Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-xr9nb Total loading time: 0.282 Render date: 2021-09-20T00:45:07.802Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Effects of home language environment on inhibitory control in bilingual three-year-old children*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2015

JOSJE VERHAGEN*
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
HANNA MULDER
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
PAUL P. M. LESEMAN
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
*Corresponding
Address for correspondence: Dr. Josje Verhagen, Utrecht University, Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands, J.Verhagen@uu.nl

Abstract

Previous studies have shown effects of bilingualism on inhibitory control in preschool children. However, these effects only held for ‘conflict tasks’, and not delay of gratification tasks, and other domains of executive functioning were not investigated. For older children, previous studies have found relationships between bilinguals’ advantages and home language environment. This study investigates effects of bilingualism and bilingual home language environment on executive functioning in three-year-old children. 200 bilingual and 829 monolingual three-year-olds performed tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, and selective attention. Home language environment characteristics were assessed through a parental questionnaire. The bilinguals outperformed the monolinguals on a conflict task only, and this effect was very small. Further analyses showed broader effects on inhibitory control that were related to home language environment: Bilinguals whose parents spoke different languages outperformed bilinguals whose parents spoke the same language on both the conflict task and a delay of gratification task.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

*

The Pre-COOL study was conducted in collaboration between the Department of Special Education at Utrecht University, the Kohnstamm Institute (KI) at the University of Amsterdam, and the Institute for Applied Social Sciences (ITS) at the Radboud University Nijmegen, and funded by the Dutch research council NWO (grant number 411–20–442). We are grateful to our project partners at the KI and the ITS. We are also grateful to all the children, families and day care centers who participated in our study.

References

Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E. (2010). Global-local and trail-making tasks by monolingual and bilingual children: beyond inhibition. Developmental Psychology, 46, 93105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Blaye, A., & Poulin-Dubois, P. (2011). Word mapping and executive functioning in young monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11, 485508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blom, E., Küntay, A. K., Messer, M. H., Verhagen, J., & Lesemann, P. P. M. (2014). The benefits of being bilingual: Working memory in bilingual Turkish-Dutch children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 128, 105199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brito, N., & Barr, R. (2014). Flexible memory retrieval in bilingual 6-month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 11561163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning. Cognition, 130, 278288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Breton, C. (2002). How specific is the relation between executive function and theory of mind? Contributions of inhibitory control and working memory. Infant and Child Development, 11, 7392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, S., Mandell, D., & Williams, L. (2004). Executive function and theory of mind: Stability and prediction from ages 2 to 3. Developmental Psychology, 40, 11051122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, S. M., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2008). Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental Science, 11, 282298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costa, A., Hernández, M., Costa-Faidella, J., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2009). On the bilingual advantage in conflict processing: Now you see it, now you don’t. Cognition, 113, 135149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuevas, K., & Bell, M. A. (2014). Infant attention and early childhood executive function. Child Development, 85, 397404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diamond, A., & Taylor, C. (1996). Development of an aspect of executive control: Development of the abilities to remember what I said and to ‘do as I say not as I do’. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 315334.3.0.CO;2-T>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diamond, A., Prevor, M. B., Callender, G., & Druin, D. P. (1997). Prefrontal cortex cognitive deficits in children treated early and continuously for PKU. Monographs of the Society for 736 Research in Child Development, 62, i-206.Google ScholarPubMed
Diamond, A., Carlson, S. M., & Beck, D. M. (2006). Preschool children's performance in task switching on the Dimensional Change Card Sort task: Separating dimensions aids the ability to switch. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 689729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunn, L., & Dunn, L. M. (2005). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III-NL. Nederlandse versie door Liesbeth Schlichting [Dutch version by Liesbeth Schlichting]. Amsterdam: Harcourt Assessment B.V. Google Scholar
Engel, P. M. J., Heloisa Dos Santos, F., & Gathercole, S. E. (2008). Are working memory measures free of socio-economic influence? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 15801587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engel de Abreu, P. M. A. (2011). Working memory in multilingual children: Is there a bilingual effect? Memory, 19, 529537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engel de Abreu, P. M. A., Cruz-Santos, A., Tourinho, C. J., Martin, R., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Bilingualism enriches the poor: Enhanced cognitive control in low-income minority children. Psychological Science, 23, 13641371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3160.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gathercole, V. C. M., Thomas, E. M., Jones, L., Viñas-Guasch, N., Young, N., & Hughes, E. K. (2010). Cognitive effects of bilingualism: Digging deeper for the contributions of language dominance, linguistic knowledge, socioeconomic status, and cognitive abilities. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 617664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerhardstein, P., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2002). The development of visual search in infants and very young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81, 194215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, D. W. (1998). Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 6781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilchey, M. D., & Klein, R. M. (2011). Are there bilingual advantages on nonlinguistic interference tasks? Implications for the plasticity of executive control processes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 625658.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hughes, C., & Ensor, R. (2005). Executive function and theory of mind in 2-year-olds: A family affair? Developmental Neuropsychology. 28, 645668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jared, D., & Kroll, J. F. (2001). Do bilinguals activate phonological representations in one or both of their languages when naming words? Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 6, 220232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovács, A. M., & Mehler, J. (2009). Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 65566560.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Majdandžić, M., & van den Boom, D. C. (2007). Multimethod longitudinal assessment of temperament in early childhood. Journal of Personality, 75, 121168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manly, T., Robertson, I. H., Anderson, V., & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1998). Test of Everyday Attention for Children. London, England: Pearson Assessment.Google ScholarPubMed
Martin-Rhee, M. M., & Bialystok, E. (2008). The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language & Cognition, 11, 8193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayo, A., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2006). Vragenlijst dagelijkse communicatie [Daily Communication Questionnaire]. Unpublished questionnaire.Google Scholar
Mezzacappa, E. (2004). Alerting, orienting, and executive attention: Developmental properties and sociodemographic correlates in an epidemiological sample of young, urban children. Child Development, 75, 13731386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morales, J., Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Working memory development in monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114, 187202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morton, J. B., & Harper, S. N. (2007). What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage. Developmental Science, 6, 719726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, H., Hoofs, H., Verhagen, J., Veen, I. van der., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2014). Psychometric properties and convergent validity of an executive function test battery for 2-year-olds using item response theory. Frontiers in Psychology, section Developmental Psychology, 5, 733.Google Scholar
Oller, D. K., & Eilers, R. E. (2002). Language and literacy in bilingual children. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Peake, P., Hebl, M., & Mischel, W. (2002). Strategic attention deployment for delay of gratification in working and waiting situations. Developmental Psychology, 38, 313326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S. C., & Oller, D. K. (1993). Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms. Language Learning, 43, 93120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poarch, G., & van Hell, J. (2012). Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: Evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 535551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poulin-Dubois, D., Blaye, A., Coutya, J., & Bialystok, E. (2011). The effects of bilingualism on toddlers’ executive functioning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 567579.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scerif, G., Cornish, K., Wilding, J., Driver, J., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2004). Visual search in typically developing toddlers and toddlers with Fragile X or Williams syndrome. Developmental Science, 7, 116130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010). The home language environment of mono- and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 117140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soveri, A., Rodriguez-Fornells, A., & Laine, M. (2011). Is there a relationship between language switching and executive functions in bilingualism? Introducing a within group analysis approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vega, C., & Fernandez, M. (2011). Errors on the WCST correlate with language proficiency scores in Spanish-English bilingual children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 26, 158164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verhagen, J., De Bree, E. H., Boom, J., Mulder, H., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2014). Relationships between nonword repetition and vocabulary in Dutch-speaking children. Poster presented at the XIX Biennal International Conference on Infant Studies (ICIS), Germany: Berlin.Google Scholar
Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., Wirth, R. J., & Greenberg, M. (2010). The measurement of executive function at age 3 years: Psychometric properties and criterion validity of a new battery of tasks. Psychological Assessment, 22, 306317.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woumans, E., Ceuleers, E., & Duyck, W. (2013). Language control influences cognitive Control: The effect of language switching and interpreting. Paper presented at the Workshop on Neurobilingualism. The Netherlands: Groningen.Google Scholar
Zelazo, P. D., Frye, D., & Rapus, T. (1996). An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them. Cognitive Development, 11, 3763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Effects of home language environment on inhibitory control in bilingual three-year-old children*
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Effects of home language environment on inhibitory control in bilingual three-year-old children*
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Effects of home language environment on inhibitory control in bilingual three-year-old children*
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *