Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Bilingual and monolingual children process pragmatic cues differently when learning novel adjectives

  • AGNES GROBA (a1) (a2), ANNICK DE HOUWER (a3), JAN MEHNERT (a2) (a4), SONJA ROSSI (a2) (a5) and HELLMUTH OBRIG (a2) (a6)...
Abstract

Previous studies have shown bilingually and monolingually developing children to differ in their sensitivity to referential pragmatic deixis in challenging tasks, with bilinguals exhibiting a higher sensitivity. The learning of adjectives is particularly challenging, but has rarely been investigated in bilingual children. In the present study we presented a pragmatic cue supporting the learning of novel adjectives to 32 Spanish–German bilingual and 28 German monolingual 5-year-olds. The children's responses to a descriptive hand gesture highlighting an object's property were measured behaviorally using a forced choice task and neurophysiologically through functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). While no group differences emerged on the behavioral level, fNIRS revealed a higher activation in bilingual than monolingual children in the vicinity of the posterior part of the right superior temporal sulcus (STS). This result supports the prominent role of the STS in processing pragmatic gestures and suggests heightened pragmatic sensitivity for bilingual children.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Bilingual and monolingual children process pragmatic cues differently when learning novel adjectives
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Bilingual and monolingual children process pragmatic cues differently when learning novel adjectives
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Bilingual and monolingual children process pragmatic cues differently when learning novel adjectives
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Agnes Groba, Universität Leipzig, Erziehungswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Institut für Förderpädagogik, Pädagogik im Förderschwerpunkt Sprache und Kommunikation, Marschnerstraße 29–31, D-04109 Leipzig, Germany agnes.groba@uni-leipzig.de
Footnotes
Hide All

*We thank the children and parents who participated in the study and are grateful to Maria Richter, Micol Vignotto, Julia Mock, Andrea Forster, and Sylvia Stasch for their assistance in data acquisition. Special thanks are also given to Stefan Paul Koch, Bettina Johst and Kerstin Flake for their technical contributions. This research was funded by a stipend to the first author from the federal state of Thuringia and the FAZIT-Stiftung and would not have been possible without the gracious support from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany. We are grateful to the reviewers for their constructive suggestions.

Sonja Rossi and Hellmuth Obrig contributed equally to this work.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Alaerts, K., Nayar, K., Kelly, C., Raithel, J., Milham, M. P., & Di Martino, A. (2015). Age-related changes in intrinsic function of the superior temporal sulcus in autism spectrum disorders. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv029.
Alarcos, E. (2007). Gramática de la lengua española (16th. Ed.). Madrid: Espasa Calpe.
Allison, T., Puce, A., & McCarthy, G. (2000). Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (7), 267278.
Atagi, N., Goldenberg, E. R., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2016). Children's use of linguistic information when learning in a bilingual context. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 144, 199208.
Banich, M. T., & Depue, B. E. (2015). Recent advances in understanding neural systems that support inhibitory control. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1722.
Baron‐Cohen, S., Baldwin, D. A., & Crowson, M. (1997). Do children with autism use the speaker's direction of gaze strategy to crack the code of language? Child Development, 68 (1), 4857.
Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Blaye, A., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2010). Word mapping and executive functioning in young monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11 (4), 485508.
Boddaert, N., Chabane, N., Gervais, H., Good, C. D., Bourgeois, M., Plumet, M. -H., Barthélémy, C., Mouren, M. -C., Artiges, E., Samson, Y., Brunelle, F., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Zilbovicius, M. (2004). Superior temporal sulcus anatomical abnormalities in childhood autism: a voxel-based morphometry MRI study. Neuroimage, 23 (1), 364369.
Bortfeld, H., Fava, E., & Boas, D. A. (2009). Identifying cortical lateralization of speech processing in infants using near-infrared spectroscopy. Developmental Neuropsychology, 34 (1), 5265.
Bowman, L. C., Kovelman, I., Hu, X., & Wellman, H. M. (2015). Children's belief- and desire-reasoning in the temporoparietal junction: evidence for specialization from functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9: 560, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015. 00560.
