Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-q7jt5 Total loading time: 0.214 Render date: 2021-03-08T07:38:44.550Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Incidental vocabulary learning in a natural reading context: an eye-tracking study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 June 2017

ALINE GODFROID
Affiliation:
Michigan State University, Second Language Studies Program
JIEUN AHN
Affiliation:
Michigan State University
INA CHOI
Affiliation:
Michigan State University
LAURA BALLARD
Affiliation:
Center for Applied Linguistics
YAQIONG CUI
Affiliation:
Michigan State University
SUZANNE JOHNSTON
Affiliation:
University of Central Arkansas
SHINHYE LEE
Affiliation:
Michigan State University
ABDHI SARKAR
Affiliation:
Michigan State University
HYUNG-JO YOON
Affiliation:
California State University, Northridge
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

This study responds to the call for more ecologically valid psycholinguistic research (Spivey & Cardon, 2015) by examining how readers incidentally acquire multifaceted vocabulary knowledge while reading a long, authentic text. Using eye tracking, we explore how the processing of unfamiliar words changes with repeated exposure and how the repeated exposure and processing affect word learning. In two sessions, native and non-native English speakers read five chapters of an authentic English novel containing Dari words. After reading, participants received a comprehension test and three surprise vocabulary tests. Growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear decrease in reading times that followed an S shaped curve. Number of exposures was the strongest predictor of vocabulary learning (form and meaning), while total reading time independently contributed to the learning of word meaning. Thus, both quantity and quality of lexical processing aid incremental vocabulary development and may reveal themselves differently in readers’ eye movement records.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

*This project resulted from a graduate-level seminar LLT 841 Eye-Movement Registration in Second Language Acquisition Research that took place in Fall 2014 at Michigan State University. The authors would like to thank Mostafa Papi, Jiwon Song, and Lorena Valmori for their help with data collection, Ji-Hyun Park, Megan Smith, and Le Anne Spino-Seijas for their input on the study design, and all the members of the MSU Second Language Studies Eye-Tracking Lab for their comments on earlier drafts of this paper.

References

Alin, A. (2010). Multicollinearity. WIREs Computational Statistics, 2, 370374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, S. E., Chiu, E., Huette, S., & Spivey, M. J. (2011). On the temporal dynamics of language-mediated vision and vision-mediated language. Acta Psychologica, 137 (2), 181189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bisson, M. J., van Heuven, W. J. B., Conklin, K., & Tunney, R. J. (2014). The role of repeated exposure to multimodal input in incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary. Language Learning, 64 (4), 855877. http://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12085CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bruton, A., López, M. G., & Mesa, R. E. (2011). Incidental L2 vocabulary learning: An impracticable term? TESOL Quarterly, 45 (4), 759768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Common Core State Standards Initiative (2015). English language arts standards. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/standard-10-range-quality-complexity/texts-illustrating-the-complexity-quality-range-of-student-reading-k5/Google Scholar
Cop, U., Drieghe, D., & Duyck, W. (2015). Eye movement patterns in natural reading: A comparison of monolingual and bilingual reading of a novel. PLoS ONE, 10 (8): e0134008. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunnings, I. (2012). An overview of mixed-effects statistical models for second language researchers. Second Language Research, 28 (3), 369382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dussias, P. E. (2010). Uses of eye-tracking data in second language sentence processing research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 149166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elgort, I., & Warren, P. (2014). L2 vocabulary learning from reading: explicit and tacit lexical knowledge and the role of learner and item variables. Language Learning, 64 (2), 365414. doi.org/10.1111/lang.12052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. (1994). Vocabulary acquisition: The implicit ins and outs of explicit cognitive mediation. In Ellis, N. (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 211282). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4th ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
Folse, K. S. (2006). The effect of type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40 (2), 273293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frenck-Mestre, C. (2005). Eye-movement recording as a tool for studying syntactic processing in a second language: A review of methodologies and experimental findings. Second Language Research, 21 (2), 175198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frishkoff, G. A., Perfetti, C. A., & Collins-Thompson, K. (2011). Predicting robust vocabulary growth from measures of incremental learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15 (1), 7191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gass, S. (1999). Incidental vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 319333.Google Scholar
Godfroid, A., Boers, F., & Housen, A. (2013). An eye for words: Gauging the role of attention in incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition by means of eye tracking. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 483517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A., Loewen, S., Jung, S., Park, J.-H., Gass, S., & Ellis, R. (2015). Time and untimed grammaticality judgments measure distinct types of knowledge: Evidence from eye-movement patterns. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37, 269–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A., & Spino, L. A. (2015). Reconceptualizing reactivity of think-alouds and eye tracking: Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Language Learning, 65 (4), 896928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A., & Uggen, M. S. (2013). Attention to irregular verbs by beginning learners of German. Studies in Second Language Studies, 35 (2), 291322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godfroid, A., & Winke, P. (2015). Investigating implicit and explicit processing using L2 learners' eye-movement data. In Rebuschat, P. (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 7390). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Horst, M. (2005). Learning L2 vocabulary through extensive reading: A measurement study. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 61, 355382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horst, M., Cobb, T., & Meara, P. (1998). Beyond A Clockwork Orange: Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 11 (2), 207223.Google Scholar
Hosseini, K. (2007). A thousand splendid suns. New York: Penguin group.Google Scholar
Hu, M., & Nation, I. S. P. (2000). Vocabulary density and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23 (1), 403430.Google Scholar
Hudson, T. (2015). Presenting quantitative data visually. In Plonsky, L. (Ed.), Advancing quantitative methods in second language research (pp. 78105). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hulstijn, J. (2003). Incidental and intentional learning. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. H. (eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 349381). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyönä, J., & Niemi, P. (1990). Eye movements during repeated reading of a text. Acta Psychologica, 73 (3), 259280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joseph, H. S. S. L., Wonnacott, E., Forbes, P., & Nation, K. (2014). Becoming a written word: Eye movements reveal order of acquisition effects following incidental exposure to new words during silent reading. Cognition, 133, 238248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krashen, S. (1989). We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73, 440464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larson-Hall, J. (2017). Moving beyond the bar plot and the line graph to create informative and attractive graphics. The Modern Language Journal, 101 (1), 244270.Google Scholar
Laufer, B., Elder, C., Hill, K., & Congdon, P. (2004). Size and strength: Do we need both to measure vocabulary knowledge?. Language Testing, 21 (2), 202226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z. (2004). Testing vocabulary knowledge: Size, strength, and computer adaptiveness. Language Learning, 54 (3), 399436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22 (1), 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laufer, B., & Ravenhorst-Kalovski, G. C. (2010). Lexical threshold revisited: Lexical text coverage, learners’ vocabulary size and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22 (1), 1530.Google Scholar
Lawless, J. F. (1987). Negative binomial and mixed Poisson regression. Canadian Journal of Statistics, 15 (3), 209225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leow, R. P. (2015). Explicit learning in the L2 classroom. A student-centered approach. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Liberman, A. M. (2005). How much more likely? The implications of odds ratios for probabilities. American Journal of Evaluation, 26 (2), 253266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metzner, P., von der Malsburg, T., Vasishth, S., & Rösler, F. (2016). The importance of reading naturally: Evidence from combined recordings of eye movements and electric brain potentials. Cognitive Science. Doi: 10.1111/cogs.12384Google ScholarPubMed
Mirman, D. (2014). Growth curve analysis and visualization using R. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Mohamed, A. (2017). Exposure frequency in L2 reading: An eye-movement perspective of incidental vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. doi: 10.1017/S0272263117000092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murre, J. M. J. (2014). S-shaped learning curves. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21 (2), 344356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nagy, W. E., Anderson, R. C., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Learning word meanings from context during normal reading. American Educational Research Journal, 24 (2), 237270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagy, W. E., Herman, P. A., & Anderson, R. C. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20 (2), 233253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakata, T. (2015). Effects of expanding and equal spacing on second language vocabulary learning. Does gradually increasing spacing increase vocabulary learning? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37 (4), 677711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P. (2012). Vocabulary Size Test information and specifications. Available from http://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/about/staff/paul-nationGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S. P. (2013). Learning vocabulary in another language (2nd ed.). Cambridge: University Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Nation, I. S. P., & Beglar, D. (2007). Vocabulary size test. BNC version. 1–14k. Available from http://www.lextutor.ca/tests/levels/recognition/1_14k/Google Scholar
Nation, I. S. P., & Webb, S. (2011). Researching and analyzing vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle Cengage.Google Scholar
Naumova, E. N., Must, A., & Laird, N. M. (2001). Tutorial in biostatistics: Evaluating the impact of ‘critical periods’ in longitudinal studies of growth using piecewise mixed effects models. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30 (6), 13321341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pellicer-Sánchez, A. (2015). Incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition from and while reading: An eye-tracking study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38 (1), 97130.Google Scholar
Pellicer-Sánchez, A., & Schmitt, N. (2010). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from an authentic novel: Do things fall apart? Reading in a Foreign Language, 22 (1), 3155.Google Scholar
Pigada, M., & Schmitt, N. (2006). Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18 (1), 128.Google Scholar
Pitts, M., White, H., & Krashen, S. (1989). Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading: A replication of the Clockwork Orange study using second language acquirers. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5 (2), 271275.Google Scholar
Raney, G. E., & Rayner, K. (1995). Word frequency effects and eye movements during two readings of a text. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49 (2), 151173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rayner, K. (1977). Understanding eye movements in reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1 (4), 317339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, L. (2012). Psycholinguistic techniques and resources in second language acquisition research. Second Language Research, 28 (1), 113127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rott, S. (1999). The effect of exposure frequency on intermediate language learners’ incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention through reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21 (4), 589619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saragi, T., Nation, P., & Meister, G. (1978). Vocabulary learning and reading. System, 6, 7078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11 (2), 129158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N. (2008). Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12 (3), 329363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N. (2010). Researching vocabulary: A vocabulary research manual. London, UK: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N. (2014). Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: What the research shows. Language Learning, 64 (4), 913951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sonbul, S., & Schmitt, N. (2013). Explicit and implicit lexical knowledge: Acquisition of collocations under different input conditions. Language Learning, 63 (1), 121159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spivey, M., & Cardon, C. (2015). Methods for studying adult bilingualism. In Schwieter, J. W. (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of bilingual processing (pp. 108132). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von der Malsburg, T., & Angele, B. (2017). False positives and other statistical errors in standard analyses of eye movements in reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 94, 119133.Google ScholarPubMed
Waring, R., & Takaki, M. (2003). At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15 (2), 130163.Google Scholar
Webb, S. (2005). Receptive and productive vocabulary learning: The effects of reading and writing on word knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27 (1), 3352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webb, S. (2007). The effects of repetition on vocabulary knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 28 (1), 4665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webb, S., & Chang, A. C.-S. (2015a). How does prior word knowledge affect vocabulary learning progress in an extensive reading program? Studies in Second Language Studies, 37, 651675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webb, S., & Chang, A. C.-S. (2015b). Second language vocabulary learning through extensive reading with audio support: How do frequency and distribution of occurrence affect learning. Language Teaching Research, 18, 667686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, R. S., & Morris, R. K. (2004). Eye movements, word familiarity, and vocabulary acquisition. The European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16 (1–2), 312339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winke, P. M., Godfroid, A., & Gass, S. (2013). Introduction to the special issue. Eye-movement recordings in second language research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (2), 205212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wochna, K. L. (2012). Comparing incidental learning of nouns and verbs using eye movements (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
Zahar, R., Cobb, T., & Spada, N. (2001). Acquiring vocabulary through reading: Effect of frequency and contextual richness. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57 (3), 541572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zipf, G. K. (1935). The psycho-biology of language: An introduction to dynamic philology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 107
Total number of PDF views: 1067 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 09th June 2017 - 8th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Incidental vocabulary learning in a natural reading context: an eye-tracking study
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Incidental vocabulary learning in a natural reading context: an eye-tracking study
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Incidental vocabulary learning in a natural reading context: an eye-tracking study
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *