Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Role of Magical Thinking, Religiosity and Thought-Control Strategies in Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Turkish Adult Sample

  • C. Ekin Eremsoy (a1) and Mujgan Inozu (a1)
Abstract

Background: It has been suggested that magical thinking is related to both obsessions and compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent studies have indicated the significant relationship between level of religiosity and beliefs about the importance and need to control unwanted thoughts in OCD. People also use diverse strategies to control their unwanted thoughts. Aims: The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships between magical thinking and worry and punishment as thought-control strategies in mediating the relationship between religiosity and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in a Turkish sample. Methods: The sample of the present study was comprised of 179 non-clinical, community-based participants who completed measures of OC symptoms (measured with the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory — Revised), magical thinking (measured with the Magical Ideation Scale), religiosity, and thought-control strategies (measured with the Thought Control Questionnaire). Results: Both worry and punishment as thought-control strategies and magical thinking mediated the links between religiosity and OC symptoms. Furthermore, the relationship between religiosity and OC symptoms was mediated by magical thinking through punishment and worry. Conclusions: Findings pointing out the mediating role of magical thinking through punishment and worry in the relationship between religiosity and OC symptoms are novel and need to be replicated in future studies.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Mujgan Inozu, PhD, Department of Psychology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey. Email: mujganinozu@hacettepe.edu.tr
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J.S. Abramowitz (2002). Treatment of scrupulous obsessions and compulsions using exposure and response prevention: A case report. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8, 7985.

J.S. Abramowitz , B.J. Deacon , C.M. Woods , & D.F. Tolin (2004). Association between Protestant religiosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and cognitions. Depression & Anxiety, 20, 7076.

J.S. Abramowitz , J.D. Huppert , A.B. Cohen , D.F. Tolin , & S.P. Cahill (2002). Religious obsessions and compulsions in a non-clinical sample: The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 825838.

N. Amir , L. Cashman , & E.B. Foa (1997). Strategies of thought control in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 775777.

N. Amir , M. Freshman , B. Ramsey , E. Neary , & B. Brigidi (2001). Though-action fusion in individuals with OCD symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 765776.

R.M. Baron , & D.A. Kenny (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research — Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 11731182.

L.M. Berry , & B. Laskey (2012). A review of obsessive intrusive thoughts in the general population. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 1, 125132.

L. Bocci , & P.K. Gordon (2007). Does magical thinking produce neutralising behaviour? An experimental investigation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 18231832.

D.A. Clark , & C. Purdon (1993). New perspectives for a cognitive theory of obsessions. Australian Psychologist, 28, 161167.

I. Dag (1999). The relationship among paranormal beliefs, locus of control and psychopathology in a Turkish college sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 723737.

M. Eckblad , & L.J. Chapman (1983). Magical ideation as an indicator of schizotypy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 215225.

D.A. Einstein , & R.G. Menzies (2004a). The presence of magical thinking in obsessive compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 539549.

D.A. Einstein , & R.G. Menzies (2004b). The role of magical thinking in obsessive compulsive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. Depression and Anxiety, 19, 174179.

D.A. Einstein , & R.G. Menzies (2006). Magical thinking in obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder and the general community. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34, 351357.

D.A. Einstein , & R.G. Menzies (2008). Does magical thinking improve across treatment for obsessive-compulsve disorder. Behavior Change, 25, 149155.

E.B. Foa , J.D. Huppert , S. Leiberg , R. Langner , R. Kichic , G. Hajcak , & P.M. Salkovskis (2002). The obsessive–compulsive inventory: Development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14, 485495.

L.F. Fontenelle , M.V. Mendlowicz , C. Marques , & M. Versiani (2004). Trans-cultural aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Description of a Brazilian sample and a systematic review of international clinical studies. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, 403411.

M.H. Freeston , & R. Ladouceur (1997). What do patients do with their obsessive thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 335348.

R. Frost , M. Krause , M. McMahon , J. Peppe , M. Evans , A.E. McPhee , & M. Holden (1993). Compulsivity and superstition. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 423425.

N.A. Gibbs (1996). Nonclinical population in research on obsessive-compulsive disorder: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 729773.

G. Hajcak , J.D. Huppert , R.F. Simons , & E.B. Foa (2004). Psychometric properties of the OCI–R in a college sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 115123.

A.F. Hayes (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new Millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408420.

A.F. Hayes , & K.J. Preacher (2010). Estimating and testing indirect effects in simple mediation models when the constituent paths are nonlinear. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 45, 627660.

F.D. Helgadottir , R.D. Menzies , & D.A. Einstein (2012). Magical thinking and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in Australia and Iceland: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 1, 216219.

E. Horwath , & M. Weissman (2000). The epidemiology and cross-national presentation of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Clinics of North America, 23, 493507.

J.D. Huppert , M.R. Walther , G. Hajcak , E. Yadin , E.B. Foa , H.B. Simpson , & M.R. Liebowitz (2007). The OCI-R: Validation of the subscales in a clinical sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 394406.

M. Inozu , D.A. Clark , & A.N. Karanci (2012). Scrupulosity in Islam: A comparison of highly religious Turkish and Canadian samples. Behavior Therapy, 43, 190202.

M. Inozu , A.N. Karanci , & D.A. Clark (2012). Why are religious individuals more obsessional? The role of mental control beliefs and guilt in Muslims and Christians. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 959966.

H.J. Lee , J.R. Cougle , & M.J. Telch (2005). Thought–action fusion and its relationship to schizotypy and OCD symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 2941.

D.T. Markle (2010). The magic than binds us: Magical thinking and inclusive fitness. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 4, 1833.

E.L. Moore , & J.S. Abramowitz (2007). Cognitive mediation of thought-control strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 19491955.

R. Moulding , & M. Kyrios , (2006). Anxiety disorders and control related beliefs: The exemplar of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 573583.

K.J. Preacher , & A.F. Hayes (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36, 717731.

K.J. Preacher , D.D. Rucker , & A.F. Hayes (2007). Assessing moderated mediation hypotheses: Strategies, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185227.

C. Purdon , & D.A. Clark (1994). Obsessive intrusive thoughts in nonclinical subjects. Part II. Cognitive appraisal, emotional response and thought control strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 403410.

C. Purdon , & D.A. Clark (2002). The need to control thoughts. In R. Frost & G. Steketee (Eds.), Cognitive approaches to obsessions and compulsions (pp. 2943). Amsterdam: Pergamon.

S. Rachman (1997). A cognitive theory of obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793802.

S. Rachman , & P. de Silva (1978). Abnormal and normal obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 16, 233248.

A. Raine , C. Reynolds , T. Lencz , A. Scerbo , N. Triphon , & D. Kim (1994). Cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized features of schizotypal personality. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 191201.

E. Rassin , & E. Koster (2003). The correlation between thought-action fusion and religiosity in normal sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 361368.

E. Rassin , P. Muris , H. Schmidt , & H. Merckelbach (2000). Relationships between thought-action fusion, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A structural equation modeling approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 889897.

P.M. Salkovskis (1985). Obsessional-compulsive problems: A cognitive-behavioral analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571583.

P.M. Salkovskis , & J. Harrison (1984). Abnormal and normal obsessions: A replication. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22, 549552.

P. Salkovskis , R. Shafran , S. Rachman , & M.H. Freeston (1999). Multiple pathways to inflated responsibility beliefs in obsessional problems: Possible origins and implications for therapy and research. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 10551072.

C. Sica , C. Novara , & E. Sanavio (2002). Culture and psychopathology: Superstition and obsessive-compulsive cognitions and symptoms in a non-clinical Italian sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 10011012.

J. Siev , L. Baer , & W.E. Minichiello (2011). Obsessive-compulsive disorder with predominantly scrupulous symptoms: clinical and religious characteristics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 11881196.

J. Siev , & A.B. Cohen (2007). Is thought-action fusion related to religiosity? Differences between Christians and Jews. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 829837.

A. Wells , & M.I. Davies (1994). The thought control questionnaire: A measure of individual differences in the control of unwanted thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 871878.

J. Williams , & D.P. MacKinnon (2008). Resampling and distribution of the product methods for testing indirect effects in complex models. Structural Equation Modeling, 15, 2351.

R. Wiseman , & C. Watt (2004). Measuring superstitious belief: Why lucky charms matter. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 15331541.

U. Wolfradt (1997). Dissociative experiences, trait anxiety and paranormal beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 1519.

O. Yorulmaz , T. Gençöz , & S.R. Woody (2009). OCD cognitions and symptoms in different cultural and religious contexts. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 401406.

O. Yorulmaz , M. Inozu , & B. Gültepe (2011). The role of magical thinking in obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and cognitions in an analogue sample. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 198203.

B.J. Zebb , & M.C. Moore (2003). Superstitiousness and perceived anxiety control as predictors of psychological distress. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 115130.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behaviour Change
  • ISSN: 0813-4839
  • EISSN: 2049-7768
  • URL: /core/journals/behaviour-change
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 64 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 278 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.