS]

C. R. Freed , R. E. Breeze , N. L. Rosenberg , S. A. Schneck , E. Kriek , J.-X. Qi , T. Lone , Y.-B. Zhang , J. A. Snyder , T. H. Wells , L. O. Ramig , L. Thompson , J. C. Mazziotta , S. C. Huang , S. T. Grafton , D. Brooks , G. Sawle , G. Schroter & A. A. Ansari (1992) Survival of implanted fetal dopamine cells and neurologic improvement 12 to 46 months after transplantation for Parkinson's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 327:1549–55. [aDGS, WJF]

W. J. Freed (1985) Repairing neuronal circuits with brain grafts: Where can brain grafts be used as a therapy? Neurobiology of Aging 6:153–56. [WJF]

W. J. Freed , J. M. Morihisa , E. Spoor , B. J. Hoffer , L. Olson , A. Seiger & A. J. Wyatt (1981) Transplanted adrenal chromaffin cells in rat brain reduce lesion-induced rotational behaviour. Nature (London) 292:351–52. [aDGS]

W. J. Freed , M. Poltorak & J. B. Becker (1990) Intracerebral adrenal medulla grafts: A review. Experimental Neurology 110:139–66. [aDGS, WJF]

A. Freese , A. I. Geller & R. Neve (1990) HSV-1 vector-mediated neuronal gene delivery. Strategies for molecular neuroscience and neurology. Biochemical Pharmacology 40:2189–99. [aEAN]

T. F. Freund & M. Antal (1988) GABA-containing neurons in the septum control inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus. Nature 336:170–73. [aJDS]

T. F. Freund & V. Meskenaite (1992) Aminobutyrie acid-containing basal forebrain neurons innervate inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89:738–42. [aJDS]

T. Friedmann (1989) Progress toward human gene therapy. Science 244:1275–81. [aEAN]

S. Friend , J. Horowitz , M. Gerber , X. Wang , E. Bogenmann , F. Li & R. Weinberg (1987) Deletions of a DNA sequence in retinoblastomas and mesenchymal tumors: Organization of the sequence and its encoded protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 84:9059–63. [CMS]

D. M. Frim , T. A. Uhler , M. P. Short , Z. D. Ezzedine , M. Klagsbrun , X. O. Breakefield & O. Isacson (1993) Effects of biologically delivered NGF, BDNF and bFGF on striatal excitotoxic lesions. Neuroreport 4:367–70. [rJDS]

K. I. Fukuchi , C. E. Ogburn , A. C. Smith , D. D. Kunkel , C. E. Furlong , S. S. Deeb , D. Nochlin , S. M. Sumi & G. M. Martin (1993) Transgenic animal models for Alzheimer's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 695:217–23. [rJDS]

M. Fusco , G. Vantini , N. Schiavo , A. Zanotti , R. Zanoni , L. Facci & S. D. Skaper (1993) Gangliosides and neurotrophic factors in neurodegenerative diseases: From experimental findings to clinical perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 695:314–17. [rDGS]

F. H. Gage & A. Björklund (1986) Enhanced graft survival in the hippocampus following selective denervation. Neuroscience 17:8998. [aJDS]

F. H. Gage , A. Björklund , U. Stenevi , S. B. Dunnett & P. A. T. Kelly (1984) Intrahippocampal grafts ameliorate learning impairments in aged rats. Science 225:533–36. [aDGS, aJDS]

F. H. Gage & L. J. Fisher (1991) Intracerebral grafting: A tool for the neurobiologist. Neuron 6:112. [aJDS]

F. H. Gage , M. D. Kawaja & L. J. Fisher (1991) Genetically modified cells: Applications for intracerebral grafting. Trends in Neuroscience 14:328–33. [arJDS]

F. Gallyas , M. Hsu & G. Buzsaki (1992) Delayed degeneration of the optic tract and neurons in the superior colliculus after forebrain ischemia. Neuroscience Letters 144:177–79. [HPD]

L. Garofalo , A. Ribiero-da-Silva & A. C. Cuello (1993) Potentiation of nerve growth factor-induced alterations in cholinergic fibre length and presynaptic terminal size in cortex of lesioned rats by the monosialoganglioside GM1. Neuroscience 57:2140. [aJDS]

A. I. Geller & X. O. Breakefield (1988) A defective HSV-1 vector expresses Escherichia coli -galactosidase in cultured peripheral neurons. Science 241:1667–69. [aEAN]

A. I. Geller , M. J. During , J. W. Haycock , A. Freese & R. Neve (1993) Long-term increases in neurotransmitter release from neuronal cells expressing a constitutively active adenylate cyclase from a herpes simplex virus type 1 vector. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90:7603–7. [aEAN]

A. I. Geller , M. J. During & R. L. Neve (1991) Molecular analysis of neuronal physiology by gene transfer into neurons with herpes simplex virus vectors. Trends in Neuroscience 14:428–32. [aEAN]

A. I. Geller & A. Freese (1990) Infection of cultured central nervous system neurons with a defective herpes simplex virus I vector results in stable expression of Escherichia coli -galactosidase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87:1149–53. [aEAN]

A. I. Geller , K. Keyomarsi , J. Bryan & A. B. Pardee (1990) An efficient deletion mutant packaging system for defective herpes simplex virus vectors: Potential applications to human gene therapy and neuronal physiology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87:8950–54. [aEAN]

R. B. Gibbs , K. Anderson & C. W. Cotman (1986) Factors affecting innervation in the CNS: Comparison of three cholinergic cell types transplanted to the hippocampus of adult rats. Brain Research 383:362–66. [aJDS]

R. B. Gibbs , E. W. Harria & C. W. Cotman (1985) Replacement of damaged cortical projections by homotypic transplants of entorhinal cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 237:4764. [MN-S]

M. J. Gibson , D. T. Krieger , H. M. Charlton , E. A. Zimmerman , A.-J. Silverman & M. J. Perlow (1984) Mating and pregnancy can occur in genetically hypogonadal mice with preoptic area brain grafts. Science 225:949–51. [RS]

T. X. Gionet , J. D. Thomas , D. S. Warner , C. R. Goodlett , E. A. Wasserman & J. R. West (1991) Forebrain ischemia induces selective behavioral impairments associated with hippocampal injury in rats. Stroke 22:1040–47. [rJDS]

D. Giulian (1993) Reactive glia as rivals in regulating neuronal survival. Glio 7:102–10. [rDGS]

C. G. Goetz , M. R. De Long , R. D. Penn & R. A. E. Bakay (1993) Neurosurgical horizons in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 43:17. [aDGS]

C. G. Goetz , C. W. Olanow , W. C. Koller , R. D. Penn , D. Cahill , R. Morantz , G. Stebbins , C. M. Tanner , H. L. Klawans , K. M. Shannon , C. L. Comeela , T. Witt , C. Cox , M. Waxman & L. Gauger (1989) Multicenter study of autologous adrenal medullary transplantation to the corpus striatum in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 320:337–41. [WJF]

C. G. Goetz , G. T. Stebbins III, H. L. Klawans , W. C. Koller , R. G. Grossman , R. A. E. Bakay & R. D. Penn (1991) United Parkinson foundation neurotransplantation registry and adrenal medullary transplants: Presurgical, and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Neurology 41:1719–22. [WJF]

W. J. Goldberg & J. J. Bernstein (1988) Fetal cortical astrocytes migrate from cortical homografts throughout the host brain and over the glia lirnitans. Journal of Neuroscience Research 20:3845. [RHB]

F. Gomez-Pinilla & C. W. Cotman (1992) Transient lesion-induced increase of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptor in layer (subplate cells) of the adult rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience 49:771–80. [rDGS]

J. A. Gray , S. N. Mitchell , M. H. Joseph , G. A. Grigoryan , S. Dawe & H. Hodges (1994) Neurochemical mechanisms mediating the behavioral and cognitive effects of nicotine. Drug Development Research 31:317. [arJDS]

H. T. Greeley , T. Hamm , R. Johnson , C. R. Price , R. Weingarten & T. Raffin (1989) The ethical use of human fetal tissue in medicine. New England Journal of Medicine 320:1093–96. [aDGS, KAC]

A. K. Groves , S. C. Barnett , R. J. M. Franklin , J. A. Crang , M. Mayer , W. F. Blakemore & M. Noble (1993) Repair of demyelinated lesions by transplantation of purified O-2A progenitor cells. Nature 362:453–55. [rJDS]

M. Gupta , B. K. Gupta , R. Thomas , V. Bruemmer , J. R. Sladek Jr, & D. L. Felten (1986) Aged mice are more sensitive to MPTP treatment than young adults. Neuroscience Letters 70:326–31. [DLF]

H. L. Haas (1982) Cholinergic disinhibition in hippocampal slices of the rat. Brain Research 233:200204. [aJDS]

B. J. Hagan & M. Beaughard (1990) The effects of forebrain ischemia on spatial learning. Behavioural Brain Research 41:151–60. [rJDS]

J. J. Hagan , J. D. Salamone , J. Simpson , S. D. Iversen & R. G. M. Morris (1988) Place navigation in rats is impaired by lesions of the medial septum and diagonal band but not nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Behavioural Brain Research 27:920. [aJDS]

W. A. Hall & Fodstad, (1992) Immunotoxins and central nervous system ncoplasia. Journal of Neurosurgery 76:112. [LC]

I. Hanin (1990) AF64A–induced cholinergic hypofunction. Progress in Brain Research 84:289–99. [aJDS]

T. Hart , N. Chaimas , R. Y. Moore & D. G. Stein (1978) Effects of nerve growth factor on behavioral recovery following caudate nucleus lesions in rats. Brain Research Bulletin 3:245–51. [aDGS]

M. E. Hatten , M. Lynch , R. E. Rydel , J. Sanchez , –J. Silverstein , D. Moscatelli & D. B. Rifkin (1988) In vitro neurite extension by granule neurons is dependent upon astroglial–derived fibroblast growth factor. Developmental Biology 125:2889. [rDGS]

P. G. Haydon , D. P. McCobb & S. B. Kater (1984) Serotonin selectively inhibits growth cone motility and synaptogenesis of specific identified neurons. Science 226:561–64. [KS–C]

M. E. Helgren & M. E. Goldberger (1993) The recovery of postural reflexes and locomotion following low thoracic hemisection in adult cats involves compensation by undamaged primary afferent pathways. Experimental Neurology 123:1734. [rDGS, AP]

P. Heuschling , F. De Paermentier & P. van den Bosch de Aguilar (1988) Topographical distribution in the adult rat brain of neurotrophic activities directed to central nervous system targets. Developmental Brain Research 38:917. [aDGS]

W. F. Hickey & H. Kimura (1987) Graft–vs.–host disease elicits expression of class I and class II histocompatibility antigens and the presence of scattered T lymphocytes in rat central nervous system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 84:282–86. [aDGS]

S. Hickman , L. J. Shapiro & E. F. Neufeld (1974) A recognition marker required for uptake of a lysosomal enzyme by cultured fibroblasts. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 57:5561. [aEAN]

E. C. Hirsch , C. Duyckaerts , F. Javoy-Agid , J.-J. Hauw & Y. Agid (1990) Does adrenal graft enhance recovery of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease? Annals of Neurology 27:676–82. [aDGS, KS–C, WJF]

R. Hirsh (1974) The hippocampus and contextual retrieval from memory: A theory. Behavioral Biology 12:421–44. [aJDS]

H. Hodges , Y. Allen , T. Kershaw , P. L. Lantos , J. A. Gray & J. Sinden (1991a) Effects of cholinergic–rich neural grafts on radial maze performance of rats after excitotoxic lesions of the forebrain cholinergic projection system. 1. Amelioration of cognitive deficits by transplants into cortex and hippocampus but not into basal forebrain. Neuroscience 45:587–67. [arJDS]

H. Hodges , Y. Allen , J. Sinden , P. L. Lantos & J. A. Gray (1991b) The effects of cholinergic–rich neural grafts on radial maze performance of rats after excitotoxic lesions of the forebrain cholinergic projection system. 2. Cholinergic drugs as probes to investigate lesioninduced deficits and transplant–induced functional recovery. Neuroscience 45:69–23. [arJDS]

H. Hodges , Y. Allen , J. Sinden , S. N. Mitchell , T. Arendt , P. L. Lantos & J. A. Gray (1991c) The effects of cholinergic drugs and cholinergic–rich foetal neural transplants on alcohol–induced deficits in radial–maze performance in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 43:728. [aJDS]

H. Hodges , J. A. Gray , Y. Allen & J. Sinden (1991d) The role of the forebrain cholinergic projection system in performance in the radial–arm maze in memory–impaired rats. In: Effects of nicotine on biological systems, ed. A. Adlkofer & K. Thurau . Basel: Birkhauser Verlag. [aJDS]

B. J. Hoffer , K. L. Leenders , D. Young , G. Gerhardt , G. Zerbe , M. Bygdeman , A. Seiger , L. Olson , I. Stromberg & R. Freedman (1992) Eighteen–month course of two patients with grafts of fetal dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology 118:243–52. [aDGS]

T. Hokfelt , K. Fuxe , O. Johansson , S. Jeffcoate & N. White (1975) Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)–containing nerve terminals in certain brainstem nuclei and in the spinal cord. Neuroscience Letters 1:133–39. [AP]

T. Hokfelt , A. Ljungdahl , H. Steinbusch , A. Verhofstad , G. Nilsson , E. Brodin , B. Pernow & M. Goldstein (1978) Immunohistochemical evidence of substance P–like immunoreactivity in some hydroxytryptamine-containing) neurons in the rat central nervous system. Neuroscience 3:517–38. [AP]

C. E. Holt , N. Garlick & E. Cornel (1990) Lipofection of cDNAs in the embryonic vertebrate central nervous system. Neuron 4:23–14. [LC]

P. Horellou , P. Brundin , P. Kalen , J. Mallet & A. Bjorklund (1990) In vivo release of DOPA and dopamine from genetically engineered cells grafted to the denervated rat striatum. Neuron 5:393–42. [aDGS]

P. Horellou , B. Guibert , V. Leviel & J. Mallet (1989) Retroviral transfer of a human tyrosine hydroxylase cDNA in various cell lines: Regulated release of dopamine in mouse anterior pituitary AtT–2 cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86:7233–37. [aEAN]

H.-J. S. Huang , H.-K. Yee , J.-Y. Shew , P.-L. Chen , R. Bookstein , T. Friedmann , E.Y.-H.P. Lee & W.-H. Lee (1988) Suppression of the neoplastic phenotype by replacement of the RB gene in human cancer cells. Science 242:1563–66. [aEAN, GMS]

H. Hurtig , J. Joyce , J. R. Sladek & J. Q. Trojanowski (1989) Postmortem analysis of adrenal–medulla-to-caudate autograft in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Annals of Neurology 25:67–14. [aDGS]

S. C. Hyde , D. R. Gill , C. F. Higgins , A. E. O. Trezise , L. J. MacVinish , A. W. Cuthbert , R. Ratcliff , M. J. Evans & W. H. Colledge (1993) Correction of the ion transport defect in cystic fibrosis transgenic mice by gene therapy. Nature 362:2555. [LC]

S. Ikegami , I. Nihonmatsu , H. Hatanaka , N. Takei & H. Kawamura (1989b) Transplantation of septal cholinergic neurons to the hippocampus improves memory impairments of spatial learning in rats treated with AF64A. Brain Research 496:321–26. [aJDS]

S. Ikegami , I. Nihonmatsu & H. Kawamura (1991) Transplantation of ventral forebrain cholfnergic neurons to the hippocampus ameliorates impairment of radial–arm maze learning in rats with AF64A treatment. Brain Research 548:187–95. [aJDS]

N. Y. Ip , S. J. Wiegand , J. Morse & J. S. Rudge (1993) Injury-induced regeneration of ciliary neurotrophic factor mRNA in the adult rat brain. European Journal of Neuroscience 5:2533. [rDGS]

Y. Isaka , Y. Fujiwara , N. Ueda , Y. Kaneda , T. Kamada & E. Imai (1993) Glomerulosclerosis induced by in vivo transfection of transforming growth factor–B or platelet–derived growth factor gene into the rat kidney. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92:2597–261. [LC]

M. Isono , M. Poltorak , H. Kulaga , A. J. Adams & W. J. Freed (1993) Certain host–donor rat strain combinations do not reject brain allografts after systemic sensitization. Experimental Neurology 122:4856. [JPB]

T. Itakura , H. Yokote , S. Yukawa , M. Nakai , N. Komai & M. Unemento (1990) Transplantation of peripheral cholinergic neurons into Alzheimer model rat brain. Stereotaxic Functional Neurosurgery 54:368–72. [aJDS]

K. M. Jacobs & J. P. Donoghue (1991) Reshaping the cortical motor map by unmasking latent intracortical connections. Science 251:944–47. [BBS]

J. G. Jacobson , D. A. Leib , D. J. Goldstein , C. L. Bogard , P. A. Schaffer , S. K. Weller & D. M. Coen (1989) A herpes simplex virus ribonudeotide reductase deletion mutant is defective for productive acute and reactivatable latent infections of mice and for replication in mouse cells. Virology 173:276–83. [rEAN]

J. Jankovic , R. Grossman , C. Goodman , F. Pirozzolo , L. Schneider , Z. Zhu , P. Scardino , A. J. Garber , S. G. Jhingran & S. Martin (1989) Clinical, biochemical, and neuropathologic findings following transplantation of adrenal medulla to the caudate nucleus for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Neurology 39:1227–34. [aDGS]

R. C. Janzer & M. C. Raff (1987) Astrocytes induce blood–brain barrier properties in endothelial cells. Nature 325:253–57. [rDGS]

L. E. Jarrard (1986) Selective hippocampal lesions and behavior: Implications for current research and theorizing. In: The hippocampus, vol. 4, ed. R. Isaacson & K. Pribram . Plenum Press. [arJDS, HPD]

L. E. Jarrard , G. Kant , J. Meyerhoff & A. Levy (1984) Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intraventricular administration of AF64A in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behaviour 21:273–8. [aJDS]

P. S. Jat , M. D. Noble , P. Ataliotis , Y. Tanaka , N. Yannoutsos , L. Larsen & D. Kioussis (1991) Direct derivation of conditionally immortal cell lines from an H–2Kb–tsA58 transgenic mouse.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88:596–51. [aJDS]

S. Jiao , G. Acsadi , A. Jani , P. L. Feigner & J. A. Wolff (1992) Persistence of plasmid DNA and expression in rat brain cells in vivo. Experimental Neurology 115:413. [arEAN, LC]

S. Jiao , V. Gurevich & J. A. Wolff (1993) Long–term correction of rat model of Parkinson's disease by gene therapy. Nature 362:4553. [rEAN, CNS, LC]

B. E. Jones & A. C. Cuello (1989) Afferents to the basal forebrain cholinergic area from pontomesencephalic–catecholamine, serotonin and acetylcholine–neurons. Neuroscience 31:3761. [aJDS]

B. E. Jones & T. Z. Yang (1985) Efferent projections from the reticular formation and the locus eoeruleus studied by anterograde and retrograde axonal transport in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 242:5692. [aJDS]

Y. Kaseda , J. R. Simon & W. C. Low (1989) Restoration of high affinity choline uptake in the hippocampal formation following septal cell suspension transplants in rats with fimbria–fornix lesions. Journal of Neurochemistry 53:482–88. [YJL]

K. Kataoka , T. Hayakawa , K. Ryotaro , T. Yuguchi & K. Yamada (1991) Cholinergic deafferentation after focal cerebral infarct in rats.Stroke 22:1291–96. [rJDS]

J. P. Kesslak , M. Nieto-Sampedro , J. Globus & C. W. Cotman (1986) Transplants of purified astrocytes promote behavioral recovery after frontal cortex ablation. Experimental Neurology 92:377–9. [arDGS]

Y. Kiyota , M. Miyamoto & A. Nagaoka (1991) Relationship between brain damage and memory impairment in rats exposed to transient forebrain ischemia. Brain Research 538:295–32. [rJDS]

S. Koch & D. E. Leary (1992) A century of psychology as science. American Psychological Association. [MPL]

J. H. Kordower , E. Cochran , R. D. Penn & C. G. Goetz (1991) Putative chromaffin cell survival and enhanced host–derived TH–fiber innervation following a functional adrenal medulla autograft for Parkinson's disease. Annals of Neurology 29:45–12. [aDGS, WJF, KS–C]

J. H. Kordower , M. G. Fiandaca , M. F. Notter , J. T. Hansen & D. M. Gash (1990) NGF-like trophic support from peripheral nerve for grafted rhesus adrenal chromaffin cells. Journal of Neurosurgery 73:418–28. [aDGS]

J. H. Kordower , E. J. Mufson , A. -C Granholm , B. Hoffer & P. M. Friden (1993) Delivery of trophic factors to the primate brain. Experimental Neurology 124:21–3. [EJM]

J. H. Kordower , M. F. D. Notter & D. M. Gash (1987) Neuroblastoma cells in neural transplants: A neuroanatomical and behavioral analysis. Brain Research 417:8598. [aJDS]

J. E. Krettek & J. L. Price (1977) The cortical projections of the mediodorsal nucleus and adjacent thalamic nuclei in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 171:157–92. [YJL]

B. A. Kreuger , G. M. Trakshel , P. M. Sluss & M. D. Maines (1991) Cyclosporin–mediatcd depression of luteinizing hormone receptors and heme biosynthesis in rat testes: A possible mechanism for decrease in serum testosterone. Endocrinology 129:2647–54. [aDGS]

W. J. S. Krieg (1946) Connections of the cerebral cortex. 1: The albino rat. B: Structure of the cortical areas. Journal of Comparative Neurology 84:277323. [YJL]

K. Krnjevic , P. Pumain or L. Renaud (1971) The mechanism of excitation by acctylcholinc in the cerebral cortex. Journal of Physiology (London) 215:247–68. [aJDS]

L. F. Kromer & C. J. Cornbrooks (1985) Transplants of Schwann cell cultures promote axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 82:633–34. [RHB]

E. Kunkel-Bagden & B. S. Bregman (1990) Spinal cord transplants enhance the recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury at birth. Experimental Brain Research 81:2534. [AP]

E. Kunkel-Bagden , H. N. Dai & B. S. Bregman (1992) Recovery of function after spinal cord hemisection in newborn and adult rats-Differential effects on reflex and locomotor function. Experimental Neurology 116:451. [AP]

E. Kunkel-Bagden , H. N. Dai & B. S. Bregman (1993)Methods to assess the development and recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury in rats. Experimental Neurology 119:153–64. [AP]

W. M. Landau (1993) Clinical mythology X. Faithful fashion: Survival status of the brain transplant cure for Parkinsonism. Neurology 43:644–49. [HPD]

K. L. Lankford , F. G. DeMello , W. L. Klein (1988) Dl–type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: Evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 85:2839–43. [KS–C]

J. M. Lawrence , G. Raisman , R. Mirsky K. R. Jessen (1991) Transplantation of postnatal rat enteric ganglia into denervated adult rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 44:371–79. aJDS

E. Lazar Cerro M. del (1992) A new procedure for multiple intraretinal grafting into mammalian eyes. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 43:157–71. CMS

G. Leanza , O. G. Nilsson A. Bjorklund (1993) Functional activity of intrahippocampal scptal grafts is regulated by catecholaminergic host afferents as studied by microdialysis of acetylcholine. Brain Research 618:4756. aJDS

W. H. Lee , R. Bookstein , F. Hong , L. J. Young , J. Y. Shew E. Lee (1987) Human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene: Cloning, identification and sequence. Science 235:1394–99. GMS

G. Le Gal La Salle , J. J. Robert , S. Berrard , V. Ridoux , L. D. Stratford-Perricaudet , M. Perrieaudet . J. Mallet (1993) An adenovirus vector for gene transfer into neurons and glia in the brain. Science 259:988–90. aEAN

P. Leinekugel , S. Michel , E. Conzelmann K. Sandhoff (1992) Quantitative correlation between the residual activity of exosaminidase A and arylsulfatase A and the severity of the resulting lysosomal storage disease. Human Genetics 88:513–23. aEAN, DAS

J. Lem , J. Flannery , M. Applebury , D. Farber M. Simon (1992) Retinal degeneration is rescued in transgenie rd mice by expression of the cGMP phosphodiesterase beta subunit. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89:4422–26. GMS

E. Le Peillet , B. Arvin , C. Moneada B. S. Meldrum (1992) The non-NMDA antagonists NBQX and GYK1 52466 protect against cortical and striatal cell loss following transient global ischaemia in the rat. Brain Research 571:115–20. aJDS

V. Leviel , A. Gobert B. Guibert (1990) The glutamate-mediated release of dopamine in the rat striatum: Further characterization of the dual excitatory-inhibitory function. Neuroscience 39:305–12. JPB

Y. J. Li , F. Baskin , R. Davis L. B. Hersh (1993) Cholinergic neuronspecific expression of the human choline acetyltransferase gene is controlled by silencer elements. Journal of Neurochemistry 61:748–51. LC

Y. J. Li G. Raisman (1993) Long axon growth from embryonic neurons transplanted into myelinated tracts of the adult rat spinal cord. Brain Research 629:119–27. PS

Y. J. Li , J. R. Simon W. C. Low (1992) Intrahippocampal grafts of cholinergic-rich striatal tissue ameliorate spatial memory deficits in rats with fornix lesions. Brain Research Bulletin 29:147–55. YJL

L.F. H. Lin , D. H. Doherty , J. D. Lile , S. Bektesth F. Collins (1993) GDNF: A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Science 260:1130–32.rDGS

R. M. Lindsay , C. A. Altar , J. M. Cedarbaum , C. Hyinan S. J. Weigand (1993) The therapeutic potential of neurotrophic factors in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Experimental Neurology 124:103–18. rDCS, EJM

O. Lindvall , P. Brunden , H. Widner , S. Nekcrona (1990) Grafts of fetal dopamine neurons survive and improve motor function in Parkinsons disease. Science 247:574–77. aDGS

O. Lindvall , S. Rehncrona , P. Brundin (1989) Human fetal dopamine neurons grafted into the striatum in two patients with severe Parkinsons disease. Archives of Neurology 46:615–31. aDGS

O. Lindvall , H. Widner , S. Rehncrona , P. Brundin , P. Odin , B. Gustavii , R. Frackowiak , K. L. Leenders , G. Sawle , J. C. Rothwell , A. Bjrklund C. D. Marsden (1992) Transplantation of fetal dopamine neurons in Parkinsons disease: One year clinical and neurophysiological observations in two patients with putaminal implants. Annals of Neurology 31:155–65.aJDS

W. C. Low , P. R. Lewis , S. T. Bunch , S. B. Dunnett , S. R. Thomas , S. D. Iversen , A. Bjrklund U. Stenevi (1982) Function recovery following neural transplantation of embryonic septal nuclei in adult rats with septohippocampus lesions. Nature 300:260–62. YJL

D. H. Lowenstein , M. S. Seren F. M. Longo (1993) Prolonged increases in neurotrophic activity associated with kainate-induced hippocampal synaptic reorganization. Neuroscience 56:597604. rDGS

R. Loy T. A. Milner (1990) Sexual dimorphism in extent of axonal sprouting in rat hippocampus. Science 208:1282–84. aDGS

R. D. Lund S. D. Huuschka (1976) Transplanted neural tissue develops connections with host rat brain. Science 193:582–84. aJDS

I. Madrazo , R. Drucker-Colin , V. Diaz , J. Martinez-Marta , C. Torres J. J. Becerril (1987) Open microsurgical autograft of adrenal medulla to the right caudate nucleus in Parkinsons disease: A report of two cases. Netu England Journal of Medicine 316:831–34. aDGS, BHB, WJF

I. Madrazo , R. Franco-Bourland , F. Ostrosky-Solis , M. Aguilera , C. Cuevas , H. Castrejon , G. Guizar E. Magallon (1990) Dementia following brain grafting. Transplantation 49:1026–27. aDGS

S. B. Mahadik S. E. Karpiak (1988) Gangliosides in treatment of neural injury and disease. Drug Development Research 15:337–60. arDGS

D. A. Mann (1985) The neuropathology of Alzheimers disease: A review with pathogenetic, aetiological and therapeutic considerations. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 31:213–55. SBD

M. Manthorpe , M. Nieto-Sampedro , S. D. Skaper , E. R. Lewis , G. Barbin , F. M. Longo , C. W. Cotman S. Varon (1983) Neuronotrophic activity in brain wounds of the developing rat. Correlation with implant survival in the wound cavity. Brain Research 267:4756. MN-S

J. M. Markert , A. Malick , D. M. Coen R. L. Martuza (1993) Reduction and elimination of encephalitis in an experimental glioma therapy model with attenuated herpes simplex mutants that retain susceptibility to acyclovir. Neurosurgery 32:597603. aEAN

A. L. Markowska , D. S. Olton , E. A. Murray D. Caffan (1989) A comparative analysis of the role of the fornix and cingulate cortex in memory: Rats. Experimental Brain Research 74:187201. YJL

L. Marlier , F. Sandillon , P. Poulat , M. Geffard A. Privat (1991) Serotonergic innervation of the dorsal horn of rat spinal cord: Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study. Journal of Ncurocytology 20:310–22. AP

R. L. Martuza , A. Malick , J. M. Markert , K. L. Ruffher D. M. Coen (1991) Experimental therapy of human glioma by means of a genetically engineered virus mutant. Science 252:854–56. aEAN

D. W. Mason , H. M. Charlton , A. J. Jones , C. B. D. Lavy , M. Puklavec , S. J. Simmonds (1986) The fate of allogeneic and xenogeneic neuronal tissue transplanted into the third ventricle of rodents. Neurosdence 19:685–94. JPB

K. Matsunami , T. Kawashima H. Satake (1989) Mode of (14C) 2-deoxy-D-Glucose uptake into retrosplenial cortex and other memory-related structures of the monkey during a delayed response. Brain Research Bulletin 22:829–38. YJL

K. Matsuo , H. Ikeshima , K. Shimoda , A. Umezawa , J. Hata , K. Maejima , H. Nojima T. Takano (1993) Expression of the rat calmodulin gene II in the central nervous system: A 294-base promoter and 68-base leader segment mediated neuron-specific gene expression in transgenic mice. Molecular Brain Research 20:920. LC

T. Matsuyama , M. Tsuchiyama , H. Nakamura , M. Matsumoto M. Sugita (1993) Hilar somatostatin neurons are more vulnerable to an ischemic event than CAI pyramidal neurons. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 13:229–34. rJDS

M. P. Mattson , B. Cheng V. L. Smith-Swintosky (1993) Mechanisms of neurotrophic factor protection against calcium- and free radical-mediated excitotoxic injury: Implications for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Experimental Neurology 124:8995. rDGS

M. P. Mattson B. Ryuchlik (1990) Glia protect hippocampal neurons against excitatory amino acid-induced degeneration: Involvement of fibroblast growth factor. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 8:399415. aDGS

D. A. McCormick (1992) Neurotransmitter actions in the thalamus and cerebral cortex and their role in neuromodulation of thalamocortical activity. Progress in Neurobiology 39:337–88. aJDS

D. A. McCormick D. A. Prince (1986) Mechanisms of action of acetylcholine in the guinea-pig cerebral cortex in vitro. Journal of Physiology (London) 375:169–94. aJDS

P. L. McGeer , E. G. McGeer J. S. Suzuki (1977) Aging and extrapyramidal function. Archives of Neurology 34:3335. EJM

D. McGeoch , M. Dalrymple , A. Davison , A. Dolan , M. Frame , D. McNab , L. Perry , J. Scott P. Taylor (1988) The complete DNA sequence of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1. Journal of General Virology 69:1531–74. aEAN

S. R. McGurk , S. L. Hartgraves , P. H. Kelly , M. N. Gordon L. L. Butcher (1987) Is ethylcholine aziridinium ion a specific cholinergic neurotoxin? Neuroscience 22:215–24. aJDS

T. McLaughlin , B. Steinberg , B. Christensen , I. Law , A. Parving L. Friberg (1992) Potential language and attentional networks revealed through factor analysis of rCBF data measured with SPECT. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12:535–45. rDGS

O. Meienberg , W. H. Zangemeister , M. Rosenberg , W. F. Hoyt L. Stark (1981) Saccadic eye movement strategics in patients with homonymous hemianopia. Annals of Neurology 9:537–44. RW

J. P. Merlio , P. Ernfors , Z. Kokaia , D. S. Middlemas , J. Bengzon , M. Kokaia , M. L. Smith , B. K. Siesjo , T. Hunter , O. Lindvall H. Persson (1993) Increased production of the TrkB protein tyrosine kinasc receptor after brain insults. Neuron 10:151–64. rJDS

D. J. Messersmith , M. Fabrazzo , I. Mochetti L. F. Kromer (1991) Effects of sciatic nerve transplants after fimbria-fornix lesion: Examination of the role of nerve growth factor. Brain Research 557:293–97. aJDS

M. M. Mesulam , E. J. Mufson , A. I. Levey B. H. Wainer (1983) Cholinergic innervation of cortex by the basal forebrain: Cytochemistry and cortical connections of the septal area, diagonal band nuclei, nucleus basalis (substantia innominata) and hypothalamus in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology 214:170–97. aJDSj

S. B. Moffett D. F. Austin (1981) Implanted cerebral ganglia produce supernumerary eyes and tentacles in host snails. Journal of Experimental Zoology 216:321–25. SBM

S. B. Moffett R. L. Ridgeway (1988) Structural repair and functional recovery following cerebral ganglion removal in the pulmonate snail Melampus. American Zoologist 28:1109–22. SBM

S. B. Moffett K. A. Snyder (1985) Behavioral recovery associated with central nervous system regeneration in the snail Melampus. Journal of Neurobiology 16:183209. SBM

B. Moghaddam , R. J. Gruen , R. H. Roth , B. S. Bunney R. N. Adams (1990) Effect of L-glutamate on the release of striatal dopamine: In vivo dialysis and electrochemical studies. Brain Research 518:5560. JPB

A. H. Mohammed , B. G. Hendriksson , S. Soderstrom , T. Ebendal , T. Olsson J. R. Seckl (1993) Environmental influences on the central nervous system and their implications for the aging rat. Behavioural Brain Research 57:183–91. rDGS

A. K. Mohammed , B. Winblad , T. Ebendahl L. Larkfors (1990) Environmental influences on behaviour and nerve growth factor in the brain. Brain Research 528:6272. rJDS

C. N. Montero-Menei , A. Pouplard-Barthelaix , M. Gumpel A. B. Van Evercooren (1992) Pure Schwann cell suspension grafts promote regeneration of the lesioned septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathway. Brain Research 570:198208. aJDS

C. T. Montgomery J. A. Robson (1993) Implants of cultured Schwann cells support axonal growth in the central nervous system of adult rats. Experimental Neurology 122:107–24. RHB J

C. P. Montoya , S. Astell S. B. Dunnett (1990) Effects of nigral and striatal grafts on skilled forelimb use in the rat. Progress in Brain Research 82:459–66. SBD

F. L. Moolten , J. M. Wells , R. A. Heyman R. M. Evans (1990) Lymphoma regression induced by ganciclovir in mice bearing a herpes thymidine kinase transgene. Human Cene Therapy 1:125–34. aEAN