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Parental Monitoring: A Process Model of Parent-Adolescent Interaction

  • Louise Hayes (a1), Alan Hudson (a2) and Jan Matthews (a3)

Empirical evidence supports parental monitoring as a moderator of adolescent problem behaviours. A methodological review shows that monitoring has been measured using self-report questions based on parental knowledge of adolescent free-time use; however, inconsistencies in the definition of monitoring have created confusion. A process model of parental monitoring is proposed. This proposed model conceptualises monitoring interactions in a temporal sequence. It proposes that parental monitoring occurs in two distinct stages: before the adolescent goes out and when they return home. Parental and adolescent responses to monitoring interactions impact on future monitoring episodes. The proposed model demonstrates that a functional understanding of parent and adolescent monitoring behaviours is essential to clinical prevention and intervention.

Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Louise Hayes, Department of Psychology and Disability Studies, RMIT University, PO Box, 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. Email:
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Behaviour Change
  • ISSN: 0813-4839
  • EISSN: 2049-7768
  • URL: /core/journals/behaviour-change
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