Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cognitive-behavioural Treatment of Blood-Injury-Injection Phobia: A Case Study

  • Alanda Thompson (a1)

Abstract

This single case study examined the treatment of blood-injury-injection (BII) phobia in a 14-year-old female. Thirteen 1-hour sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy were conducted. The intervention included a combination of exposure, applied tension, and cognitive restructuring in an effort to produce clinically significant reductions in anxiety and fainting in response to BII stimuli. Results did indeed show dramatic reductions in subjective distress in BII situations from baseline to post-treatment. This was supported by small reductions in phobic anxiety and general anxiety on self-report measures. In contrast to baseline, fainting did not occur during treatment. The subject rated cognitive restructuring as the most effective treatment component for the latter half of therapy. It is suggested that, to date, the importance of cognitive therapy for the treatment of BII phobia has been overlooked.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Alanda Thompson, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072, Australia. Email: alanda@psy.uq.edu.au

References

Hide All
Agras, S., Sylvester, D., & Oliveau, D. (1969). The epidemiology of common fears and phobias. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 10, 151156.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).Washington, DC: Author.
Butler, G. (1989). Phobic disorders. In K. Hawton, P.M. Salkovskis, J. Kirk, & D.M. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychiatric problems: A practical guide (pp. 97128). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Connolly, J., Hallam, R.S., & Marks, I.M. (1976). Selective association of fainting with blood-injuryillness fear. Behavior Therapy, 7, 813.
Costello, C.G. (1982). Fears and phobias in women: A community study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 280286.
Curtis, G.C., & Thyer, B.A. (1983). Fainting on exposure to phobic stimuli. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 771774.
Foulds, J. (1993). Cerebral circulation during treatment of blood-injury phobia: A case study. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 21, 137146.
Foulds, J., Wiedmann, K., Patterson, J., & Brooks, N. (1990). The effects of muscle tension on cerebral circulation in blood phobic and non-phobic subjects. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 481486.
King, N.J., Ollier, K., Iacuone, R., Schuster, S., Bays, K., Gullone, E., & Ollendick, T.H. (1989). Fears of children and adolescents: A cross-sectional Australian study using the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 775784.
Kleinknecht, R.A., & Lenz, J. (1989). Blood/injury fear, fainting and avoidance of medically-related situations: A family correspondence study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 537547.
Marks, I. (1986). Genetics of fear and anxiety disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 406418.
Marks, I. (1988). Blood-injury phobia: A review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 12071213.
Ollendick, T.H. (1983). Reliability and validity of the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSCR). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 685692.
Ost, L. (1992). Blood and injection phobia: Background and cognitive, physiological, and behavioural variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 6874.
Ost, L., Fellenius, J., & Sterner, U. (1991). Applied tension, exposure in vivo, and tension-only in the treatment of blood phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 561574.
Ost, L., Lindahl, I., Sterner, U., & Jerremalm, A. (1984). Exposure in vivo vs applied relaxation in the treatment of blood phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22, 205216.
Ost, L., & Sterner, U. (1987). Applied tension: A specific behavioural method for treatment of blood phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 2529.
Ost, L., Sterner, U., & Fellenius, J. (1989). Applied tension, applied relaxation, and the combination in the treatment of blood phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 109121.
Ost, L., Sterner, U., & Lindahl, I. (1984). Physiological responses in blood phobics. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22, 109117.
Ost, L., Westling, B.E., & Hellstrom, K. (1993). Applied relaxation, exposure in vivo and cognitive methods in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 383394.
Page, A.C. (1994). Blood-injury phobia. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 443461.
Reynolds, C.R., & Paget, K.D. (1981). Factor analysis of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale for blacks, whites, males and females with a national normative sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 352359.
Reynolds, C.R., & Richmond, B.O. (1978). What I Think and Feel: A revised measure of children's manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 271280.
Sledge, W.H. (1978). Antecedent psychological factors in the onset of vasovagal syncope. Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 568579.
Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1988). Emotional fainting and the psychophysiologic response to blood and injury: Autonomic mechanisms and coping strategies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 402417.
Thyer, B.A., & Curtis, G.C. (1985). On the diphasic nature of vasovagal fainting associated with bloodinjury- illness phobia. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 20, 8487.
Thyer, B.A., Himle, J., & Curtis, G.C. (1985). Bloodinjury- illness phobia: A review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 451459.
Wardle, J., & Jarvis, M. (1981). The paradoxical fear response to blood, injury and illness: A treatment report. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 9, 1324.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed