Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Why do humans reason? Arguments for an argumentative theory

  • Hugo Mercier (a1) and Dan Sperber (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

Reasoning is generally seen as a means to improve knowledge and make better decisions. However, much evidence shows that reasoning often leads to epistemic distortions and poor decisions. This suggests that the function of reasoning should be rethought. Our hypothesis is that the function of reasoning is argumentative. It is to devise and evaluate arguments intended to persuade. Reasoning so conceived is adaptive given the exceptional dependence of humans on communication and their vulnerability to misinformation. A wide range of evidence in the psychology of reasoning and decision making can be reinterpreted and better explained in the light of this hypothesis. Poor performance in standard reasoning tasks is explained by the lack of argumentative context. When the same problems are placed in a proper argumentative setting, people turn out to be skilled arguers. Skilled arguers, however, are not after the truth but after arguments supporting their views. This explains the notorious confirmation bias. This bias is apparent not only when people are actually arguing, but also when they are reasoning proactively from the perspective of having to defend their opinions. Reasoning so motivated can distort evaluations and attitudes and allow erroneous beliefs to persist. Proactively used reasoning also favors decisions that are easy to justify but not necessarily better. In all these instances traditionally described as failures or flaws, reasoning does exactly what can be expected of an argumentative device: Look for arguments that support a given conclusion, and, ceteris paribus, favor conclusions for which arguments can be found.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Acker F. (2008) New findings on unconscious versus conscious thought in decision making: Additional empirical data and meta-analysis. Judgment and Decision Making 3(4):292303.
Albrechtsen J. S., Meissner C. A. & Susa K. J. (2009) Can intuition improve deception detection performance? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45(4):1052–55.
Allen C., Bekoff M. & Lauder G., eds. (1998) Nature's purposes. MIT Press.
Allport F. (1924) Social psychology. Houghton Mifflin.
Ambady N., Bernieri F. J. & Richeson J. A. (2000) Toward a histology of social behavior: Judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream. In: Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 32, ed. Zanna M. P., pp. 201–71. Academic Press.
Ambady N. & Gray H. (2002) On being sad and mistaken mood effects on the accuracy of thin-slice judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83:947–61.
Amir O. & Ariely D. (2003) Decision by rules: Disassociation between preferences and willingness to act. Working paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
Anderson C. A., Lepper M. R. & Ross L. (1980) Perseverance of social theories: The role of explanation in the persistence of discredited information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39(6):1037–49.
Anderson C. A., New B. L. & Speer J. R. (1985) Argument availability as a mediator of social theory perseverance. Social Cognition 3(3):235–49.
Anderson T., Howe C., Soden R., Halliday J. & Low J. (2001) Peer interaction and the learning of critical thinking skills in further education students. Instructional Science 29(1):132.
Anderson T., Howe C. & Tolmie A. (1996) Interaction and mental models of physics phenomena: Evidence from dialogues between learners. In: Mental models in cognitive science: Essays in honour of Phil Johnson-Laird, ed. Oakhill J. & Garnham A., pp. 247–73. Psychology Press.
Ariely D., Gneezy U., Loewenstein G. & Mazar N. (2009) Large stakes and big mistakes. Review of Economic Studies 76(2):451–69.
Ariely D. & Levav J. (2000) Sequential choice in group settings: Taking the road less traveled and less enjoyed. Journal of Consumer Research 27(3):279–90.
Arkes H. R. & Ayton P. (1999) The sunk cost and Concorde effects: Are humans less rational than lower animals? Psychological Bulletin 125(5):591600.
Arkes H. R. & Blumer C. (1985) The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 35(1):124–40.
Arkes H. R., Guilmette T. J., Faust D. & Hart K. (1988) Eliminating the hindsight bias. Journal of Applied Psychology 73(2):305307.
Augustinova M. (2008) Falsification cueing in collective reasoning: Example of the Wason selection task. European Journal of Social Psychology 38(5):770–85.
Bailenson J. N. & Rips L. J. (1996) Informal reasoning and burden of proof. Applied Cognitive Psychology 10(7):S316.
Bandura A. (1990) Selective activation and disengagement of moral control. Journal of Social Issues 46(1):2746.
Bandura A., Barbaranelli C., Caprara G. V. & Pastorelli C. (1996) Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71:364–74.
Barber B. M., Heath C. & Odean T. (2003) Good reasons sell: Reason-based choice among group and individual investors in the stock market. Management Science 49(12):1636–52.
Barkow J. H., Cosmides L. & Tooby J., eds. (1992) The adapted mind. Oxford University Press.
Baumeister R. F. (1997) Evil: Inside human violence and cruelty. Freeman.
Bazerman M. H., Loewenstein G. F. & White S. B. (1992) Reversals of preference in allocation decisions: Judging an alternative versus choosing among alternatives. Administrative Science Quarterly 37(2):220–40.
Berger J. A. & Heath C. (2007) Where consumers diverge from others: Identity signaling and product domains. Journal of Consumer Research 34(2):121–34.
Bersoff D. M. (1999) Why good people sometimes do bad things: Motivated reasoning and unethical behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25(1):2839.
Billig M. (1996) Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology. Cambridge University Press.
Blaisdell A. P., Sawa K., Leising K. J. & Waldmann M. R. (2006) Causal reasoning in rats. Science 311(5763):1020–22.
Blanchette I. & Dunbar K. (2001) Analogy use in naturalistic settings: The influence of audience, emotion, and goals. Memory & Cognition 29(5):730–35.
Blinder A. S. & Morgan J. (2000) Are two heads better than one? An experimental analysis of group vs. individual decision making. NBER Working Paper 7909, National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton, NJ.
Blum-Kulka S., Blondheim M. & Hacohen G. (2002) Traditions of dispute: From negotiations of Talmudic texts to the arena of political discourse in the media. Journal of Pragmatics 34(10–11):1569–94.
Boehm C., with comments by Antweiler C., Eibl-Eibesfeldt I., Kent S., Knauft B. M., Mithen S., Richerson P. J. & Wilson D. S. (1996) Emergency decisions, cultural-selection mechanics, and group selection. Current Anthropology 37(5):763–93.
Boiney L. G., Kennedy J. & Nye P. (1997) Instrumental bias in motivated reasoning: More when more is needed. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 72(1):124.
Bond S. D., Carlson K. A., Meloy M. G., Russo J. E. & Tanner R. J. (2007) Precommitment bias in the evaluation of a single option. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 102(2):240–54.
Bonner B. L., Baumann M. R. & Dalal R. S. (2002) The effects of member expertise on group decision making and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 88:719–36.
Bonner S. E., Hastie R., Sprinkle G. B. & Young S. M. (2000) A review of the effects of financial incentives on performance in laboratory tasks: Implications for management accounting. Journal of Management Accounting Research 12(1):1964.
Bonner S. E. & Sprinkle G. B. (2002) The effects of monetary incentives on effort and task performance: Theories, evidence, and a framework for research. Accounting, Organizations and Society 27(4–5):303–45.
Bragger J. D., Hantula D. A., Bragger D., Kirnan J. & Kutcher E. (2003) When success breeds failure: History, hysteresis, and delayed exit decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology 88(1):614.
Bragger J. L., Bragger D. H., Hantula D. A. & Kirnan J. P. (1998) Hysteresis and uncertainty: The effect of information on delays to exit decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 74(3):229–53.
Braman E. (2009) Law, politics, and perception: How policy preferences influence legal reasoning. University of Virginia Press.
Brem S. K. & Rips L. J. (2000) Explanation and evidence in informal argument. Cognitive Science 24:573604.
Briley D. A., Morris M. W. & Simonson I. (2000) Reasons as carriers of culture: Dynamic versus dispositional models of cultural influence on decision making. Journal of Consumer Research 27(2):157–78.
Brock T. C. (1967) Communication discrepancy and intent to persuade as determinants of counterargument production. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 3(3):269309.
Brown C. L. & Carpenter G. S. (2000) Why is the trivial important? A reasons-based account for the effects of trivial attributes on choice. Journal of Consumer Research 26(4):372–85.
Brown D. E. (1991) Human universals. McGraw-Hill.
Brownstein A. L. (2003) Biased predecision processing. Psychological Bulletin 129(4):545–68.
Butera F., Legrenzi P., Mugny G. & Pérez J. A. (1992) Influence sociale et raisonnement. Bulletin de Psychologie 45:144–54.
Byrne R. W. & Whiten A., eds. (1988) Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes, and humans. Oxford University Press.
Cacioppo J. T. & Petty R. E. (1979) Effects of message repetition and position on cognitive response, recall, and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(1):97109.
Camerer C. & Hogarth R. M. (1999) The effect of financial incentives on performance in experiments: A review and capital-labor theory. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 19(1):742.
Carpenter G. S., Glazer R. & Nakamoto K. (1994) Meaningful brand from meaningless differentiation: The dependence on irrelevant attributes. Journal of Marketing Research 31(3):339–50.
Chaiken S. & Yates S. (1985) Affective-cognitive consistency and thought-induced attitude polarization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49(6):1470–81.
Chater N. & Oaksford M. (1999) The probability heuristics model of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology 38:191258.
Chernev A. (2005) Context effects without a context: Attribute balance as a reason for choice. Journal of Consumer Research 32(2):213–23.
Christensen-Szalanski J. J. & Beach L. R. (1984) The citation bias: Fad and fashion in the judgment and decision literature. American Psychologist 39(1):7578.
Claxton G. (1997) Hare brain, tortoise mind: How intelligence increases when you think less. HarperCollins.
Clément F. (2010) To trust or not to trust? Children's social epistemology. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1(4):531–49.
Corner A. & Hahn U. (2009) Evaluating science arguments: Evidence, uncertainty, and argument strength. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 15(3):199212.
Corner A., Hahn U. & Oaksford M. (2006) The slippery slope argument: Probability, utility and category reappraisal. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, ed. Sun R. & Miyake N., pp. 1145–50. Erlbaum.
Cowley M. & Byrne R. M. J. (2005) When falsification is the only path to truth. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, ed. Bara B. G., Barsalou L. & Buchiarelli M., pp. 512–17. Erlbaum.
Crandall C. S. & Eshleman A. (2003) A justification–suppression model of the expression and experience of prejudice. Psychological Bulletin 129(3):414–46.
Croson R. T. A. (1999) The disjunction effect and reason-based choice in games. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 80(2):118–33.
Csikszentmihalyi M. & Sawyer R. K. (1995) Creative insight: The social dimension of a solitary moment. In: The nature of insight, ed. Sternberg R. J. & Davidson J. E., pp. 329–63. MIT Press.
Cunningham C. B., Schilling N., Anders C. & Carrier D. R. (2010) The influence of foot posture on the cost of transport in humans. Journal of Experimental Biology 213(5):790–97.
Dana J., Weber R. A. & Kuang J. X. (2007) Exploiting moral wiggle room: Experiments demonstrating an illusory preference for fairness. Economic Theory 33(1):6780.
Davies M. F. (1992) Field dependence and hindsight bias: Cognitive restructuring and the generation of reasons. Journal of Research in Personality 26(1):5874.
Davis J. H. (1973) Group decisions and social interactions: A theory of social decision schemes. Psychological Review 80(2):97125.
Dawkins R. & Krebs J. R. (1978) Animal signals: Information or manipulation? In: Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach, ed. Krebs J. R. & Davies N. B., pp. 282309. Basil Blackwell.
Dawson E., Gilovich T. & Regan D. T. (2002) Motivated reasoning and performance on the Wason selection task. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28(10):1379–87.
Dennett D. C. (1969) Content and consciousness. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Dessalles J.-L. (2007) Why we talk: The evolutionary origins of language. Oxford University Press.
Diekmann K. A., Samuels S. M., Ross L. & Bazerman M. H. (1997) Self-interest and fairness in problems of resource allocation: Allocators versus recipients. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72(5):1061–74.
Dijksterhuis A. (2004) Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87(5):586–98.
Dijksterhuis A., Bos M. W., Nordgren L. F. & van Baaren R.B. (2006b) On making the right choice: The deliberation-without-attention effect. Science 311(5763):10051007.
Dijksterhuis A., Bos M. W., van der Leij A. & van Baaren R.B. (2009) Predicting soccer matches after unconscious and conscious thought as a function of expertise. Psychological Science 20(11):1381–87.
Dijksterhuis A. & van Olden Z. (2006) On the benefits of thinking unconsciously: Unconscious thought can increase post-choice satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42(5):627–31.
Ditto P. H. & Lopez D. F. (1992) Motivated skepticism: Use of differential decision criteria for preferred and nonpreferred conclusions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63(4):568–84.
Ditto P. H., Munro G. D., Apanovitch A. M., Scepansky J. A. & Lockhart L. K. (2003) Spontaneous skepticism: The interplay of motivation and expectation in responses to favorable and unfavorable medical diagnoses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29(9):1120–32.
Ditto P. H., Scepansky J. A., Munro G. D., Apanovitch A. M. & Lockhart L. K. (1998) Motivated sensitivity to preference-inconsistent information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(1):5369.
Dubreuil B. (2010) Paleolithic public goods games: Why human culture and cooperation did not evolve in one step. Biology and Philosophy. 25(1):5373.
Dunbar K. (1997) How scientists think: Online creativity and conceptual change in science. In: Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence discovery and change, ed. Ward T. B., Smith S. M. & Vaid S., pp. 461–93. American Psychological Association.
Dunbar R. I. M. (1996) The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology 6:178–90.
Dunbar R. I. M. & Shultz S. (2003) Evolution of the social brain. Science 302:1160–61.
Dunning D., Meyerowitz J. A. & Holzberg A. D. (1989) Ambiguity and self-evaluation: The role of idiosyncratic trait definitions in self-serving assessments of ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(6):1082–90.
Eagly A. H., Kulesa P., Brannon L. A., Shaw K. & Hutson-Comeaux S. (2000) Why counterattitudinal messages are as memorable as proattitudinal messages: The importance of active defense against attack. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26(11):1392–408.
Ebbesen E. B. & Bowers R. J. (1974) Proportion of risky to conservative arguments in a group discussion and choice shifts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29(3):316–27.
Edwards K. & Smith E. E. (1996) A disconfirmation bias in the evaluation of arguments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71(1):524.
Esser J. K. (1998) Alive and well after 25 years: A review of groupthink research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 73(2–3):116–41.
Esser J. K. & Lindoerfer J. S. (1989) Groupthink and the space shuttle Challenger accident: Toward a quantitative case analysis. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 2(3):167–77.
Evans J. St. B. T. (1989) Bias in human reasoning: Causes and consequences. Erlbaum.
Evans J. St. B. T. (1996) Deciding before you think: Relevance and reasoning in the selection task. British Journal of Psychology 87:223–40.
Evans J. St. B. T. (2002) Logic and human reasoning: An assessment of the deduction paradigm. Psychological Bulletin 128(6):978–96.
Evans J. St. B. T. (2007) Hypothetical thinking: Dual processes in reasoning and judgment. Psychology Press.
Evans J. St. B. T., Barston J. L. & Pollard P. (1983) On the conflict between logic and belief in syllogistic reasoning. Memory & Cognition 11:295306.
Evans J. St. B. T., Handley S. J., Harper C. N. J. & Johnson-Laird P. N. (1999) Reasoning about necessity and possibility: A test of the mental model theory of deduction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 25(6):1495–513.
Evans J. St. B. T. & Lynch J. S. (1973) Matching bias in the selection task. British Journal of Psychology 64(3):391–97.
Evans J. St. B. T., Newstead S. E. & Byrne R. M. J. (1993) Human reasoning: The psychology of deduction. Erlbaum.
Evans J. St. B. T. & Over D. E. (1996) Rationality and reasoning. Psychology Press.
Evans J. St. B. T. & Wason P. C. (1976) Rationalisation in a reasoning task. British Journal of Psychology 63:205–12.
Farnsworth P. R. & Behner A. (1931) A note on the attitude of social conformity. Journal of Social Psychology 2:126–28.
Foot H., Howe C., Anderson A., Tolmie A. & Warden D. (1994) Group and interactive learning. Computational Mechanics Press.
Franklin B. (1817/2006) The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. NuVision. (Original work published 1817.).
Garland H. (1990) Throwing good money after bad: The effect of sunk costs on the decision to escalate commitment to an ongoing project. Journal of Applied Psychology 75(6):728–31.
Geurts B. (2003) Reasoning with quantifiers. Cognition 86(3):223–51.
Gibbard A. (1990) Wise choices, apt feelings. Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert D. T. (2002) Inferential correction. In: Heuristics and biases, ed. Gilovich T., Griffin D. & Kahneman D., pp. 167–84. Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert D. T. & Ebert J. E. J. (2002) Decisions and revisions: The affective forecasting of changeable outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(4):503–14.
Gilovich T. (1983) Biased evaluation and persistence in gambling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44(6):1110–26.
Girotto V., Kemmelmeier M., Sperber D. & Van der Henst J.-B. (2001) Inept reasoners or pragmatic virtuosos? Relevance and the deontic selection task. Cognition 81(2):6976.
Gladwell M. (2005) Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. Little, Brown.
Green K. C., Armstrong J. C. & Graefe A. (2007) Methods to elicit forecasts from groups: Delphi and prediction markets compared. Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting Fall: 1721.
Greenwald A. G. (1969) The open-mindedness of the counterattitudinal role player. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 5(4):375–88.
Grice H. P. (1975) Logic and conversation. In: Syntax and semantics, vol. 3: Speech acts, ed. Cole P. & Morgan J. P.. Seminar Press.
Griffin D. W. & Dunning D. (1990) The role of construal processes in overconfident predictions about the self and others. Journal of Personality 59(6):1128–39.
Guenther C. L. & Alicke M. D. (2008) Self-enhancement and belief perseverance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44(3):706–12.
Gummerum M., Keller M., Takezawa M. & Mata J. (2008) To give or not to give: Children's and adolescents' sharing and moral negotiations in economic decision situations. Child Development 79(3):562–76.
Hafer C. L. & Begue L. (2005) Experimental research on just-world theory: Problems, developments, and future challenges. Psychological Bulletin 131(1):128–67.
Hagler D. A. & Brem S. K. (2008) Reaching agreement: The structure & pragmatics of critical care nurses' informal argument. Contemporary Educational Psychology 33(3):403–24.
Hahn U. & Oaksford M. (2007) The rationality of informal argumentation: A Bayesian approach to reasoning fallacies. Psychological Review 114:704–32.
Hahn U., Oaksford M. & Bayindir H. (2005) How convinced should we be by negative evidence? In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, ed. Bara B. G., Barsalou L. & Buchiarelli M., pp. 887–92. Erlbaum.
Haidt J. (2001) The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review 108(4):814–34.
Haidt J. & Bjorklund F. (2007) Social intuitionists reason, in conversation. In: Moral Psychology, vol. 2: The cognitive science of morality: Intuition and diversity, ed. Sinnott-Armstrong W., pp. 241–54. MIT Press.
Halberstadt J. B. & Levine G. M. (1999) Effects of reasons analysis on the accuracy of predicting basketball games. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29(3):517–30.
Hamilton R. W. & Thompson D. V. (2007) Is there a substitute for direct experience? Comparing consumers' preferences after direct and indirect product experiences. Journal of Consumer Research 34(4):546–55.
Harman G. (1986) Change in view: Principles of reasoning. MIT Press.
Harris P. L. (2007) Trust. Developmental Science 10(1):135–38.
Hart W., Albarracin D., Eagly A. H., Brechan I., Lindberg M. & Merrill L. (2009) Feeling validated versus being correct: A meta-analysis of selective exposure to information. Psychological Bulletin 135(4):555–88.
Hill G. W. (1982) Group versus individual performance: Are N+1 heads better than one? Psychological Bulletin 91(3):517–39.
Hinsz V. B., Tindale R. S. & Nagao D. H. (2008) Accentuation of information processes and biases in group judgments integrating base-rate and case-specific information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44(1):116–26.
Hirt E. R. & Markman K. D. (1995) Multiple explanation: A consider-an-alternative strategy for debiasing judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(6):1069–86.
Hoch S. J. (1985) Counterfactual reasoning and accuracy in predicting personal events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 11(4):719–31.
Howe C. J. (1990) Physics in the primary school: Peer interaction and the understanding of floating and sinking. European Journal of Psychology of Education 5(4):459–75.
Hrdy S. B. (2009) Mothers and others. Belknap Press.
Hsee C. K. (1995) Elastic justification: How tempting but task-irrelevant factors influence decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 62(3):330–37.
Hsee C. K. (1996a) Elastic justification: How unjustifiable factors influence judgments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 66(1):122–29.
Hsee C. K. (1996b) The evaluability hypothesis: An explanation for preference reversals between joint and separate evaluations of alternatives. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 67(3):247–57.
Hsee C. K. (1998) Less is better: When low-value options are valued more highly than high-value options. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 11(2):107–21.
Hsee C. K. (1999) Value seeking and prediction-decision inconsistency: Why don't people take what they predict they'll like the most? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 6(4):555–61.
Hsee C. K. & Hastie R. (2006) Decision and experience: Why don't we choose what makes us happy? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10(1):3137.
Hsee C. K., Loewenstein G. F., Blount S. & Bazerman M. H. (1999) Preference reversals between joint and separate evaluations of options: A review and theoretical analysis. Psychological Bulletin 125(5):576–90.
Hsee C. K. & Zhang J. (2004) Distinction bias: Misprediction and mischoice due to joint evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86(5):680–95.
Hsee C. K., Zhang J., Yu F. & Xi Y. (2003) Lay rationalism and inconsistency between predicted experience and decision. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 16(4):257–72.
Huber J., Payne J. W. & Puto C. (1982) Adding asymmetrically dominated alternatives: Violations of regularity and the similarity hypothesis. Journal of Consumer Research 9(1):9098.
Humphrey N. K. (1976) The social function of Intellect. In: Growing points in ethology, ed. Bateson P. P. G. & Hinde R. A., pp. 303–17. Cambridge University Press.
Igou E. R. (2004) Lay theories in affective forecasting: The progression of affect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40(4):528–34.
Igou E. R. & Bless H. (2007) On undesirable consequences of thinking: Framing effects as a function of substantive processing. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 20(2):125–42.
Irwin J. R., Slovic P., Lichtenstein S. & McClelland G. H. (1993) Preference reversals and the measurement of environmental values. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 6(1):518.
Isenberg D. J. (1986) Group polarization: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50(6):1141–51.
Jackendoff R. (1996) How language helps us think. Pragmatics and Cognition 4(1):134.
Janis I. L. (1982) Groupthink, 2nd rev. ed. Houghton Mifflin.
Janis I. L. & Mann L. (1977) Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. Free Press.
Jellison J. M. & Mills J. (1969) Effect of public commitment upon opinions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 5(3):340–46.
Johnson D. W. & Johnson R. T. (2007) Creative constructive controversy: Intellectual challenge in the classroom, 4th ed. Interaction.
Johnson D. W. & Johnson R. T. (2009) Energizing learning: The instructional power of conflict. Educational Researcher 38(1):3751.
Johnson E. J., Haubl G. & Keinan A. (2007) Aspects of endowment: A query theory of value construction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 33:461–73.
Johnson-Laird P. N. (2006) How we reason. Oxford University Press.
Johnson-Laird P. N. & Byrne R. M. J. (2002) Conditionals: A theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. Psychological Review 109(4):646–78.
Johnson-Laird P. N. & Wason P. C. (1970) Insight into a logical relation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 22(1):4961.
John-Steiner V. (2000) Creative collaboration. Oxford University Press.
Jones M. & Sugden R. (2001) Positive confirmation bias in the acquisition of information. Theory and Decision 50(1):5999.
Kahneman D. (2003) A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist 58(9):697720.
Kahneman D. & Frederick S. (2002) Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgement. In: Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment, ed. Gilovich T., Griffin D. & Kahneman D., pp. 4981. Cambridge University Press.
Kahneman D. & Frederick S. (2005) A model of heuristic judgment. In: The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning, ed. Holyoak K. & Morrison R. G., pp. 267–94. Cambridge University Press.
Kahneman D. & Ritov I. (1994) Determinants of stated willingness to pay for public goods: A study in the headline method. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 9(1):537.
Kahneman D. & Tversky A. (1972) Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology 3(3):430–54.
Kahneman D., Slovic P. & Tversky A. (1982) Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge University Press.
Kaplan M. F. & Miller C. E. (1977) Judgments and group discussion: Effect of presentation and memory factors on polarization. Sociometry 40(4):337–43.
Katz J. J. (1986) Cogitations. Oxford University Press.
Keeney S., Hasson F. & McKenna H. P. (2001) A critical review of the Delphi technique as a research methodology for nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies 38(2):195200.
Kerr N. L., Maccoun R. J. & Kramer G. P. (1996) Bias in judgment: Comparing individuals and groups. Psychological Review 103(4):687719.
Kerr N. L. & Tindale R. S. (2004) Group performance and decision making. Annual Review of Psychology 55:623–55.
Kersten D., Mamassian P. & Yuille A. (2004) Object perception as Bayesian inference. Annual Review of Psychology 55:271304.
Klaczynski P. A. (1997) Bias in adolescents' everyday reasoning and its relationship with intellectual ability, personal theories, and self-serving motivation. Developmental Psychology 33(2):273–83.
Klaczynski P. A. & Cottrell J. M. (2004) A dual-process approach to cognitive development: The case of children's understanding of sunk cost decisions. Thinking & Reasoning 10(2):147–74.
Klaczynski P. A. & Gordon D. H. (1996a) Everyday statistical reasoning during adolescence and young adulthood: Motivational, general ability, and developmental influences. Child Development 67(6):2873–91.
Klaczynski P. A. & Gordon D. H. (1996b) Self-serving influences on adolescents' evaluations of belief-relevant evidence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 62(3):317–39.
Klaczynski P. A., Gordon D. H. & Fauth J. (1997) Goal-oriented critical reasoning and individual differences in critical reasoning biases. Journal of Educational Psychology 89(3):470–85.
Klaczynski P. A. & Lavallee K. L. (2005) Domain-specific identity, epistemic regulation, and intellectual ability as predictors of belief-based reasoning: A dual-process perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 92(1):124.
Klaczynski P. A. & Narasimham G. (1998) Development of scientific reasoning biases: Cognitive versus ego-protective explanations. Developmental Psychology 34(1):175–87.
Klaczynski P. A. & Robinson B. (2000) Personal theories, intellectual ability, and epistemological beliefs: Adult age differences in everyday reasoning tasks. Psychology and Aging 15(3):400–16.
Klauer K. C., Musch J. & Naumer B. (2000) On belief bias in syllogistic reasoning. Psychological Review 107(4):852–84.
Klayman J. & Ha Y.-W. (1987) Confirmation, disconfirmation and information in hypothesis testing. Psychological Review 94(2):211–28.
Klein G. (1998) Sources of power: How people make decisions. MIT Press.
Koehler J. J. (1993) The influence of prior beliefs on scientific judgments of evidence quality. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 56(1):2855.
Kogan N. & Wallach M. A. (1966) Modification of a judgmental style through group interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4(2):165–74.
Koole S. L., Dijksterhuis A. & Van Knippenberg A. (2001) What's in a name: Implicit self-esteem and the automatic self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80(4):669–85.
Koriat A., Lichtenstein S. & Fischhoff B. (1980) Reasons for confidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6(2):107–18.
Kray L. & Gonzalez R. (1999) Differential weighting in choice versus advice: I'll do this, you do that. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 12(3):207–17.
Krebs J. R. & Dawkins R. (1984) Animal signals: Mind-reading and manipulation? In: Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach, 2nd ed., ed. Krebs J. R. & Davies N. B., pp. 390402. Basil Blackwell.
Kruglanski A. W. & Freund T. (1983) The freezing and unfreezing of lay-inferences: Effects on impressional primacy, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 19(5):448–68.
Kuhn D. (1991) The skills of argument. Cambridge University Press.
Kuhn D. (1992) Thinking as argument. Harvard Educational Review 62(2):155–78.
Kuhn D. & Lao J. (1996) Effects of evidence on attitudes: Is polarization the norm? Psychological Science 7(2):115–20.
Kuhn D., Shaw V. F. & Felton M. (1997) Effects of dyadic interaction on argumentative reasoning. Cognition and Instruction 15(3):287315.
Kuhn D., Weinstock M. & Flaton R. (1994) How well do jurors reason? Competence dimensions of individual variation in a juror reasoning task. Psychological Science 5(5):289–96.
Kunda Z. (1987) Motivation and inference: Self-serving generation and evaluation of evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53(4):636–47.
Kunda Z. (1990) The case for motivated reasoning. Psychological Bulletin 108(3):480–98.
Lambert A. J., Cronen S., Chasteen A. L. & Lickel B. (1996) Private vs public expressions of racial prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 32(5):437–59.
Landemore H. (in press) Democratic reason: The mechanisms of collective intelligence in politics. In: Collective wisdom: Principles and Mechanisms, ed. Landemore H. & Elster J.. Cambridge University Press.
Lao J. & Kuhn D. (2002) Cognitive engagement and attitude development. Cognitive Development 17(2):1203–17.
Lassiter G. D., Lindberg M. J., Gonzalez-Vallejo C., Bellezza F. S. & Phillips N. D. (2009) The deliberation-without-attention effect: Evidence for an artifactual interpretation. Psychological Science 20(6):671–75.
Laughlin P. R., Bonner B. L. & Miner A. G. (2002) Groups perform better than the best individuals on letters-to-numbers problems. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 88(2):605–20.
Laughlin P. R. & Ellis A. L. (1986) Demonstrability and social combination processes on mathematical intellective tasks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22(3):177–89.
Laughlin P. R., Hatch E. C., Silver J. S. & Boh L. (2006) Groups perform better than the best individuals on letters-to-numbers problems: Effects of group size. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90(4):644–51.
Laughlin P. R., VanderStoep S. W. & Hollingshead A. B. (1991) Collective versus individual induction: Recognition of truth, rejection of error, and collective information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61(1):5067.
Laughlin P. R., Zander M. L., Knievel E. M. & Tan T. S. (2003) Groups perform better than the best individuals on letters-to-numbers problems: Informative equations and effective reasoning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85(4):684–94.
Lee L., Amir O. & Ariely D. (2009) In search of Homo economicus: Preference consistency, emotions, and cognition. Journal of Consumer Research 36:173–87.
Lerner J. S. & Tetlock P. E. (1999) Accounting for the effects of accountability. Psychological Bulletin 125(2):255–75.
Leslie A. M. (1987) Pretense and representation: The origins of a “theory of mind.” Psychological Review 94(4):412–26.
Liberman A. & Chaiken S. (1991) Value conflict and thought-induced attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 27(3):203–16.
Littlepage G. E. & Mueller A. L. (1997) Recognition and utilization of expertise in problem-solving groups: Expert characteristics and behavior. Group Dynamics 1(4):324–28.
Lombardelli C., Proudman J. & Talbot J. (2005) Committees versus individuals: An experimental analysis of monetary policy decision-making. International Journal of Central Banking 1(1):181205.
Lord C. G., Ross L. & Lepper M. R. (1979) Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(11):2098–109.
Lucas E. J. & Ball L. J. (2005) Think-aloud protocols and the selection task: Evidence for relevance effects and rationalisation processes. Thinking and Reasoning 11(1):3566.
Maciejovsky B. & Budescu D. V. (2007) Collective induction without cooperation? Learning and knowledge transfer in cooperative groups and competitive auctions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92(5):854–70.
Madsen D. B. (1978) Issue importance and group choice shifts: A persuasive arguments approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36(10):1118–27.
Mahoney M. J. (1977) Publication prejudices: An experimental study of confirmatory bias in the peer review system. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1(2):161–75.
Mascaro O. & Sperber D. (2009) The moral, epistemic, and mindreading components of children's vigilance towards deception. Cognition 112(3):367–80.
Mazar N., Amir O. & Ariely D. (2008) The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research 45(6):633–44.
McGuire T. W., Kiesler S. & Siegel J. (1987) Group and computer-mediated discussion effects in risk decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52(5):917–30.
McGuire W. J. (1964) Inducing resistance to persuasion: Some contemporary approaches. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 1, ed. Berkowitz L.. Academic Press.
McKenzie C. R. M. (2004) Framing effects in inference tasks – and why they're normatively defensible. Memory & Cognition 32(6):874–85.
McKenzie C. R. M. & Nelson J. D. (2003) What a speaker's choice of frame reveals: Reference points, frame selection, and framing effects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 10(3):596602.
McMackin J. & Slovic P. (2000) When does explicit justification impair decision making? Journal of Applied Cognitive Psychology 14(6):527–41.
Mercier H. (in press a) On the universality of argumentative reasoning. Journal of Cognition and Culture.
Mercier H. & Landemore H. (in press) Reasoning is for arguing: Understanding the successes and failures of deliberation. Political Psychology.
Mercier H. & Sperber D. (2009) Intuitive and reflective inferences. In: In two minds: Dual processes and beyond, ed. Evans J. St. B. T. & Frankish K., pp. 149–70. Oxford University Press.
Michaelsen L. K., Watson W. E. & Black R. H. (1989) A realistic test of individual versus group consensus decision making. Journal of Applied Psychology 74(5):834–39.
Milch K. F., Weber E. U., Appelt K. C., Handgraaf M. J. J. & Krantz D. H. (2009) From individual preference construction to group decisions: Framing effects and group processes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
Millar M. G. & Tesser A. (1986) Thought-induced attitude change: The effects of schema structure and commitment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51(2):259–69.
Millar M. G. & Tesser A. (1989) The effects of affective-cognitive consistency and thought on the attitude-behavior relation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 25(2):189202.
Miller A. G., Michoskey J. W., Bane C. M. & Dowd T. G. (1993) The attitude polarization phenomenon: Role of response measure, attitude extremity, and behavioral consequences of reported attitude change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64(4):561–74.
Molden D. C. & Higgins E. T. (2005) Motivated thinking. In: The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning, ed. Holyoak K. & Morrison R.. Cambridge University Press.
Moore A. B., Clark B. A. & Kane M. J. (2008) Who shalt not kill? Individual differences in working memory capacity, executive control, and moral judgment. Psychological Science 19(6):549–57.
Moorhead G., Ference R. & Neck C. P. (1991) Group decision fiascoes continue: Space shuttle Challenger and a revised groupthink framework. Human Relations 44(6):539–50.
Morsanyi K. & Handley S. J. (2008) How smart do you need to be to get it wrong? The role of cognitive capacity in the development of heuristic-based judgment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 99(1):1836.
Moshman D. & Geil M. (1998) Collaborative reasoning: Evidence for collective rationality. Thinking and Reasoning 4(3):231–48.
Navarro A. D. & Fantino E. (2005) The sunk cost effect in pigeons and humans. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 83(1):113.
Neuman Y. (2003) Go ahead, prove that God does not exist! On high school students' ability to deal with fallacious arguments. Learning and Instruction 13(4):367–80.
Neuman Y., Weinstock M. P. & Glasner A. (2006) The effect of contextual factors on the judgment of informal reasoning fallacies. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section A: Human Experimental Psychology 59:411–25.
Newell B. R., Wong K. Y., Cheung J. C. H. & Rakow T. (2009) Think, blink or sleep on it? The impact of modes of thought on complex decision making. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 62(4):707–32.
Newstead S. E., Handley S. J. & Buck E. (1999) Falsifying mental models: Testing the predictions of theories of syllogistic reasoning. Memory & Cognition 27(2):344–54.
Nickerson R. S. (1998) Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomena in many guises. Review of General Psychology 2(2):175220.
Niv Y. & Schoenbaum G. (2008) Dialogues on prediction errors. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12(7):265–72.
Novaes C. D. (2005) Medieval obligationes as logical games of consistency maintenance. Synthese 145(3):371–95.
Nussbaum E. M. (2008) Collaborative discourse, argumentation, and learning: Preface and literature review. Contemporary Educational Psychology 33(3):345–59.
Nussbaum E. M. & Sinatra G. M. (2003) Argument and conceptual engagement. Contemporary Educational Psychology 28(3):384–95.
Oaksford M. & Chater N. (2007) Bayesian rationality: The probabilistic approach to human reasoning. Oxford University Press.
Oaksford M., Chater N. & Grainger R. (1999) Probabilistic effects in data selection. Thinking & Reasoning 5(3):193243.
Oaksford M. & Hahn U. (2004) A Bayesian approach to the argument from ignorance. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 58(2):7585.
Okada E. M. (2005) Justification effects on consumer choice of hedonic and utilitarian goods. Journal of Marketing Research 42(1):4353.
Okada T. & Simon H. A. (1997) Collaboration discovery in a scientific domain. Cognitive Science 21(2):109–46.
Ormerod P. (2005) Why most things fail: Evolution, extinction and economics. Faber & Faber.
Paese P. W., Bieser M. & Tubbs M. E. (1993) Framing effects and choice shifts in group decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 56(1):149–56.
Pennington N. & Hastie R. (1993) Reasoning in explanation-based decision-making. Cognition 49(1–2):123–63.
Perelman C. & Olbrechts-Tyteca L. (1969) The new rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation. University of Notre Dame Press.
Perkins D. N. (1985) Postprimary education has little impact on informal reasoning. Journal of Educational Psychology 77(5):562–71.
Petty R. E. & Cacioppo J. T. (1979) Issue involvement can increase or decrease persuasion by enhancing message-relevant cognitive responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(10):1915–26.
Petty R. E. & Wegener D. T. (1998) Attitude change: Multiple roles for persuasion variables. In: The handbook of social psychology, vol. 1, ed. Gilbert D., Fiske S. & Lindzey G., pp. 323–90. McGraw-Hill.
Poletiek F. H. (1996) Paradoxes of falsification. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section A: Human Experimental Psychology 49(2):447–62.
Pomerantz E. M., Chaiken S. & Tordesillas R. S. (1995) Attitude strength and resistance processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(3):408–19.
Powell C. (2003) The Delphi technique: Myths and realities. Journal of Advanced Nursing 41(4):376–82.
Prasad M., Perrin A. J., Bezila K., Hoffman S. G., Kindleberger K., Manturuk K. & Powers A. (2009) “There must be a reason”: Osama, Saddam, and inferred justification. Sociological Inquiry 79(2):142–62.
Premack D. & Woodruff G. (1978) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1(4):515–26.
Pritchard D. (2005) Epistemic luck. Clarendon Press.
Pyszczynski T. & Greenberg J. (1987) Toward and integration of cognitive and motivational perspectives on social inference: A biased hypothesis-testing model. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 20, ed. Berkowitz L., pp. 297340. Academic Press.
Ratneshwar S., Shocker A. D. & Stewart D. W. (1987) Toward understanding the attraction effect: The implications of product stimulus meaningfulness and familiarity. Journal of Consumer Research 13(4):520–33.
Recanati F. (2000) Oratio obliqua, oratio recta. MIT Press.
Redlawsk D. P. (2002) Hot cognition or cool consideration? Testing the effects of motivated reasoning on political decision making. Journal of Politics 64(4):1021–44.
Resnick L. B., Salmon M., Zeitz C. M., Wathen S. H. & Holowchak M. (1993) Reasoning in conversation. Cognition and Instruction 11(3–4):347–64.
Ricco R. B. (2003) The macrostructure of informal arguments: A proposed model and analysis. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section A: Human Experimental Psychology 56(6):1021–51.
Rips L. J. (1994) The psychology of proof: Deductive reasoning in human thinking. MIT Press.
Rips L. J. (1998) Reasoning and conversation. Psychological Review 105(3):411–41.
Rips L. J. (2002) Circular reasoning. Cognitive Science 26(6):767–95.
Ritchart R. & Perkins D. N. (2005) Learning to think: The challenges of teaching thinking. In: The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning, ed. Holyoak K. & Morrison R.. Cambridge University Press.
Roberts M. J. & Newton E. J. (2001) Inspection times, the change task, and the rapid response selection task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section A: Human Experimental Psychology 54(4):1031–48.
Ross L., Lepper M. R. & Hubbard M. (1975) Perseverance in self-perception and social perception: Biased attributional processes in the debriefing paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32(5):880–92.
Ross M., McFarland C. & Fletcher G. J. (1981) The effect of attitude on the recall of personal histories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40(4):627–34.
Rowe G. & Wright G. (1999) The Delphi technique as a forecasting tool: Issues and analysis. International Journal of Forecasting 15(4):353–75.
Rozin P., Millman L. & Nemeroff C. (1986) Operation of the laws of sympathetic magic in disgust and other domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50(4):703–12.
Russo J. E., Carlson K. A. & Meloy M. G. (2006) Choosing an inferior alternative. Psychological Science 17(10):899904.
Ryan W. (1971) Blaming the victim. Pantheon.
W. C., Kelley C. N., Ho C. & Stanovich K. E. (2005) Thinking about personal theories: Individual differences in the coordination of theory and evidence. Personality and Individual Differences 38(5):1149–61.
Sacco K. & Bucciarelli M. (2008) The role of cognitive and socio-cognitive conflict in learning to reason. Mind & Society 7(1):119.
Sadler O. & Tesser A. (1973) Some effects of salience and time upon interpersonal hostility and attraction during social isolation. Sociometry 36(1):99112.
Sanitioso R., Kunda Z. & Fong G. T. (1990) Motivated recruitment of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59(2):229–41.
Savage L. J. (1954) The foundations of statistics. Wiley.
Scheibehenne B., Greifeneder R. & Todd P. M. (2009) What moderates the too-much-choice effect? Psychology & Marketing 26(3):229–53.
Schulz-Hardt S., Brodbeck F. C., Mojzisch A., Kerschreiter R. & Frey D. (2006) Group decision making in hidden profile situations: Dissent as a facilitator for decision quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(6):1080–93.
Schweitzer M. E. & Hsee C. K. (2002) Stretching the truth: Elastic justification and motivated communication of uncertain information. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 25(2):185201.
Sela A., Berger J. & Liu W. (2009) Variety, vice, and virtue: How assortment size influences option choice. Journal of Consumer Research. 35(6): 941–51.
Sengupta J. & Fitzsimons G. J. (2000) The effects of analyzing reasons for brand preferences: Disruption or reinforcement? Journal of Marketing Research 37(3):318–30.
Sengupta J. & Fitzsimons G. J. (2004) The effect of analyzing reasons on the stability of brand attitudes: A reconciliation of opposing predictions. Journal of Consumer Research 31(3):705–11.
Shafir E. & Tversky A. (1992) Thinking through uncertainty: Nonconsequential reasoning and choice. Cognitive Psychology 24(4):449–74.
Shafir E., Simonson I. & Tversky A. (1993) Reason-based choice. Cognition 49 (1–2):1136.
Shaw V. F. (1996) The cognitive processes in informal reasoning. Thinking & Reasoning 2:5180.
Simon H. A. (1955) A behavioral model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69(1):99118.
Simonson I. (1989) Choice based on reasons: The case of attraction and compromise effects. Journal of Consumer Research 16(2):158–74.
Simonson I. (1990) The effect of purchase quantity and timing on variety-seeking behavior. Journal of Marketing Research 27(2):150–62.
Simonson I., Carmon Z. & O'Curry S. (1994) Experimental evidence on the negative effect of product features and sales promotions on brand choice. Marketing Science 13(1):2340.
Simonson I. & Nowlis S. M. (2000) The role of explanations and need for uniqueness in consumer decision making: Unconventional choices based on reasons. Journal of Consumer Research 27(1):4968.
Simonson I., Nowlis S. M. & Simonson Y. (1993) The effect of irrelevant preference arguments on consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology 2(3):287306.
Simonson I. & Nye P. (1992) The effect of accountability on susceptibility to decision errors. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 51:416–46.
Slavin R. E. (1995) Cooperative learning: Theory, research and practice, 2nd ed. Allyn & Bacon.
Sloman S. A. (1996) The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin 119(1):322.
Slovic P. (1975) Choice between equally valued alternatives. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1:280–87.
Smith M. K., Wood W. B., Adams W. K., Wieman C., Knight J. K., Guild N. & Su T. T. (2009) Why peer discussion improves student performance on in-class concept questions. Science 323(5910):122–24.
Smith S. M., Fabrigar L. R. & Norris M. E. (2008) Reflecting on six decades of selective exposure research: Progress, challenges, and opportunities. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2(1):464–93.
Sniezek J. A. & Henry R. A. (1989) Accuracy and confidence in group judgment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 43(1):128.
Snyder M., Kleck R. E., Strenta A. & Mentzer S. J. (1979) Avoidance of the handicapped: An attributional ambiguity analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(12):2297–306.
Soman D. & Cheema A. (2001) The effect of windfall gains on the sunk-cost effect. Marketing Letters 12(1):5162.
Spelke E. S. & Kinzler K. D. (2007) Core knowledge. Developmental Science 10(1):8996.
Sperber D. (1997) Intuitive and reflective beliefs. Mind and Language 12(1):6783.
Sperber D. (2000a) Metarepresentations in an evolutionary perspective. In: Metarepresentations: A multidisciplinary perspective, ed. Sperber D., pp. 117–37. Oxford University Press.
Sperber D., ed. (2000b) Metarepresentations: A multidisciplinary perspective. Oxford University Press.
Sperber D. (2001) An evolutionary perspective on testimony and argumentation. Philosophical Topics 29:401–13.
Sperber D., Cara F. & Girotto V. (1995) Relevance theory explains the selection task. Cognition 57(1):3195.
Sperber D., Clément F., Heintz C., Mascaro O., Mercier H., Origgi G. & Wilson D. (2010) Epistemic vigilance. Mind & Language 25(4):359–93.
Sperber D. & Wilson D. (2002) Pragmatics, modularity and mind-reading. Mind and Language 17(1–2):323.
Stanovich K. E. (2004) The robot's rebellion: Finding meaning the age of Darwin. Chicago University Press.
Stanovich K. E. & West R. F. (1998) Individual differences in rational thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 127(2):161–88.
Stanovich K. E. & West R. F. (2007) Natural myside bias is independent of cognitive ability. Thinking & Reasoning 13(3):225–47.
Stanovich K. E. & West R. F. (2008a) On the failure of cognitive ability to predict myside and one-sided thinking biases. Thinking & Reasoning 14(2):129–67.
Stanovich K. E. & West R. F. (2008b) On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94(4):672–95.
Stasson M. F., Kameda T., Parks C. D., Zimmerman S. K. & Davis J. H. (1991) Effects of assigned group consensus requirement on group problem solving and group members' learning. Social Psychology Quarterly 54(1):2535.
Staw B. M. (1981) The escalation of commitment to a course of action. Academy of Management Review 6(4):577–87.
Stein N. L., Bernas R. S. & Calicchia D. J. (1997) Conflict talk: Understanding and resolving arguments. In: Conversation: Cognitive, communicative, and social perspectives, ed. Givon T., pp. 233–68. John Benjamins.
Stein N. L., Bernas R. S., Calicchia D. J. & Wright A. (1996) Understanding and resolving arguments: The dynamics of negotiation. In: Models of understanding text, ed. Britton B. & Graesser A. G., pp. 257–88. Erlbaum.
Steiner I. D. (1972) Group processes and productivity. Academic Press.
Sterelny K. (in press) The evolved apprentice. MIT Press.
Sunstein C. R. (2002) The law of group polarization. Journal of Political Philosophy 10(2):175–95.
Taber C. S. & Lodge M. (2006) Motivated skepticism in the evaluation of political beliefs. American Journal of Political Science 50(3):755–69.
Taleb N. N. (2007) The black swan: The impact of the highly improbable. Random House.
Tesser A. (1976) Attitude polarization as a function of thought and reality constraints. Journal of Research in Personality 10(2):183–94.
Tesser A. & Conlee M. C. (1975) Some effects of time and thought on attitude polarization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31(2):262–70.
Tesser A. & Leone C. (1977) Cognitive schemas and thought as determinants of attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13(4):340–56.
Tetlock P. E. (1998) Close-call counterfactuals and belief-system defenses: I was not almost wrong but I was almost right. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(3):639–52.
Tetlock P. E. & Boettger R. (1989) Accountability: A social magnifier of the dilution effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(3):388–98.
Tetlock P. E., Lerner J. S. & Boettger R. (1996) The dilution effect: Judgmental bias, conversational convention, or a bit of both? European Journal of Social Psychology 26(6):915–34.
Tetlock P. E., Skitka L. & Boettger R. (1989) Social and cognitive strategies for coping with accountability: Conformity, complexity, and bolstering. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(4):632–40.
Thompson D. V., Hamilton R. W. & Rust R. T. (2005a) Feature fatigue: When product capabilities become too much of a good thing. Journal of Marketing Research 42(4):431–42.
Thompson D. V. & Norton M. I. (2008) The social utility of feature creep. In: Advances in consumer research, vol. 35, ed. Lee A. & Soman D., pp. 181–84. Association for Consumer Research.
Thompson V. A., Evans J. St. B. T. & Handley S. J. (2005b) Persuading and dissuading by conditional argument. Journal of Memory and Language 53(2):238–57.
Thompson V. A., Striemer C. L., Reikoff R., Gunter R. W. & Campbell J. I. D. (2003) Syllogistic reasoning time: Disconfirmation disconfirmed. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 10(1):184–89.
Thorsteinson T. J. & Withrow S. (2009) Does unconscious thought outperform conscious thought on complex decisions? A further examination. Judgment and Decision Making 4(3):235–47.
Tichy G. (2004) The over-optimism among experts in assessment and foresight. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 71(4):341–63.
Tindale R. S. & Sheffey S. (2002) Shared information, cognitive load, and group memory. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 5(1):518.
Tolmie A., Howe C., Mackenzie M. & Greer K. (1993) Task design as an influence on dialogue and learning: Primary school group work with object flotation. Social Development 2(3):183201.
Tomasello M., Carpenter M., Call J., Behne T. & Moll H. (2005) Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(5):675–91.
Trognon A. (1993) How does the process of interaction work when two interlocutors try to resolve a logical problem? Cognition and Instruction 11(3–4):325–45.
Tversky A. & Kahneman D. (1981) The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science 211(4481):453–58.
Tversky A. & Kahneman D. (1983) Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment. Psychological Review 90(4):293315.
Tversky A. & Shafir E. (1992) The disjunction effect in choice under uncertainty. Psychological Science 3(5):305309.
Tversky A., Sattath S. & Slovic P. (1988) Contingent weighting in judgment and choice. Psychological Review 95(3):371–84.
Tweney R. D., Doherty M. E., Worner W. J., Pliske D. B., Mynatt C. R., Gross K. A. & Arkkelin D. L. (1980) Strategies of rule discovery in an inference task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 32(1):109–23.
Valdesolo P. & DeSteno D. (2008) The duality of virtue: Deconstructing the moral hypocrite. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44(5):1334–38.
van Boxtel C., van der Linden C. & Kanselaar G. (2000) Collaborative learning tasks and the elaboration of conceptual knowledge. Learning and Instruction 10(4):311–30.
Vinokur A. (1971) Review and theoretical analysis of the effects of group processes upon individual and group decisions involving risk. Psychological Bulletin 76(4):231–50.
Vinokur A. & Burnstein E. (1978) Depolarization of attitudes in groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36(8):872–85.
Wason P. C. (1960) On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section A: Human Experimental Psychology 12(3):129–37.
Wason P. C. (1966) Reasoning. In: New horizons in psychology: I, ed. Foss B. M., pp. 106–37. Penguin.
Wason P. C. & Evans J. St. B. T. (1975) Dual processes in reasoning? Cognition 3:141–54.
Webb N. M. & Palinscar A. S. (1996) Group processes in the classroom. In: Handbook of educational psychology, ed. Berliner D. C. & Calfee R. C., pp. 841–73. Prentice-Hall.
Weber E. U., Johnson E. J., Milch K. F., Chang H., Brodscholl J. & Goldstein D. G. (2007) Asymmetric discounting in intertemporal choice: A query theory account. Psychological Science 18(6):516–23.
Weinstock M., Neuman Y. & Tabak I. (2004) Missing the point or missing the norms? Epistemological norms as predictors of students' ability to identify fallacious arguments. Contemporary Educational Psychology 29(1):7794.
Whiten A. & Byrne R. W., eds. (1997) Machiavellian intelligence II: Extensions and evaluations. Cambridge University Press.
Willingham D. T. (2008) Critical thinking: Why is it so hard to teach? Arts Education Policy Review 109(4):2132.
Wilson T. D., Dunn D. S., Bybee J. A., Hyman D. B. & Rotondo J. A. (1984) Effects of analyzing reasons on attitude-behavior consistency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(1):516.
Wilson T. D., Dunn D. S., Kraft D. & Lisle D. J. (1989a) Introspection, attitude change, and attitude-behavior consistency: The disruptive effects of explaining why we feel the way we do. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 19, ed. Berkowitz L., pp. 123205. Academic Press.
Wilson T. D., Kraft D. & Dunn D. S. (1989b) The disruptive effects of explaining attitudes: The moderating effect of knowledge about the attitude object. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 25(5):379400.
Wilson T. D. & LaFleur S. J. (1995) Knowing what you'll do: Effects of analyzing reasons on self-prediction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68(1):2135.
Wilson T. D., Lisle D. J., Schooler J. W., Hodges S. D., Klaaren K. J. & LaFleur S. J. (1993) Introspecting about reasons can reduce post-choice satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19(3):331–39.
Wilson T. D. & Schooler J. W. (1991) Thinking too much: Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Thinking 60(2):181–92.
Wolpert D. M. & Kawato M. (1998) Multiple paired forward and inverse models for motor control. Neural Networks 11(7–8):1317–29.
Xu J. & Schwarz N. (2009) Do we really need a reason to indulge? Journal of Marketing Research 46(1):2536.
Yates J. F., Lee J.-W. & Shinotsuka H. (1992) Cross-national variation in probability judgment. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis.
Zahavi A. & Zahavi A. (1997) The handicap principle: A missing piece of Darwin's puzzle. Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 103
Total number of PDF views: 1064 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3507 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.