Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-bxbhv Total loading time: 0.635 Render date: 2023-02-04T06:16:40.166Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Social Representations About the Functions of Deliberate Self-Harm: Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire for Portuguese Adults

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 December 2018

Eva Duarte*
Affiliation:
CIE-ISPA, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal
Maria Gouveia-Pereira
Affiliation:
CIE-ISPA, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal
Hugo S. Gomes
Affiliation:
CIPsi — Psychology Research Center, Victims, Offenders and Justice System Research Unit, School of Psychology, University of Minho, Minho, Portugal
Daniel Sampaio
Affiliation:
Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
*
*Corresponding author: Eva Duarte, CIE-ISPA, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim do Tabaco 34, 1149-041, Lisboa, Portugal. Email: psi.eva@hotmail.com

Abstract

The present article focuses on the validation of the Questionnaire of Social Representations about the Functions of Deliberate Self-Harm for adults. The understanding of the social representations about deliberate self-harm can be relevant for clinical intervention and prevention. However, there is still a lack of instruments to assess these representations. The basis for this instrument was the translation of the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury. To complement this instrument, we conducted semi-directive interviews with adults without deliberate self-harm and analysed the Portuguese written press. Results from these studies complemented the questionnaire with new items and functions. Study 1 consisted of an exploratory factor analysis with a sample of 462 adults. Results revealed a two-factor structure of interpersonal and intrapersonal dimensions. After item reduction, the factorial analysis of the independent functions was also acceptable. This structure was then corroborated in Study 2 by a confirmatory factor analysis with a new sample of 474 adults, revealing an acceptable model fit. This questionnaire presents a relatively solid structure and is based on acceptable psychometric properties, which allows its use in future research.