Boynton, G. M., Engel, S. A., & Heeger, D. J. (2012). Linear systems analysis of the fMRI signal. NeuroImage, 62 (2), 975984.
Brojde, C. L., Ahmed, S., & Colunga, E. (2012). Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words. Frontiers in Psychology, 3:155, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00155.
Byers‐Heinlein, K., & Werker, J. F. (2009). Monolingual, bilingual, trilingual: infants' language experience influences the development of a word‐learning heuristic. Developmental Science, 12 (5), 815823.
Carlson, S. M., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2008). Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental Science, 11 (2), 282298.
Carter, E. J., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2006). School-aged children exhibit domain-specific responses to biological motion. Social Neuroscience, 1 (3), 396411.
Clark, E. V. (1973). What's in a word? On the child's acquisition of semantics in his first language. In Moore, T. E. (ed.), Cognitive development and the acquisition of language, pp. 65110. New York: Academic Press.
Cope, M., & Delpy, D. T. (1988). System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near-infrared transillumination. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 26 (3), 289294.
Crivello, C., Kuzyk, O., Rodrigues, M., Friend, M., Zesiger, P., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2016). The effects of bilingual growth on toddlers' executive function. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 121132.
Davidson, D., Jergovic, D., Imami, Z., & Theodos, V. (1997). Monolingual and bilingual children's use of the mutual exclusivity constraint. Journal of Child Language, 24 (1), 324.
Davidson, D., Raschke, V. R., & Pervez, J. (2010). Syntactic awareness in young monolingual and bilingual (Urdu-English) children. Cognitive Development, 25 (2), 166182.
Deen, B. Koldewyn, K., Kanwisher, N., & Saxe, R. (2015). Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus. Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhv111.
De Houwer, A. (1983). Some aspects of the simultaneous acquisition of Dutch and English by a three-year-old child. Nottingham Linguistic Circular, 12, 106129.
De Houwer, A. (1990). The acquisition of two languages from birth: A case study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
De Houwer, A. (2009). Bilingual first language acquisition. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Dick, A. S., Goldin‐Meadow, S., Solodkin, A., & Small, S. L. (2012). Gesture in the developing brain. Developmental Science, 15 (2), 165180.
Diesendruck, G. (2005). The principles of conventionality and contrast in word learning: An empirical examination. Developmental Psychology, 41 (3), 451463.
Doré, B. P., Zerubavel, N., & Ochsner, K. N. (2015). Social cognitive neuroscience: A review of core systems. In Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., Borgida, E., & Bargh, J. A. (eds.), APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 1, pp. 693720. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Ebeling, K. S., & Gelman, S. A. (1988). Coordination of size standards by young children. Child Development, 59 (4), 888896.
Eilers, R. E., Oller, D. K., & Ellington, J. (1974). The acquisition of word-meaning for dimensional adjectives: The long and short of it. Journal of Child Language, 1 (2), 195204.
Enrici, I., Adenzato, M., Cappa, S., Bara, B. G., & Tettamanti, M. (2011). Intention processing in communication: a common brain network for language and gestures. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23 (9), 24152431.
Farhadian, M., Abdullah, R., Mansor, M., Redzuan, M., Gazanizad, N., & Vijay, K. M. (2010). Theory of mind in bilingual and monolingual preschool children. Journal of Psychology, 1 (1), 3946.
Fernald, A., Thorpe, K., & Marchman, V. A. (2010). Blue car, red car: Developing efficiency in online interpretation of adjective-noun phrases. Cognitive Psychology, 60 (3), 190217.
Fox, P. T., & Raichle, M. E. (1986). Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83 (4), 11401144.
Genesee, F., Tucker, G. R., & Lambert, W. E. (1975). Communication skills of bilingual children. Child Development, 46 (4), 10101014.
Gernsbacher, M. A., & Hargreaves, D. J. (1988). Accessing sentence participants: The advantage of first mention. Journal of Memory and Language, 27 (6), 699717.
Gervain, J., Mehler, J., Werker, J. F., Nelson, C. A., Csibra, G., Lloyd–Fox, S., Shukla, M., & Aslin, R. N. (2011). Near-infrared spectroscopy: a report from the McDonnell infant methodology consortium. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1 (1), 2246.
Goetz, P. J. (2003). The effects of bilingualism on theory of mind development. Bilingualism Language and Cognition, 6 (1), 115.
Graham, S. A., & Diesendruck, G. (2010). Fifteen-month-old infants attend to shape over other perceptual properties in an induction task. Cognitive Development, 25 (2), 111123.
Graham, S. A., Nilsen, E. S., Collins, S., & Olineck, K. (2010). The role of gaze direction and mutual exclusivity in guiding 24‐month‐olds' word mappings. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (2), 449465.
Grassmann, S., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children follow pointing over words in interpreting acts of reference. Developmental Science, 13 (1), 252263.
Greenberg, A., Bellana, B., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Perspective-taking ability in bilingual children: Extending advantages in executive control to spatial reasoning. Cognitive Development, 28 (1), 4150.
Gweon, H., & Saxe, R. (2013). Developmental cognitive neuroscience of theory of mind. In Rubenstein, J. & Rakic, P. (eds.), Neural circuit development and function in the brain, Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience, pp. 367377. San Diego, London, Waltham: Elsevier.
Hall, D. (1994). Semantic constraints on word learning: Proper names and adjectives. Child Development, 65 (5), 12991317.
Hall, D. (1996). Preschoolers' default assumptions about word meaning: Proper names designate unique individuals. Developmental Psychology, 32 (1), 177186.
Hall, D., & Moore, C. (1997). Red bluebirds and black greenflies: Preschoolers' understanding of the semantics of adjectives and count nouns. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 67 (2), 236267.
Hall, D., Waxman, S., & Hurwitz, W. (1993). How two- and four-year-old children interpret adjectives and count nouns. Child Development 64 (6), 16511664.
Hall, D., Williams, S. G., & Bélanger, J. (2010). Learning count nouns and adjectives: Understanding the contributions of lexical form class and social-pragmatic cues. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11 (1), 86120.
Hansen, M. B., & Markman, E. M. (2009). Children's use of mutual exclusivity to learn labels for parts of objects. Developmental Psychology, 45 (2), 592596.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publishing.
Healey, E., & Skarabela, B. (2008). Are children willing to accept two labels for a single object?: A comparative study of mutual exclusivity in monolingual and bilingual children. In Marinis, T., Papangeli, A. & Stojanovik, V. (eds.), Proceedings of the 2007 Child Language Seminar, pp. 4858. University of Reading, UK.
Henderson, A. M., & Scott, J. C. (2015). She called that thing a mido, but should you call it a mido too? Linguistic experience influences infants' expectations of conventionality. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:332, 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00332.
Hiramatsu, K., Rulf, K. E., & Epstein, S. D. (2010). When knowledge causes failure: Children's extension of novel adjectives and the interpretation of one. Lingua, 120 (5), 12091218.
Hoff, E. (2003). Causes and consequences of SES-related differences in parent-to-child speech. In Bornstein, M. & Bradley, R. (eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development, pp. 147160. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Holland, A., Simpson, A., & Riggs, K. J. (2015). Young children retain fast mapped object labels better than shape, color, and texture words. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 134, 111.
Hubbard, A. L., McNealy, K., Zeeland, S. V., Ashley, A., Callan, D. E., Bookheimer, S. Y., & Dapretto, M. (2012). Altered integration of speech and gesture in children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain and Behavior, 2 (5), 606619.
Hung, W-Y., Patrycia, F., & Yow, W. Q. (2015). Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent. Frontiers in Psychology 6:796, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00796.
Janssen, T. W., Heslenfeld, D. J., van Mourik, R., Logan, G. D., & Oosterlaan, J. (2015). Neural correlates of response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A controlled version of the stop-signal task. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 233 (2), 278284.
Jaswal, V. K. (2010). Explaining the disambiguation effect: Don't exclude mutual exclusivity. Journal of Child Language, 37 (1), 95113.
Kalagher, H., & Yu, C. (2006). The effects of deictic pointing in word learning. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Development and Learning. Bloomington, USA.
Kauschke, C., & Klann-Delius, G. (2007). Characteristics of maternal input in relation to vocabulary development in children learning German. In Guelzow, I. & Gagarina, N. (eds.), Frequency effects in language acquisition, pp. 181204. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Kleinschmidt, A., Obrig, H., Requardt, M., Merboldt, K. D., Dirnagl, U., Villringer, A., & Frahm, J. (1996). Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 16 (5), 817826.
Klibanoff, R. S., & Waxman, S. R. (2000). Basic level object categories support the acquisition of novel adjectives: Evidence from preschool-aged children. Child Development, 71 (3), 649659.
Kobayashi, H. (1997). The role of actions in making inferences about the shape and material of solid objects among Japanese 2 year-old children. Cognition, 63 (3), 251269.
Kobayashi, H. (1998). How 2-year-old children learn novel part names of unfamiliar objects. Cognition, 68 (2), B41–B51.
Kobayashi, C., Glover, G. H., & Temple, E. (2006). Cultural and linguistic influence on neural bases of ‘Theory of Mind’: an fMRI study with Japanese bilinguals. Brain and Language, 98 (2), 210220.
Kobayashi, C., Glover, G. H., & Temple, E. (2007). Cultural and linguistic effects on neural bases of ‘Theory of Mind'in American and Japanese children. Brain Research, 1164, 95107.
Kobayashi, C., Glover, G. H., & Temple, E. (2008). Switching language switches mind: Linguistic effects on developmental neural bases of ‘Theory of Mind’. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3 (1), 6270.
Kovács, Á. M. (2009). Early bilingualism enhances mechanisms of false‐belief reasoning. Developmental Science, 12 (1), 4854.
Lahnakoski, J. M., Glerean, E., Salmi, J., Jääskeläinen, I. P., Sams, M., Hari, R., & Nummenmaa, L. (2012). Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:233, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00233.
Landau, B., Smith, L., & Jones, S. (1988). The importance of shape in early lexical learning. Cognitive Development, 3 (3), 299321.
Landau, B., Smith, L., & Jones, S. (1992). Syntactic context and the shape bias in children's and adults' lexical learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 31 (6), 807825.
Lloyd-Fox, S., Blasi, A., Elwell, C. E. (2010). Illuminating the developing brain: the past, present and future of functional near infrared spectroscopy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 34 (3), 269284.
Markman, E. M. (1993). Constraints children place on word meanings. In Bloom, P. (ed.), Language acquisition. Core readings, pp. 154174. Harvester: MIT Press.
Markman, E. M. (1994). Constraints on word meaning in early language acquisition. Lingua, 92, 199227.
Markman, E. M., & Wachtel, G. (1988). Children's use of mutual exclusivity to constrain the meanings of words. Cognitive Psychology, 20 (2), 121157.
Mehnert, J., Akhrif, A., Telkemeyer, S., Rossi, S., Schmitz, C. H., Steinbrink, J., Wartenburger, I., Obrig, H., Neufang, S. (2013). Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain. Brain and Development, 35 (10), 894904.
Meisel, J. M. (1989). Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In Hyltenstam, K. & Obler, L. K. (eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan: Aspects of acquisition, maturity and loss, pp. 1340, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mintz, T. H. (2005). Linguistic and conceptual influences on adjective acquisition in 24-and 36-month-olds. Developmental Psychology, 41 (1), 1729.
Mosconi, M. W., Mack, P. B., McCarthy, G., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2005). Taking an “intentional stance” on eye-gaze shifts: A functional neuroimaging study of social perception in children. Neuroimage, 27 (1), 247252.
Müller, C. (1998). Redebegleitende Gesten: Kulturgeschichte, Theorie, Sprachvergleich. Berlin: Berlin-Verlag Spitz.
Ninio, A. (2004). Young children's difficulty with adjectives modifying nouns. Journal of Child Language, 31 (2), 255285.
Obrig, H., Mock, J., Stephan, F., Richter, M., Vignotto, M., & Rossi, S. (2016). Impact of associative word learning on phonotactic processing in 6-month-old infants: A combined EEG and fNIRS study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2016.09.001
Obrig, H., Neufang, M., Wenzel, R., Kohl, M., Steinbrink, J., Einhäupl, K., & Villringer, A. (2000). Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults. Neuroimage, 12 (6), 623639.
Obrig, H., & Villringer, A. (2003). Beyond the visible-imaging the human brain with light. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 23 (1), 118.
O'Neill, D. K., Topolovec, J., & Stern-Cavalcante, W. (2002). Feeling sponginess: The importance of descriptive gestures in 2-and 3-year-old children's acquisition of adjectives. Journal of Cognition and Development, 3 (3), 243277.
Paulus, M., & Fikkert, P. (2014). Conflicting social cues: Fourteen- and 24-month-old infants' reliance on gaze and pointing cues in word learning. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15 (1), 4359.
Pelphrey, K. A., Yang, D. Y. J., & McPartland, J. C. (2014). Building a social neuroscience of autism spectrum disorder. In Andersen, S. L. & Pine, D. S. (eds.), The Neurobiology of Childhood, pp. 215233. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Pena, M., Maki, A., Kovacić, D., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., Koizumi, H., Bouquet, F., & Mehler, J. (2003). Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (20), 1170211705.
Perry, L. K., Axelsson, E. L., & Horst, J. S. (2015). Learning what to remember: vocabulary knowledge and children's memory for object names and features. Infant and Child Development, doi: 10.1002/icd. Published online in Wiley Online Library.
Petitto, L. A., Berens, M. S., Kovelman, I., Dubins, M. H., Jasinska, K., & Shalinsky, M. (2012). The “Perceptual Wedge Hypothesis” as the basis for bilingual babies’ phonetic processing advantage: New insights from fNIRS brain imaging. Brain and Language, 121 (2), 130143.
Pitts, C. E., Onishi, K. H., & Vouloumanos, A. (2015). Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual. Cognition, 134, 185192.
Rayas Tanaka, M. E. (2014). Knowledge of Adjective Reference by Monolingual Spanish- and English-Speaking Children. Entrehojas: Revista de Estudios Hispánicos, 4 (1):8, available at: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/entrehojas/vol4/iss1/8.
Rice, M. L., & Hoffman, L. (2015). Predicting vocabulary growth in children with and without specific language impairment: a longitudinal study from 2;6 to 21 years of age. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58 (2), 345359.
Rosenblum, T., & Pinker, S. (1983). Word magic revisited: Monolingual and bilingual children's understanding of the world-object relationship. Child Development, 54 (3), 773780.
Rossi, S., Jürgenson, I. B., Hanulíková, A., Telkemeyer, S., Wartenburger, I., & Obrig, H. (2011). Implicit processing of phonotactic cues: evidence from electrophysiological and vascular responses. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23 (7), 17521764.
Rossi, S., Telkemeyer, S., Wartenburger, I., & Obrig, H. (2012). Shedding light on words and sentences: near-infrared spectroscopy in language research. Brain and Language, 121 (2), 152163.
Sabbagh, M. A., Bowman, L. C., Evraire, L. E., & Ito, J. (2009). Neurodevelopmental correlates of theory of mind in preschool children. Child Development, 80 (4), 11471162.
Saitovitch, A., Bargiacchi, A., Chabane, N., Brunelle, F., Samson, Y., Boddaert, N., & Zilbovicius, M. (2012). Social cognition and the superior temporal sulcus: implications in autism. Revue Neurologique, 168 (10), 762770.
Sandhofer, C., & Smith, L. B. (2004). Perceptual complexity and form class cues in novel word extension tasks: How four-year-old children interpret novel adjectives and count nouns. Developmental Science, 7 (3), 378388.
Sandhofer, C., & Smith, L. B. (2007). Learning adjectives in the real world: How learning nouns impedes learning adjectives. Language Learning and Development, 3 (3), 233267.
Sandhofer, C. M., Smith, L. B., & Luo, J. (2000). Counting nouns and verbs in the input: Differential frequencies, different kinds of learning? Journal of Child Language, 27 (3), 561585.
Saunders, G. (1988). Bilingual children: from birth to teens. Clevedon, Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Siegal, M., Surian, L., Matsuo, A., Geraci, A., Iozzi, L., Okumura, Y., & Itakura, S. (2010). Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding. PloS one, 5 (2), e9004, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009004.
Smith, L. B., Jones, S. S., & Landau, B. (1992). Count nouns, adjectives, and perceptual properties in children's novel word interpretations. Developmental Psychology, 28 (2), 273286.
Sommer, M., Meinhardt, J., Eichenmüller, K., Sodian, B., Döhnel, K., & Hajak, G. (2010). Modulation of the cortical false belief network during development. Brain Research, 1354, 123131.
Song, L., Nazzi, T., Moukawane, S., Golinkoff, R. M., Stahl, A., Ma, W., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Connell, M. A. (2010). Sleepy vs. Sleeping: Preschoolers' sensitivity to morphological cues for adjectives and verbs in English and French. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.
Steinbrink, J., Villringer, A., Kempf, F., Haux, D., Boden, S., & Obrig, H. (2006). Illuminating the BOLD signal: combined fMRI-fNIRS studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24 (4), 495505.
Tare, M., & Gelman, S. A. (2010). Can you say it another way? Cognitive factors in bilingual children's pragmatic language skills. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11 (2), 137158.
Taylor, M., & Gelman, S. A. (1988). Adjectives and nouns: Children's strategies for learning new words. Child Development, 59 (2), 411419.
Telkemeyer, S., Rossi, S., Koch, S. P., Nierhaus, T., Steinbrink, J., Poeppel, D., Obrig, H., & Wartenburger, I. (2009). Sensitivity of newborn auditory cortex to the temporal structure of sounds. Journal of Neuroscience, 29 (47), 1472614733.
Tribushinina, E. (2008). Cognitive reference points: semantics beyond the prototypes in adjectives of space and colour. Utrecht: LOT.
Tribushinina, E., & Mak, W. M. (2016). Three-year-olds can predict a noun based on an attributive adjective: evidence from eye-tracking. Journal of Child Language, 43 (02), 425441.
Tsujii, T., & Watanabe, S. (2010). Neural correlates of belief–bias reasoning under time pressure: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. Neuroimage, 50 (3), 13201326.
Van Overwalle, F., & Baetens, K. (2009). Understanding others' actions and goals by mirror and mentalizing systems: a meta-analysis. Neuroimage, 48 (3), 564584.
von dem Hagen, E. A., Nummenmaa, L., Yu, R., Engell, A. D., Ewbank, M. P., & Calder, A. J. (2011). Autism spectrum traits in the typical population predict structure and function in the posterior superior temporal sulcus. Cerebral Cortex, 21 (3), 493500.
Waxman, S. R., & Klibanoff, R. S. (2000). The role of comparison in the extension of novel adjectives. Developmental Psychology, 36 (5), 571581.
Waxman, S. R., & Markow, D. B. (1998). Object properties and object kind: Twenty-one-month-old infants' extension of novel adjectives. Child Development, 69 (5), 13131329.
Yang, J., Andric, M., & Mathew, M. M. (2015). The neural basis of hand gesture comprehension: a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 57, 88104.
Yang, D. Y., Rosenblau, G., Keifer, C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2015). An integrative neural model of social perception, action observation, and theory of mind. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 51, 263275.
Yoshida, H., Tran, D. N., Benitez, V., & Kuwabara, M. (2011). Inhibition and adjective learning in bilingual and monolingual children. Frontiers in Psychology, 2:210, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00210.
Yow, W. Q. (2015). Monolingual and bilingual preschoolers' use of gestures to interpret ambiguous pronouns. Journal of Child Language, 42 (06), 13941407.
Yow, W. Q., & Markman, E. M. (2011a). Young bilingual children's heightened sensitivity to referential cues. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12 (1), 1231.
Yow, W. Q., & Markman, E. M. (2011b). Bilingualism and children's use of paralinguistic cues to interpret emotion in speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14 (4), 562569.
Yow, W. Q., & Markman, E. M. (2015). A bilingual advantage in how children integrate multiple cues to understand a speaker's referential intent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18 (03), 391399.
Zukow, P. G. (1990). Socio‐perceptual bases for the emergence of language: An alternative to innatist approaches. Developmental Psychobiology, 23 (7), 705726.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1366-7289
  • EISSN: 1469-1841
  • URL: /core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed