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  • Cited by 8
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    van Honk, Jack Will, Geert-Jan Terburg, David Raub, Werner Eisenegger, Christoph and Buskens, Vincent 2016. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play. Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, p. 18096.

    Yildirim, Bariş O. and Derksen, Jan J.L. 2013. Systematic review, structural analysis, and new theoretical perspectives on the role of serotonin and associated genes in the etiology of psychopathy and sociopathy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 37, Issue. 7, p. 1254.

    Kazén, Miguel Kuenne, Thomas Frankenberg, Heiko and Quirin, Markus 2012. Inverse relation between cortisol and anger and their relation to performance and explicit memory. Biological Psychology, Vol. 91, Issue. 1, p. 28.

    Volk, Anthony A. Camilleri, Joseph A. Dane, Andrew V. and Marini, Zopito A. 2012. Is Adolescent Bullying an Evolutionary Adaptation?. Aggressive Behavior, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 222.

    McIntyre, Matthew H. Li, Amy Y. Chapman, Judith Flynn Lipson, Susan F. and Ellison, Peter T. 2011. Social status, masculinity, and testosterone in young men. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 51, Issue. 4, p. 392.

    Liening, Scott H. and Josephs, Robert A. 2010. It Is Not Just About Testosterone: Physiological Mediators and Moderators of Testosterone’s Behavioral Effects. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 4, Issue. 11, p. 982.

    McIntyre, Matthew H. and Edwards, Carolyn Pope 2009. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 38, Issue. 1, p. 83.

    White, Roderick E. Thornhill, Stewart and Hampson, Elizabeth 2006. Entrepreneurs and evolutionary biology: The relationship between testosterone and new venture creation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 100, Issue. 1, p. 21.


Testosterone, cortisol, dominance, and submission: Biologically prepared motivation, no psychological mechanisms involved

  • Jack van Honk (a1), Dennis J. L. G. Schutter (a1), Erno J. Hermans (a1) and Peter Putman (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2004

Mazur & Booth's (1998) target article concerns basal and reciprocal relations between testosterone and dominance, and has its roots in Mazur's (1985; 1994) model of primate dominance-submissiveness interactions. Threats are exchanged in these interactions and a psychological stress-manipulation mechanism is suggested to operate, making sure that face-to-face dominance contests are usually resolved without aggression. In this commentary, a recent line of evidence from human research on the relation between testosterone, cortisol, and vigilant (dominant) and avoidant (submissive) responses to threatening “angry” faces is discussed. Findings, to a certain extent, converge with Mazur & Booth's theorizing. However, the strongest relations have been found in subliminal exposure conditions, suggesting that biological instead of psychological mechanisms are involved.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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