Type
Standard Paper
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Arbuckle, J.L. (2013). IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 22 user's guide. Amos Development Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.sussex.ac.uk/its/pdfs/SPSS_Amos_User_Guide_22.pdfGoogle Scholar
Arbuthnott, A.E., & Lewis, S.P. (2015). Parents of youth who self-injure: A review of the literature and implications for mental health professionals. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9, 135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batejan, K.L., Swenson, L.P., Jarvi, S.M., & Muehlenkamp, J.J. (2015). Perceptions of the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury in a college sample. Crisis, 36, 338344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, E., Hasking, P., & Reupert, A. (2014). ‘We're working in the dark here’: Education needs of teachers and school staff regarding student self-injury. School Mental Health, 6, 2012012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bildik, T., Somer, O., Kabukçu-Başay, B., Başay, Ö., & Özbaran, B. (2013). The validity and reliability of the turkish version of the inventory of statements about self-injury. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 24, 4149.Google ScholarPubMed
Bresin, K., Sand, E., & Gordon, K. (2013). Non-suicidal self-injury from the observer's perspective: A vignette study. Archives of Suicide Research, 17, 185195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brunner, R., Kaess, M., Parzer, P., Fischer, G., Carli, V., Hoven, C.W., … Wasserman, D. (2013). Life-time prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent direct self-injurious behavior: A comparative study of findings in 11 European countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 337348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Stefano, J., Atkins, S., Noble, R.N., & Heath, N. (2012). Am I competent enough to be doing this?: A qualitative study of trainees’ experiences working with clients who self-injure. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 25, 289305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrey, A.E., Hughes, N.D., Simkin, S., Locock, L., Stewart, A., Kapur, N., … Hawton, K. (2016). The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: A qualitative study. BMJ Open, 6, e009631CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics: and sex and drugs and rock ‘n’ roll (4th ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
Fox, C. (2011). Working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour: Experiences of a group of counsellors. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 39, 4151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glenn, C.R., & Klonsky, E.D. (2011). One-year test-retest reliability of the inventory of statements about self-injury (ISAS). Assessment, 18, 375378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonçalves, S.F., Martins, C., Rosendo, A.P., Machado, B.C., & Silva, E. (2012). Self-injurious behavior in Portuguese adolescents. Psicothema, 24, 536541.Google Scholar
Gouveia-Pereira, M., Gomes, H., Santos, N., Frazão, P., & Sampaio, D. (2016). Relação entre as dinâmicas familiares e os comportamentos suicidários dos adolescentes e pais (Comunicação apresentada no Colóquio Psicanálise). Lisbon, Portugal: ISPA-IU University.Google Scholar
Guerreiro, D.F., Sampaio, D., Figueira, M.L., & Madge, N. (2017). Self-harm in adolescents: A self-report survey in schools from Lisbon, Portugal. Archives of Suicide Research, 21, 8399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasking, P., Rees, C.S., Martin, G., & Quigley, J. (2015). What happens when you tell someone you self-injure? The effects of disclosing NSSI to adults and peers. BMC Public Health, 15, 10391048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawton, K., Saunders, K.E.A., & O'Connor, R.C. (2012). Self-harm and suicide in adolescents. The Lancet, 379, 23732382.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heath, N.L., Toste, J.R., & Beettam, E.L. (2007). ‘I am not well-equipped’: High school teachers’ perceptions of self-injury. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 21, 7392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heath, N.L., Toste, J.R., Sornberger, M.J., & Wagner, C. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of non-suicidal self-injury in the schools. School Mental Health, 3, 3543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S.E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15, 12771288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacobson, C.M., & Gould, M. (2007). The epidemiology and phenomenology of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior among adolescents: A critical review of the literature. Archives of Suicide Research, 11, 129147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jodelet, D. (1984). Réflexions sur le traitement de la notion de représentation sociale en psychologie sociale. Communication — Information, 6, 1542.Google Scholar
Karman, P., Kool, N., Poslawsky, I.E., & Van Meijel, B. (2015). Nurses’ attitudes towards self-harm: A literature review. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22, 6575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Klonsky, E. (2007). The functions of deliberate self-injury: A review of the evidence. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 226239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klonsky, E. (2011). Non-suicidal self-injury in United States adults: Prevalence, sociodemographics, topography and functions. Psychological Medicine, 41, 19811986.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klonsky, E.D., & Glenn, C.R. (2009). Assessing the functions of non-suicidal self-injury: Psychometric properties of the inventory of statements about self-injury (ISAS). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 215219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klonsky, E.D., Glenn, C.R., Styer, D.M., Olino, T.M., & Washburn, J.J. (2015). The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: Converging evidence for a two-factor structure. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klonsky, E.D., & Muehlenkamp, J.J. (2007). Self-injury: A research review for the practitioner. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 10451056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kortge, R., Meade, T., & Tennant, A. (2013). Interpersonal and intrapersonal functions of deliberate self-harm (DSH): A psychometric examination of the inventory of statements about self-injury (ISAS) scale. Behaviour Change, 30, 2435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindgren, B.-M., Oster, I., Aström, S., & Graneheim, U.H. (2011). ‘They don't understand … you cut yourself in order to live.’ Interpretative repertoires jointly constructing interactions between adult women who self-harm and professional caregivers. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 6, 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Long, M., & Jenkins, M. (2010). Counsellors’ perspectives on self-harm and the role of the therapeutic relationship for working with clients who self-harm. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 10, 192200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madge, N., Hewitt, A., Hawton, K., Wilde, E., Corcoran, P., Fekete, S., … Ystgaard, M. (2008). Deliberate self-harm within an international community sample of young people: Comparative findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 667677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maroco, J. (2010). Análise de equações estruturais: Fundamentos teóricos, software e aplicações [Structural equation analysis: Theoretical, software and applications]. Pêro Pinheiro: Report Number.Google Scholar
McDonald, G., O'Brien, L., & Jackson, D. (2007). Guilt and shame: Experiences of parents of self-harming adolescents. Journal of Child Health Care, 11, 298310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McHale, J., & Felton, A. (2010). Self-harm: What's the problem? A literature review of the factors affecting attitudes towards self-harm. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17, 732740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meszaros, G., Horvath, L.O., & Balazs, J. (2017). Self-injury and externalizing pathology: A systematic literature review. BMC Psychiatry, 17, 160.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mojtabai, R., & Olfson, M. (2008). Parental detection of youth's self-harm behavior. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 38, 6073.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moscovici, S. (1961). La Psycanalyse — Son Image et Son Public. Paris: P.U.F.Google Scholar
Muehlenkamp, J.J., Brausch, A., Quigley, K., & Whitlock, J. (2013). Interpersonal features and functions of nonsuicidal self-injury. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 43, 6780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muehlenkamp, J.J., Claes, L., Havertape, L., & Plener, P.L. (2012). International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niwa, K.D., & Mandrusiak, M.N. (2012). Self-injury groups on facebook. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 46, 120.Google Scholar
Nock, M.K. (2009). Why do people hurt themselves? New insights into the nature and functions of self-injury. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 7883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oldershaw, A., Richards, C., Simic, M., & Schmidt, U. (2008). Parents’ perspectives on adolescent self-harm: Qualitative study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 193, 140144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reddy, N., Rokito, L., & Whitlock, J. (2016). What is the link? The relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and social media. Information Brief Series, Cornell Research Program on Self-injury and Recovery. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.Google Scholar
Rees, N., Rapport, F., Thomas, G., John, A., & Snooks, H. (2014). Perceptions of paramedic and emergency care workers of those who self harm: A systematic review of the quantitative literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 77, 449456.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rissanen, M.-L., Kylmä, J., & Laukkanen, E. (2008). Descriptions of self-mutilation among Finnish adolescents: A qualitative inquiry. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29, 145163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swannell, S., Martin, G., Krysinska, K., Kay, T., Olsson, K. & Win, A. (2010). Cutting on-line: Self-injury and the internet. Advances in Mental Health, 9, 177189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trewavas, C., Hasking, P., & McAllister, M. (2010). Representations of non-suicidal self-injury in motion pictures. Archives of Suicide Research, 14, 89103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wachelke, J.F.R., & Camargo, B.B.V. (2007). Representações sociais, representações individuais e comportamento. Revista Interamericana de Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 41, 379390.Google Scholar
Whitlock, J.L., Powers, J.L., & Eckenrode, J. (2006). The Virtual cutting edge: The Internet and adolescent self-injury. Developmental Psychology, 42, 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whitlock, J.L., Purington, A., & Gershkovich, M. (2009). Influence of the media on self injurious behavior. In Nock, M. (Ed.), Understanding non-suicidal self-injury: Origins, assessment and treatment (pp. 139156). Washington. DC: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zdanow, C., & Wright, B. (2012). The representation of self injury and suicide on emo social networking groups. African Sociological Review, 16, 81101.Google Scholar
3
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Social Representations About the Functions of Deliberate Self-Harm: Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire for Portuguese Adults
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Social Representations About the Functions of Deliberate Self-Harm: Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire for Portuguese Adults
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Social Representations About the Functions of Deliberate Self-Harm: Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire for Portuguese Adults
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *