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    Matthews, Allison J. Mackintosh, Carolyn Williams, Sarah Williams, Monique and Kirkby, Kenneth C. 2017. Habituation of self-reported anxiety and cortical hyper-vigilance during image-based exposure to spiders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 54, p. 150.

    Matthews, Allison Naran, Nishma and Kirkby, Kenneth C. 2015. Symbolic online exposure for spider fear: Habituation of fear, disgust and physiological arousal and predictors of symptom improvement. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 47, p. 129.


Online Exposure Treatment for Spider Fear: The Effects of Moving Versus Static Images on Treatment Adherence, Fear Elicitation and Habituation

  • Allison J. Matthews (a1), Joel D. Scanlan (a1) and Ken C. Kirkby (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 15 June 2012

This research aimed to examine the effects of moving (videos) versus static (pictures) images on habituation and progression in a hierarchy during online symbolic exposure (OSE) for spider fear. Participants were 351 people with high spider fear who logged on to an OSE website ( for self-help purposes. The inclusion of moving images in the exposure hierarchy increased adherence rates relative to static images, particularly among those with lower relative to higher spider fear. Those who viewed moving images at Stage 2 showed higher Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) ratings overall, but a similar pattern of habituation relative to those who viewed static images. In addition, 71% of participants completed at least one stage of the OSE program, representing an improvement from 30% adherence in previous research that used an earlier version of the program. These findings support the development of tailored exposure hierarchies to maximise adherence and treatment benefit for individual participants.

Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Dr Allison Matthews, Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 30, Hobart TAS 7001, Australia. E-mail:
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Behaviour Change
  • ISSN: 0813-4839
  • EISSN: 2049-7768
  • URL: /core/journals/behaviour-change
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